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Everyman, I will go with thee, and be thy guide, 
In thy most need to go by thy side. 

This is No. 495- of Everyman's Library. A 
list of authors and their works in this series 
will be found, at the end of this volume, The 
publishers will be pleased to send freely to all 
applicants a separate, annotated list of the 











All rights reserved 
Made in Great Britain 
at The Temple Press Letchworth 
and decorated by Eric Ravilious 


J. M. Dent <_ Sons Ltd. 

Aldine House Bedford St. London 

First Published in this Edition September 1910 

Reprinted (with corrections and additions) December 1910 

Reprinted (with Supplement) 1913, 1916? 1917 

Reprinted (with Jurther revision and additions) 1920 

Reprinted (with corrections) 1923, 1926 , J9-2J, 1928, 1931, 1934 

Reset (with farther revision and additions) 

Reprinted 1940 


THIS little Classical Dictionary is, in tike main, a reprint of 
Dr. Smith's Dictionary published many years ago. But a con- 
siderable amount of revision has been made; few of the tager 
articles appear exactly in the form in- which they originally 
appeared; and a great deal of new matter has been introduced 
in order to bring the work up to date, as far as was consistent 
with the Publishers' plan of including in Everyman's Library 
a short and concise companion to the classics. Armed with 
thig book, the average reader will have little difficulty in under- 
standing classical allusions as they appear, not only in standard 
English writers, but also in the periodical literature of our time. 
The references which I have added to the more important 
articles will enable any one who is anxious ta follow up a clue 
to do so with ease and rapidity. Indeed, these references are 
one of the main features of the book. Much labour has been 
expended in making them really serviceable; but I do not 
grudge the time expended, if my work tends in any degree to 
lighten the labours of others. It would have been easy to 
extend these references and bibliographical notes indefinitely; 
but I have preferred to keep them within strictly reasonable 
limits; and I have made a point of referring my readers to 
English books, or to such works of foreign writers as have 
appeared in an English dress. 

Not only have articles in the original edition of this Diction- 
ary been amplified (and, where necessary, curtailed), but some 
fresh articles have been supplied. I need not specify aH these; 
enough to call attention to such fresh matter as the notes on 
Aspendus, Mycenae, Nineveh, Phoenicia, Safdtmapxfas, Sepke* 
agint, Stoics, Syria, Vulgate, all of which seem to me eiesirabie 
in the interests of completeness. The Lists and Supplementary 
tnatter are qttite new, and wiB prove handt to reference 
purposes.* -- / 

The Publishers have been very genemafe M Hbeir inclosioii 
in fora Dictionary of a goodly number of half-tone blocks, 
These should prove of the utmost help to readers. It is little 
use writing notes on the characteristics of the greater sculptors 


of Greece, for example, unless one can point the student to 
some really adequate reproduction of their masterpieces. A 
photograph of the ' Hermes ' of Praxiteles one of the loveliest 
creations of antiquity is worth pages of descriptive eloquence. 
One innovation I should like to call attention to. In the 
older edition of Smith's Dictionary the names of Greek gods 
were generally followed by their (supposed) Latin equivalents; 
or, until the last few years, it was the usual practice to call 
Greek gods by Latin names. But Jupiter, though akin to, is 
-not the same as Zeus; Minerva is in no wise Athena. A still 
*worse danger, however, in this indefensible practice, lies in the 
-fact that we begin to invest Greek gods with Latin (or Alex- 
andrian) natures \ Hence the need of putting a stop to a method 
of nomenclature that is fertile only in misconception. 

I cannot hope to have eradicated all errors from the book, or 
ito have included everything that 'every man* might de- 
siderate; but, within its modest limits, I trust this well-known 
and valued Dictionary will, in its new and improved shape, be 
sLseful and not misleading. 


The King's School, Efy t August 1910. 


THIS edition is in main a revision of Mr. E. H. Blakeney's 
condensation of Dr. Smith's Classical Dictionary where revision 
has been necessitated by the work of modern scholars and by 
more recent archaeological research. This has called for a 
generous expansion of the scope of the Dictionary,, and room 
has been found also for the inclusion of short biographies of 
the later Roman, emperors and the Fathers of the Church and 
tfoe more important of the Christian Apologists. The bio- 
graphical notes, which were a feature of the earlier editions, 
fcave been brotight up to date, and the addition of a further 
number of half-tone blocks has increased the value of 
section of the book. 




PREFACE . vii 















(excluding philosophical writers) 
Arranged in chronological order 





























Apollonius Rhodius 

Herodotus Strabo Diogenes Laertius 










Andocides Isocrates Demosthenes 

Lysias Isaeus 







Micon '; 










Pythis or Phikns 



Among VASE-PAINTERS mention must be made of Brygns; 
Epictetus, Euphromns, Execias, Pampbaeos, Pfeintias; together 
with Asteas and Pyihoo. 



Thales Anaximenes 

Anaximander Heraclitus 

Pythagoras \ 

Zeno j 


Empedocles Diogenes 

Anaxagoras I>emocritus 


Protagoras Prodicus 

Gorgias Socrates 



Antisthenes Diogenes 


Aristippus Aristotle 



Th.eoplirastus Epicurus 

Pyrrhosi Panaetins 

Xenociaifees * Posidonius 






Ennius Horace Silius ItaHcus 

Plautns Tibullus Statins 

Terence Propertius Martial 

Lucilius Ovid Juvenal 

Lucretius Persms Claudian 

Catullus Lucan Prudentras 

Virgil Valerius Flaccus 


Cato the Censor Sallust Tacitus 

Varro Livy Pliny the Younger 

Caesar Paterculus Suetonius 

Nepos Quintus Curtius Aulus GeMus 

Pliny the Elder 

Cicero Quintifian Seneca the Elder 

Seneca, L. A., the Younger Apnleias 




The Didache Polycarp Clement of Rome 

Epistle of Barnabas Ignatius The Shepherd of Hermes 

Justin Tatian the Assyrian Origen 

Aristides Atfaenagoras Irenaeus 

Qement of Alexandria 

Minucins Felix Arnobius Cyprian 

Tertullian Lactantius Hippolytos 


Atfianasius Gregory Nazianzen Cyril of Jemsafem 

Eusebius Gregory of Nyssa Chrysosfom 

Basil Cyril of Alexandria Joim I>aii2ascea 

Ambrose Augustine Vincent 

Jerome Leo the Great * Bnxddsikis 

Aphraates Ephreia 



24001400. Minoan civilization. 
1 600. Achaean invasion of 
Macedonia and Thessaly. 
1500-1000. Mycenaean civiliza- 

1 200. Achaean capture of Troy. 
1000. Italian invasion. 
. 900. Homer and the Greek 

776. Traditional date of first 

Olympian Games. 
600. Periander, tyrant of 


594. Solon archon at Athens. 
561. Pisistratus, tyrant of 


546. Capture of Sardis by 
Cyrus and Persian con- 
quest of Asia Minor. 
540. Tyranny of Pisistratus 


528. Death of Pisistratus. 
528-510. Tyranny of Hippias 

and JEJipparchns. 
5&z. Beafii of amb$hses, 
502. Reforms of Qisthenes. 
499. Ionian revolt. 
490. Marathon- 
480. Safaamsr Thermopylae; 

Artemisiura; Himera. 
479. Batfles of Hataea and 


477. Pausanias at Byzantium.; 
475. Confederacy of tteke. 
466. Battle of Eurymedon. 
464. Revolt of the Helots. 
462. Rise of Pericles. 
461. Exile of Qmon. 
459- Egyptian Expedition: 

capture of Memphis, 
450. Peace w^a Persia, 
4$?. Coio^zatson of i&e 



451-404. Peioponnesian War. 
429. Deatk of Pericles. 


421. Peace of Nicias. 
415. Mutilation of the Hermae. 
414. Siege of Syracuse. 
406. Arginusae. 

405. Aegospotami. 

404. Surrender of Athens. 
Rule of the Thirty 

406. Siege of Agrigentum. 
404371. Spartan supremacy. 
401. Rebelfion of Cyrus and 

the March of the 10,000. 
399. Death of Socrates. 
387. Peace of Antalcidas. 
385. Destruction of Mantinea. 
371. Battle of Leuctra; con- 
sequent hegemony of 
Thebes till death of 
Epaminondas at Man- 
tinea, 362, 
368. Death of Dionysius the 

Elder of Sicily. 
338. Battle of Chaeronea. 
337. Death of Timoleon, liber- 
ator of'Skaly. 
336-323. Alexander the Great, 

King of Macedon. 
333. Battle of Jssus. 
331. Battle of Gaugamela. 
330. Death of Darius. 
310-286. Agathocles, tyrant of 


301. Battle of Ipsus. 
294. Demetrius Poliorcetes, 

King of Macedpn. 
262. Kingdom of Pergamum. 
235. Reforms of Qeomenes at 


227. War between Sparta, 
under Qeomenes, and the 
Achaean League. 
208. Fhilopoemen, general of 

the Achaean League. 
197. Gynioscephalae: Flamin- 
inus defeats Philip of 

146. War between Rome and 
Achaea: destruction of 




c. 1000. Etruscans reach Italy. 
814. Traditional date of 

foundation of Carthage. 
753. Traditional date of 

foundation of Rome. 
650-500. Etniscans dominant 

in Italy. 

538. Battle of Alalia. 
509. Expulsion of the Kings. 
450, Decemvirs at Rome. 

Laws of the Twelve 


396- Veii taken by Camillus. 
390. Battle of the AUia: Rome 

taken, by the Gauls. 
343-290. Three Samnite wars 
340. Latin War. 
281. War between Pyxrhus 

and Rome {Beneventum, 


264-241. First Punic War. 
229219. Two Ulyrian wars. 
218-202. Second Punic War 

(Trasimene ; Cannae ; 

215, 200-196, 171-167, 149- 

148. Foor Macedonian 

191-190. I>efeat of Antiochus 
at Thermopylae and at 

168. Battle of Pydna, 
149-146. Third Punic War: 

Carthage destroyed. 
148. Macedonia becomes a 

Roman province. 
133. Roman conquest of 

133-122. The tribunate of the 


111-106. Jugurthine War. 
107-100. Marius consul. 
102 101. Cimbri and Teutones 

defeated by Marius. 
90. Social War. 
88-82. Civil War between 
Marius M Solla: Sulla's 
38-84, 83-82, 74-63. Three 

Mithridatic wars. 
70. Pompey and Grasses 


64. Conquest of Syria. 

63. Cicero consul. Catiline's 


60. First Triumvirate. 
58-51. Caesar's conquest of 

55. Caesar's invasion of 

54-53. Parthian expedition; 

death of Crassus. 
49-48. Civil War between 
Caesar and Pompey: bat- 
tle of Pharsalia : death of 

46. Battle of Thapsus, 
44. Death of Caesar. 
43. The second Triumvirate; 
followed by second civil 

42. Battle of PhilippL 
31. Battle of Actium. 
27. Establishment of the 
Roman Empire under 

12-9. Campaigns of Drusus 
and Tiberius in Germany. 

14. Death of Augustus. 
70. Destruction of Jerusalem. 
84. Final conquest of Britain 

by Agricoia. 
BS. Daciaa War under Do- 

105. Dacia made a Roman 

114-117, 161-166. Parthian. 

269. Defeat of Goths by the 

Emperor Claudius II. 
303. Last persecution of Chris- 
tians under Diocletian. 
330. Foundation of Constan- 
tinople by the Emperor 
Constantino the Great. 
395. Division of the Empire 
(Arcadius and Hononus). 
410. Rome takes, by Alaric, 

the Goth. 
451, Defeat of Attila t&e Haa 

at CMlons. 

476. End of t&e Western 



jGardianus I 


(Gordianus II 


j Pnpienus Maximus 


| ^ibinms 


Gordianus III 


f PtdMppus I 


^Pnilippiis II 




Trebonianus Gallus 








Claudius II 



AntooiiHis Pitts 


f Marcus Auife&as 


Constantmus I (the 

f Constantmus II 

(CoiistarLthis II 

fValentmiamis I 

Gratiantts -/ 
Valentj-nia-ntis II 
Theodosms I (the 




From the Renaissance to the Twentieth Cenfary 

POLITUN {1454-94} : a born poet as well as scholar. 
AJLDUS MANUTIUS (1449-1515): a great sdiofeir, printer; 

italic type, 
ERASMUS, of Rotterdam (1466-1536) : author of Adogia, 

and ed. of first Greek Testament 
MDRETUS (1526-85): edited Catullus, Horace, Cicexo'S Philippics, 

STEPHANUS (Robert Estienne, 1503-59) : author of the Thesaurus 

Linguae Laiinae, edite^ the famous ed. of Greek Testament, 

1550 (the so-called ' textus receptus "}. IBs son Henri (1531-9?) 

published a Thesaurus Graecae Linguae a huge worfc^ 
LAMBINUS (1520-72): author ojf a p^aste^y d. of J-ncre&os, aajd erf 

Cicero. , , V 

IHE SCALIGERS (father, 1484-1588; soa, 1540-1609}. See llaA 

Pattison^s Essays, i. 132 seq. 
CASAUBON (1559-1614): a man of vast eraditioa. 

Snetonins, Persias* etc. 3ee Pattison^ nib 

(1506-82): SootSsl 
< version ^of Hie Psato^ 

SALMASIITS (1588-1653): *A man of eaeioooos learning 

marked an epoch in sdnrfaisliip. 

5i\: famous as a ti^(4tftl cn&c. liGifeQ * 


^(1662-1742): erne of S gpeate^ ^chofei's i&at ever | 
*Ffee ppacMes o oit^p" l^u ^COTEI, ^ fc^ Dtss 

;%, fP^^Wf^m t l6 9$ $5^ a ^ T ^ ^ 
See j3)fe^Sti%. \, (( 

EiliKS Ji6&5^^^Q: t pOTyex ,Oif 

^y'^i^^ tss*ilf -' 4 J , * * 

Dea Lodan, 



PORSON (1759-1808) : Greek Professor at Cam bridge: editor of 

Euripides. See Jebb, D.NJ$. 

WOLT (1759-1824): his famous Prolegomena to Homer revolu- 
tionized Homeric criticism. 

NIEBUHR (1776-1831) : his History of Rome is justly famous. 
HERMANN (1772-1848): great both as teacher and scholar. Chief 

-work: editions of the Greek Tragedians. 
ELMSLEY (1773-1825): editorial work confined almost wholly to 

Greek drama. 

DOBRBE (1782-1825) : author of the Adversaria. 
BOECKH (1785-1867): author of the Public Economy of Athens* 

edited Pindar. 

BEKKER (1785-1871).: edited Attic Orators, Aristotle, etc. 
LACHMANN (1793-1851): editor of Lucretius. Has been called the 

true founder of the science of textual criticism. 
GROTB (1794-1871) : the historian of Greece. 
XHIR&WALL (1797-1875): Bishop of St. David's. Author of a 

History of Greece. 

DINDORF (1802-83) : editor of Poetae Soenici Graeci, etc. 
MADVZG (1804-86): the foremost representative of scholarship 

in Denmark. 

RTTSCHI. (1806-76) : editor of Plautus. 
MERTVALE (1808-94) : Dean of Ely; author of the History of the 

Romans under the Empire. 
SHILLETO (1809-76) : one of the last of the Porsonian school of pure 


COBET (1813-09) : the greatest of all modern Dutch scholars. 
ZELLER (1814-1908) : author of the History of Greek Philosophy. 
PALSY (1816-88): editor of Aeschylus, Euripides, the Iliad, 

Theocritus, etc. 
MOMMEEN (1817-1903): historian, epigraphist, critic. Perhaps the 

greatest scholar that Germany has ever produced. Author of 

the History of Rome: editor of the Corpus Inscrip. Latinarwn. 
JOWETT (1817-93): the translator of Plato's Dialogues. 
MUNRO (1810-85) : editor of Lucretius. 
LANE, G. M. (1823-97) : Tutin scholar and, professor of 

Harvard University. 
MAYOR, J. E. B. (1825-1910): editor of Juvenal, TertuUiaji'a 

Apologeticus, etc. 

ROGERS, B. B. (1829-1919) : translator of Aristophanes. 
NEWMAN, W. L. (1834-1923) : editor of Aristotle's Politics. 
BCcHBiSR (1837-19038): specialist in dialects of ancient Italy. 

Editor of Petronius. 
BYWATER. INGRAM (1840-1914) : editor of Heraclitus and Aristotle's 

Poetics. - 

JEBB, RICHARD (1841 1905)-: editor of Sophocles and Bacchylides. 
SANDYS, J. E. (1844-1922) : editor of Demosthenes, and the historian 

of cfags*C3fl scholarship. - ~ " 

WiLAMOwrrz-MOLLENDORF, ULLRICH VON (1848-1931) : great German 

authority on Greek philology; editor of Aeschylus, Euripides, 

Aristotle, etc., and translator of Greek verse. 


BUTCHER, S. H. (1850-1910) : editor of Aristotle's Poetics. 
RUTHERFORD, \V. G. (1855-1907): author of The New Phrynichus\ 

editor of Scholia Aristophanica. 
FARNELL, L. R. (1856-1934): authority on Greek religion, and 

editor of Pindar. 
HOUSMAN, A. E. (1859-1936): poet and Tatin scholar, editor of 

Manillas, Juvenal, and Lucan. 
PEARSON, A. C. (1861-1935): editor of Sophocles. 
BURNET, J, (1863-1928): author of the History of Greek Philosophy, 

and editor of Plato. 
HEADLAM, W. G. (1866-1903) : editor of the Agamemnon, etc. 


EDWARD GIBBON. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. 1776-88. 

(Best library edition by Professor Bury in 7 vols., with added 

notes by the editor. Popular edition in Everyman's Library 

in 6 vols.) 

CONNOP THJRLWALL. History of Greece. 8 vols. 1835-47. 
SIR WILLIAM SMITH. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. 

1842; 3rd ed., enlarged, 1890-1. 

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography. 1844-49; revised 

ed. 1904. 

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 1854-7. 
GEORGE GROTE. History of Greece. 1846-56. (Edition in Every- 
man's library, 12 vols.) 
CHARLES MERTVALB. History of the Romans under the Empire. 

THEODOR MOMMSEN. History of Rome. 1854-5. This great work 

was translated from the last German edition by W. 3r. Dickson. 

(Edition in Everyman's Library in 4 vols.) 

History of the Roman Provinces (from the time of Caesar to that 

of Diocletian). Translated by W. P. Dickson, 1886. 
ANTHONY RICH. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. 

3rd ed. 1873. 
EDUARD ZEJ.I.BR. History of Greek Philosophy. English translation 

from the German, 1886. isth English ed. 1931. 
A. W. BBNN. The Greek Philosophers. 1882. 
J. B. BURY. A History of the Later Roman Empire (A.D. 395-800). 


A History of the Later Roman Empire (AJ>. 395-565). 1923. 

A History of Greece. 1900; 2nd ed. 19x3. 
BISHOP LJGHTFOOT. Apostolic Fathers. 2nd ed. 1890. 
S. H. BUTCHER. Some Aspects of ike Greek Genius. 1891. 
L. DYER. The Gods in Greece. 1891. 
JOHN BURNET. Early Greek Philosophy. 1892; 4th ed. 2930* 


GILBERT MURRAY. History of Ancient Greek Literature. 1897. 

Five Stages of Greek Religion. 1925. 

The Rise of the Greek Epic. 4th ed. 1934. 
LEWIS CAMPBELL. Religion in Greek Literature. 1898. 
J. W. MACKAIL. History of Latin Literature. 1899. 
SIR SAMUEL DILL. Roman Society in the Last Century of the Western 

Empire. 2nd ed., revised, 1899. 

Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius. 1904. 
L. R. FARNELL. The Cults of the Greek States. 5 vols. 1896-1909. 

Greek Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality. 1921. 
T. GOMPERZ. Greek Thinkers. 4 vols. 1901-12. 
SIR W. RIDGEWAY. The Early Age of Greece, vol. i, 1901; ii, 1931. 
T. R. GLOVER. Life and Letters in the Fourth Century. 1901. 

The Conflict of Religions in the Early Roman Empire, zoth ed. 


O. SBYFFERT. Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. Eng. trans. 1894. 
SIR J. E. SANDYS. History of Classical Scholarship. 3 vols. 1903-8. 
H. B. WALTERS. The Art of the Greeks. 1906. 
L. FRTRDLANDBR. Roman Life and Manners under the Early Empire. 

4 vols. Eng. trans. 1908-13. 

A Companion to Greek Studies. Edited by L. Whibley. 1905. 
A Companion to Latin Studies. Edited by Sir J. E. Sandys. 1910. 
J. C. LAWSON. Modem Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion. 


F. CUMONT. The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism. 1911. 
A. E. ZHCMBRN. The Greek Commonwealth, 1911; 5th. ed. 1931. 
J. C. STOBART. The Glory that was Greece. 1911; 3rd ed. 1933. 

The Grandeur that was Rome. 1912; 3rd ed. 1934. 
H. M. GWATKTN. Early Church History. 2nd ed. 1912. 

}. A. K. THOMSON. Greeks and Barbarians. 192;. 
. U. POWELL and E. A. BARBER. New Chapters in the History of 

Greek Literature, ist series, 1921; 2nd, 1929; 3rd, 1934. 
Legacy of Greece. Edited by Sir R. "W. Livingstone, 1921. 
Legacy of Rome. Edited by C. Bailey. 1923. 
E. G. SIHLER. From Augustus to Augustine. 192*3. 
Library of Greek Thought. Edited by Ernest Baker. 1923. 
The Cambridge Ancient History, Edited by J. B. Bury, S. A. Cook, 

and F. E. Adcock. 6 vols, 1923-27. 
E. A. GARDNER. The Art of Greece. 1925. 
GLOTZ. The Aegaean Civilization. 1925. 
PERCY GARDNER. New Chapters in Greek Art. 1926. 
M. I. ROSTOVTSEV. A History of the Ancient World. 2 vols. 1926; 

2nd ed. 1930. 
J. W. H. ATKINS. Literary Criticism in Antiquity. 2 vols. 1934. 

Editions of classical authors, commentaries, and translations are 
not included in the above list, bat bibliographies are given in the 
Dictionary. Special note, however, may be made here of Sir 
J. G. Frazer*s translation of Pausanias (1898). The commentary 
is one of the great classical works of modern times. It contains 
information on classical mythology, art, topography, and religion. 


For the text and translation of Greek and Roman authors the 

Loeb Library is indispensable; and the following is a list of transla- 
tions of the classics published in Evervman's Library (J. M. 
Dent & Sons, Ltd.): 

Aeschylus Livy (6 vols.) 

Aristophanes (2 vols.) Lucretius 

Aristotle : Poetics, etc. Marcus Aurelius 

Politics Plato: Republic 

Nicomachean Six Dialogues on Poetry. 

Ethics etc. 

Caesar: Gallic War, etc. Plato and Xenophon: Socralic 

Cicero: Selections Discourses 

Demetrius: On Style Plutarch: Lives (3 vols.) 

Demosthenes: Orations MOT alia 

Epictetns Sophocles 

Euripides (2 vols.) Tacitus (2 vols.) 

Herodotus (2 vols.) Thucydides 

Homer (2 vols.) Virgil (2 vols.) 

Horace Xenophon: Cyropaedia 


THE student of Roman history, who has been accustomed in the past, 
owing to the perverseness of text-books, to regard his survey as more 
or less completed somewhere about the year A.D. 180 (death of the 
Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus), needs to be reminded that 
some of the most important events in the history of the Empire 
occurred long after that date. True, the literary history of Rome 
HaH seen its best days before then ; but the story of the third century, 
a century of steady "decline, and that of the fourth and fifth, centuries 
which witnessed a remarkable revival, possess many lessons alike 
for the moralist and the historian. The most interesting feature of 
this period is the gradual rise of Christianity, which was destined to 
supplant the old religion of Pagan Rome and to inaugurate a new 
order of things. In the year 303 occurred the last of the great perse- 
cutions, under Diocletian; and within a decade from that time 
Christianity emerged triumphant, recognized by Constantino as the 
official religion of the Roman world. Paganism died hard, but it 
was no match for the new faith, which conquered because it was 
better adapted to the changing condition of the world. Hoc signo 
vinces. The reign of Constantine is also remarkable for the begin- 
ning of that movement by which the seat of government was 
transferred from Rome to Constantinople. 

Of the later emperors, the most important are : Julian, who vainly 
endeavoured to re-paganize the Empire; Theodosius the Great, who 
completed the work of Constantine by still further extending the 
power and influence of the Christian Church; and, lastly, Justinian, 
who will be ever memorable for the work he and his ministers accom- 
plished in finally codifying the Roman legal system. Throughout 
this epoch the reader should not fail to consult the pages of Gibbon. 

Of the later pagan writers, perhaps the most considerable are 
/VirtTmaTLT 1 *? Marceflinus the historian, and the poet* Claudian. The 
works of the Fathers of the Western Church, especially TertuDian, 
Cyprian, Ambrose, Jerome, and Augustine, form an indispensable 
commentary on the stirring times in which they lived; and some 
slight acquaintance with their writings is certainly desirable. 

During the fourth and fifth centuries the Goths, Franks, and other 
Teutonic nations pressed into the Empire, and out of their settle- 
ments arose the Romance nations of modern Europe. In the course 
of the sixth and seventh centuries the Lombards founded a home 
in Italy, and the Saracens began that career of conquest which, 
beginning with the overthrow of the Eastern provinces, reached its 
zenith in the conquest of Spain. In the eighth century Rome was 
severed altogether from the Eastern Empire, and the Prankish king 
Charlemagne (Karl the Great) became Emperor of the West. From 
the year A.D. 800, when Karl was crowned by Pope Leo III, the 
beginning of the Holy Roman Empire must be dated. 1 

1 See Bryce's Hofy Roman Empire (revised and enlarged edition, 1904). 



AB&CABNTTM, ancient town of the Siculi in Sicily, \V. of Messana, 
and S. of Tyndaris. 

ABACUS: (i) in architecture, the flat stone on the top of a column; 
(2) a dice board; (3) a mathematician's table, covered with sand, on 
which figures were drawn; (4) a counting board; (5) a sideboard. 

ABAB, ancient town of Phods, on the boundaries of Boeotia; 
celebrated for a temple and oracle of Apollo, surnamed Abacus. 

ABANTES, the ancient inhabitants of Euboea. Of Thracian 
origin, they first settled in Fhocis, built Abac, and afterwards 
crossed to Euboea. They assisted in colonizing several Ionic cities 
of Asia Minor. 

ABANTIX.DES, a descendant of Abas, but especially Acrisius, the 
son, a-nH Perseus, the great-grandson. A female descendant, as 
Danae and Atalante, was called Abantias. 

ABlRls, a priest of Apollo, fled from, a plague in the Caucasus to 
Greece. He is said to have taken no earthly food, and to have 
ridden on an arrow, the gift of Apollo. 

ABAS. i. Son of Metanlra, changed by Demeter into a lizard, 
because he mocked the goddess when at his mother's house she 
<jrartTr eagerly to quench her thirst after her wanderings. 2. Twelftii 
king of Argos, grandson of Danaus, and father of Acrisius and 
Proetus. He was awarded the shield of Danaus, sacred to Hera. 
The sight of it could reduce a revolted people to submission. 

ABDBRA, town of N. Thrace. The birthplace of Democritas and 
Protagoras; but its inhabitants were accounted stnpid, and an 
'Abderite' was a term of reproach. 

ABELLA or AVBLLA, town of Campania, not far from. Nola, 
Celebrated for fruit trees, whence Virgil calls it m&lijSre. 

ABBZXlmnc (Avellino), town in SaniT"* 1 * at the foot of Mt. 
Parthenos, the modern Moniffucrgine. 

ACBASUS, or AuciRUS, a name common to many 
rulers of Edessa, in Mesopotamia. Oae is supposed by EuseHus to 
have written a letter to Christ, now believed spurious, which he 
found in a church at Edessa and translated from the Syriac. 



AB!A, town of Messenia, in the Peloponnese. 
Asft, tribe mentioned by Homer, and apparently a Thracian 

ABN#BA MONS, range of ^Wg covered by the Black Forest in 

ABORIGINES (Gk. Autochthones), the original inhabitants of a 
country. But the Aborigines in Italy are in the T^-fin writers, 
the name of an ancient people who drove the Siculi ont of Latram, 
and there became the ancestors of the Latini. 

ABORRBLAS, branch of the Euphrates, called the Araxes by 

ABSYRTUS or APSYRTUS, son of Aeetes, king of Colchis, Medea's 
brother, whom she took with her when she fled with Jason. Being 
pursued by her father, she murdered him, cut his body in pieces, and 
strewed them on the road, that her father might be detained by 
gathering the limbs of his child. 

ABUS (Humber), river in Britain. 

AB$TX>S. i. Town of the Troad on the Hellespont. [HELLES- 
PONTUS.] 2. City of Upper Egypt, near the W. bank of the Nile; 
once second to Thebes, but in Strabo's time (A.D. 14) a village. It 
had a temple of Osiris and a Memnonium, both still standing, and 
an oracle. Here was found the inscription known as the Table of 
Abydos, which contains a list of the Egyptian kings. 

AB$XA or AB!LA, one of the Columns of Hercules. [CALPB.] 

AC&D&M&L and -lA, grove on the Cephissus, near Athens, sacred 
to the hero Academus, and subsequently a gymnasium, adorned by 
Ctmon with plane and olive plantations and with statues. Here 
taught Plato, and after him his followers, who were hence called the 
Academic philosophers (Academic?). 

AclMis. x. Son of Theseus and Phaedra, accompanied Diomedes 
to Troy to demand the surrender of Helen. 2. Son of Antenor and 
Theano, one of the bravest Trojans. 3. One of the leaders of the 
Tnracians in the Trojan war, ola-jri by the Telamonian Ajaz. 

ACANTHUS, town in Macedonia. 

ACARNAN, one of the Epdgoni, son of Alcmaeon and Callirrhoe*, 
and brother of Amphoterus. Their father was murdered by Phegeus, 
when they were very young; but as soon as they had giowii up, 
they slew Phegeus, his wife, and his 2 sons. They afterwards went 
to Epirus, where Acarnan founded Acarnania. 

AcARNlxlA, most westerly province of Greece, bounded on 
the N. by the Ambracian Gulf; on the W. and S.W. by the Ionian 
Sea; on the N.E. by AmpMLochia; and on the E. by Aetolia. The 
name of Acarnania does not occur in Homer. In ancient times the 
land was inhabited by the Taphii, Teleboae, and Leleges, and sub- 
sequently by the Curetes. At a later time a colony from Argos, 
said to have been led by Acarnan, settled in the country. In the 
seventh century B.C. the Corinthians founded several towns on the 


coast. The A^Tna^mrm first emerge from obscurity in the Pelopon- 
nesian war, 431 B.C. They were then a rude people, and they 
always remained behind the rest of the Greeks in civilization. 
They were good slingers, and are praised for their fidelity and 
courage. The different towns formed a league, which met at 
Stratus, and subsequently at Thyrium or Leucas. 

ACASTUS, son of Pelias, king of lolcus, one of the Argonauts and 
of the Calydonian hunters. His daughter was Laodamia. His 
sisters were induced by Media to cut up their father and boil him, 
in order to make him young again. Acastus, in consequence, drove 
Jason and MedSa from lolcus, and instituted funeral games in honour 
of his father. During these games, Hippolyte, the wife of Acastus, 
fell in love with Peleus. When Peleus refused to listen to her she 
accused him to her husband of having attempted her dishonour. 
Shortly afterwards, while Acastus and Peleus were hunting on 
Mount Pelion, and the latter had fallen asleep, Acastus took his 
sword from him, and left him alone. He was, in consequence, 
nearly destroyed by the Centaurs; but he was saved by Chiron or 
Hermes, returned to Acastus, and killed him, together with his wife. 

ACCA LAURENT!*., wife of the shepherd Faustulus and nurse of 
Romulus and Remus, after they were taken from the she-wolf. 
Originally an ^?Tth goddess, of Etruscan origin. 

Acclus or Arrlus, Roman tragic poet, was born 170 B.C., and 
lived to a great age. His tragedies were imitated from the Greek, 
but he also wrote on Roman subjects (Praetertaia). Fragments 
of his works survive. 

Acco, chief of the Senones in Gaul, induced his countrymen to 
revolt against Caesar, 53 B.C., by whom he was put to death. 

ACERRAE, town in Campania. 


AcssTfis, mythical T""g of Sicily, son of a Trojan woman, of the 
name of Egesta or Segesta, who was sent by her father to Sicuy 
to save her from the monsters which infested iie territory of Troy. 
When Egesta arrived in Sicily, the river-god Crimisus begot by her 
a son Acestes, who was afterwards regarded as the founder of the 
town of Segesta. Aeneas, on his arrival in Sicily, was hospitably 
received by Acestes. 

ACBAEI, one of the chief Hellenic races, originally dwelt in 
Thessaly, and from thence migrated to Peloponnesus, the whole of 
which became subject to them with the exception of Arcadia, and the 
country afterwards called Achaia. As they were the ruling nation 
in Peloponnesus in the heroic times, Homer frequently gives the 
name of Acbaei to the collective Greeks. Recent research, however, 
has shown that, while Homer's ACHAKANS had their early home in 
Greece, they differed in material culture from the Mycenaean 
Pelasgians, and agree with the Celts of the North, that bine-eyed, 
fair-haired population whose blood runs in our own veins. On the 
conquest of Peloponnesus by fee Heradidae and the Dorians, So 
years after the Trojan war, many of the Achaei under 


the son of Orestes, left their country and took possession of the 
northern coast of Peloponnesus, then inhabited by lonians, whom 
they expelled from the country, which was henceforth called Achaia. 
The expelled lonians migrated to Attica and Asia Minor. The 
Achaei settled in 12 cities: Pellene, Aegira, Aegae, Bura, Helice, 
Aegium. Rhypae, Patrae, Pharae, Olenus, Dyme, and Tritaea. 
These 12 cities formed a league for mutual defence and protection. 
The Achaei had little influence in the affairs of Greece till the time 
of the successors of Alexander. In 281 B.C. the Achaei, who were 
then subject to the Macedonians, resolved to renew their ancient 
league for the purpose of shaking off the Macedonian yoke. This 
was the origin of the celebrated Achaean League. It did not, how- 
ever, obtain much importance till 251 B.C., when Aratas united to it 
his native town, Sicyon. The example of Sicyon was followed by 
Corinth and many other towns in Greece, and "the League soon be- 
came the chief political power in Greece. At length the Achaei 
declared war against the Romans, who destroyed the League, and 
thus put an end to the independence of Greece. Corinth, then the 
chief town of the League, was taken by the Roman general Mum- 
mius, in 146 B.C., and the whole of southern Greece made a Roman 
province under the name of ACHAIA. 

AcHABMfiNfis. i. The ancestor of the Persian kings, who founded 
the family of the Achaemenidae. The Roman poets use the adjective 
Achaemenius in the sense of Persian. 2. Son of Darius I, was 
governor of -Egypt, and commanded the Egyptian fleet in the 
expedition of Xerxes against Greece, 480 B.C. He was defeated 
and killed in battle* 460. 

s, or AcHBH&tfDfis, companion of Ulysses, who 

left hi behind in Sicily, when he fled from the Cyclops. 

ACHA!A. i. The northern coast of the Peloponnesus, originally 
called AegialSa or Aegialus, i.e. the coast-land, was bounded on 
the N. by the Corinthian Gulf and the Ionian Sea, on the S. by EJis 
sn\A Arcadia, on the W. by the Ionian Sea, and on the E. by Sicyonia. 
Respecting its inhabitants see ACHAEI. 2. A district in Thessaly. 
'3. lie Roman province; see ACHABI. 

ACHAKNAE, principal demus of Attica, 60 stadia N. of Athens. 
One of the plays of Aristophanes bears this name. 

AcH&LSus, largest river in Greece, rises in Mt. PinduS, and 
flows southward, forming the boundary between Acarnania and 
Aetolia, and fall* into the Ionian Sea opposite the islands called 
Echinades. It is about 130 miles in length. The god of this river 
is described as the son of Oceanus and Tethys, and as the eldest of 
his 3,000 brothers. He fought with Hercules for DeJanlra, but was 
conquered in the contest. He then took the form of a bull, but was 
again overcome by Hercules, who deprived him of one of his horns. 
According to Ovid (Met. ir. 87), the Naiads changed the horn which 
Hercules took from Achekras into the horn of plenty- Achelous was 
regarded as the representative of aH fresh water: hence we find in 
Virgil Atk&SU pocvla, that is, water in general. 


$, the name of several rivers which were believed to be 
connected with the lower world, i . A river in Thesprotia in Epirus, 
which flows through the lake Acherusia into the Ionian Sea. 2. A 
river in Southern Italy in Bruttium, on which Alexander of Epirus 
perished. 3. A river of the lower world, round which the shades hover. 

ACHRONT!A. i. Town in Apulia on a summit of Mount Vultur, 
whence Horace speaks of celsae nidum Acherantiae. 2. Town on 
the river Acheron, in Bruttium. [ACHERON, 2.] 

AcHiLLfis, the hero of the Iliad. Achilles was the son of Peleus, 
king of the Myrmiddnes in Phthi6tis, in Thessaly, and of the Nereid 
Thetis. From his father's name he is often called PeEdes, Pelfiades, 
or Pelion, and from his grandfather's, Aeaddes. He was educated 
by Phoenix, who taught hi eloquence and the arts of war. In the 
healing art he was instructed by Chiron, the centaur. According 
to one legend his mother, Thetis, sought to make him. immortal, 
by dipping hi in the Styx, and succeeded with the exception of the 
heel by which she held him. Thetis foretold hi that his fate was 
either to gain glory and die early, or to live a long but inglorious 
life. The hero chose the former, and took part in the Trojan war, 
from which he knew that he was not to return. In 50 ships he led 
his hosts of Myrmidones, Hellenes, and Achaeans against Troy. 
When Agamemnon was obliged to give up Chrysels to her father, 
he threatened to take away Briseis from Achules, who surrendered 
her on the persuasion of Athena, but at the same time refused to 
take any further part in the war, and shut himself up in his tent. 
Zens, on the entreaty of Thetis, promised that victory should be on 
the side of the Trojans, until the Achaeans should have honoured 
her son. The affairs of .the Greeks declined in consequence, and 
they were at last pressed so hard, that an embassy was sent to 
Achilles, offering him rich presents and the restoration of Briseis; 
but in vain. Finally, however, he was persuaded by Patroclus, 
his dearest friend, to allow the latter to make use of his men, his 
horses, and his armour. Patroclus was slain, and when this news 
reached Achilles, he was seized with grief. Thetis consoled him, 
and promised new arms, to be made by Hephaestus; and Iris ex- 
horted hi to rescue the body of Patroclus. Achilles now rose, 
and his thundering voice alone put the Trojans to night. When 
his new armour was brought to him, he hurried to the field of battle, 
killed numbers of Trojans, and at length met Hector, whom he chased 
thrice around the walls of the city. He then slew him, tied his 
body to his chariot, and dragged hfm to the ships of the Greeks; 
but he afterwards gave tip the corpse to Priam, who came in person 
to beg for it. Achilles himself fell in the battle at the Scaean Gate, 
before Troy was taken. Achilles is the principal hero of the Iliad: 
the handsomest and bravest of an the Greeks. 

ACHZLLBS TATTEJS, Alexandrine rhetorician, lived about A.D. 500. 
He is the. author of a Greek romance in B books. Translation in 
Loeb Library (S. Gaselee). 

AcTrrr.T.ffiUM, town near the promontory SigSnm in the Txoad, 
where Achilles was supposed to have been buried. 


AcHiLXlDfis, a patronymic of Pyrrhus, son of Achilles. 
AcHlvi, the name of the Achaei in the Latin writers, 
AcHR&DlNA, part of the city of Syracuse. 
AclDlilA, surname of Venus. 


Acxs ( son of Faunus, was beloved by the nymph Galatea: Poly- 
phemus, jealous of trim, crashed him under a rock. His blood 
gushing from under the rock was changed by the nymph into the 
river Acis at the foot of Mt. Aetna. This story is related only 
by Ovid. 

AcosTfis, a sailor who was saved by Bacchus, when his com- 
panions were destroyed, because he was the only one of the crew 
who had espoused the cause of the god. 

Acoxrrfus, a beautiful youth of the island of Ceos. Having 
come to Delos to celebrate the festival of Diana, he fell in love with 
Cydippe, the daughter of a noble Athenian. In order to gain her, 
he had recourse to a stratagem. While she was sitting in the temple 
of Diana, he threw before her an apple upon which he had written 
the words: ' I swear by the sanctuary of Diana to marry Acontius.' 
The nurse took up the apple and handed it to Cydippe, who read 
aloud what was written upon it, and then threw the apple away. 
But the goddess had heard her vow; and the repeated ilTnft^ of the 
maiden, when she was about to marry another man, at length 
compelled her father to give her in marriage to Acontius. For a 
modern setting of this story, see Morris, Th* EartHy Parodist. 
In 1910 a lost fragment of CaDimachus (q.v.) describing the illness 
of Cydippe and its cure, was brought to light and published by 
Dr. Hunt in Part VII of the Oxyrhynckus Papyri. 

ACRAB, town in Sicily, W. of Syracuse, and zo stadia from the 
river Anapus, founded by the Syracusans 70 years after the founda- 
tion of their own city. 


AcRlsfus, son of Abas, king of Argos, grandson of Lynceus, 
and great-grandson of Danaus. He was the father of Danae*. 

A.CR6cfiRAUNlA, promontory in Epirus, jutting out into the 
Ionian Sea. The coast was dangerous to ships, whence Horace 
speaks of in/onus scopvlos Acroccraunia (the rocks of in fame). 


AcTA&dN, celebrated huntsman, son of Aristaeus and AutonoS, 
a daughter of Cadmus. One day as he was hunting he saw Artemis 
witt. hsr nymphs bathing, whereupon the goddess changed hi 
into a stag, in which form he was torn to pieces by his 50 dogs on 
Mt. Cithaerom 

ACTAEUS, earnest king of Attica. The adjective Actaeus is used 
by the poets in the sense of Attic or Athenian. 


Acxfi, properly a piece of land running into the sea. z. Ancient 
name of Attica, used especially by the poets. Hence Orithyia, 
the daughter of Erechtheus, i""g o f Athens, is called Actias by 
Virgil. 2. [ATHOS.] 

AcrfrjH, promontory in Acamania, at the entrance of the Am- 
bradan Gulf, off which Augustas gained the celebrated victory 
over Antony and Cleopatra, on 2nd September 31 B.C. At Actram 
there was a temple of Apollo, hence called Actiacus and Actius. 
This temple was beautified by Augustus, who established, or rather 
revived, a festival to Apollo, called Actia, and erected NICOPOLIS 
on the opposite coast, in commemoration of his victory. 

ACT&R. x. Son of Deion and Diomedes, father of Menoetius, 
and grandfather of Patroclus. 2. A companion of Aeneas, of whose 
conquered lance Turnus made a boast. 


ADM&TUS, king of Pherae in Thessaly, sued for Alcestis, the 
daughter of Pelias, who promised her on, condition that he should 
come in a chariot drawn by lions *"** boars. This task Admetus 
performed by the assistance of Apollo. The god tended the flocks 
of Admetus for 9 years, when he was obliged to serve a mortal for 
having la the Cyclopes. Apollo prevailed upon the Moirae or 
Fates to grant to Admetus deliverance from death, if his father, 
mother, or wife would die for him. Alcestis died in his stead, but 
was brought back by Hercules from the lower world. The story 
of Admetus was made the subject of one of the most famous of the 
plays of Euripides, Alctstis (translated by Browning in his Balaus- 
tion's Adventure). 

ADSNIS, a beautiful youth, was beloved by Aphrodite. He 
died of a wound which he received from a boar during the chase. 
The flower anemone sprang from his blood. The grief of the 
goddess at his death was so great, that the gods of the lower world 
allowed him to spend 6 months of every year with Aphrodite upon 
the earth. The worship of Adonis was of Phoenician origin, and 
appears to have had reference to the death of nature in winter and 
to its revival in spring. His death and his return to life were 
celebrated in annual festivals (Adonia) at Byblos, Alexandria in 
Egypt, Athens, and other places. See Sir J. G. Frazer's Atiis, 
Adonis, Osiris. 

ADRAifYTTiuM, town, of Mvsia, opposite Lesbos. 

ABRASTUS. i. Son of Talaus, king of Argos. Being expeDed 
from Argos by Amphiaraus, he fled to Polybus, *g of Sfcyon, 
whom he succeeded on the throne of Sicyon, an^ instituted the 
Nemeaa games. Afterwards he became reconciled to Amphiar&us, 
and retained to his kingdom of Argos. He married his two daughters 
Deipyle and Argia, the former to Tydeus of Calydon, and the latter 
to Polynlces of Thebes, both fugitives from thefe native countries. 
He then prepared to restore Polynlces to Thebes, who had bees 
expelled by his brother Eteodes, although Amphiaraus foretold 
that all who should engage in the war should perish, with the 


exception of Adrastus. Thus arose the celebrated war of the ' Seven 
against Thebes,' in which Adrastus was joined by 6 other heroes, 
viz. Polynices, Tydeus, Amphiaraus, Capaneus, HippomSdon. and 
Parthenopaeus. This war ended as unfortunately as Amphiaraus 
had predicted, and Adrastus alone was saved by the swiftness of 
his horse Arion, the gift of Hercules. Ten years afterwards Adrastus 
persuaded the 6 sons of the heroes who had fallen in the war, to 
make a new attack upon Thebes, and Amphiaraus now promised 
success. This .war is known as the war of the 'Epigoni* .or 
descendants. Thebes was taken and razed to the ground. The 
only Argive hero that fell in this war was Aegialeus, the son of 
Adrastus: the latter died of grief at Megara on his return to Argos, 
i-nH was buried in the former city. The legends about Adrastus 
and the 2 wars against Thebes furnished ample materials .for toe 
epip, as well as tragic, poets of Greece. See, e.g., Aeschylus, Seven, 
against Thebes. 2. Son of the Phrygian king Gordius, having 
unintentionally killed his brother, fled to Croesus, who received him 
kindly. While hunting he accidentally killed Atys, the son of 
Croesus, and in despair put an end to his own life. 

ADR!A or HADR!A. i. Town in Oallia Cisalpina, between the 
mouths of the Po and the Adige, from which the Adriatic Sea takes 
its name. 2. Town of Picenum in Italy, and afterwards a Roman 
colony, at which place the family of the emperor Hadrian lived. 


AptfiTtJci,. a people of Gallia Belgica in the time of Caesar. 

ADTJLS or AD&LIS, maritime city of Aethiopia, in tha Red Sea. 
Here was found the Monumentum Adulitanum, a Greek inscription 
recounting the conquests of Ptolemy II Euergetes. 

ASA, kingdom of the mythical Ae&es; afterwards supposed to 
be Colchis on the Black-Sea. . 

Asl dfofls, a patronymic of the descendants of Aeacus, as Peleus, 
Telamon, and Phocus, sons of Aeacns; AchiQes, son of Peleus; 
Pyrrhus, son of Achilles; and Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, who claimed 
to be a descendant of AchiHea. 

Asicus, son of Zeus and Aegina, a daughter of the river-god 
Asopus, was king of the Myrmidons. Aeacus was renowned for 
his justice, and after his death became one of the 3 judges in Hades. 

ABABA, surname of Circe, who was believed to have inhabited a 
small island of. this -name off the coast of Italy*. See CIRCE. 

AJEDILBS, Reman magistrates. There were two orders, 'aedUes 
plebeii, two in number, instituted in 494 B.C., and aediles civvies, 
also two in number, instituted 395 B.C. Their duties were to super- 
intend the streets and buildings, public places, the sanitation of the 
city, and the public games, It was also the special duty, of the 
carole aediles to superintend trade and the markets. I& 45 B.C. 
JuEms Caesar altered tjie number of plebeian aediles to four- . , ' 

12D5N, daughter of Paadareus of Ephesns, wife of Zethus, king 
orf Thebes, end mother of Ityms. Envious of Niobe, the wife of 


her brother Amphion, who had 6 sons and 6 daughters, she resolved 
to kill the eldest of Xiobe's sons, but by mistake slew her own son 
Itylus. Zeus relieved her grief by changing her into a nightingale. 

AEDtfi, a powerful people in Gaul, lived between the Liger 
(Loire) and the Arar (Sadne) . They were the first Gallic people who 
made an alliance with the Romans, by whom they were called 
'brothers and relations/ On Caesar's arrival in Gaul, 58 B.C., 
they were subject to Ariovistus, but were restored by Caesar to 
their former power. Their principal town was BIBRACTE. 

ABETES, father of Medea and Absyrtus. He was king of Colchis 
when Ptrbcus brought thither the golden fleece. For the remainder 
of his history, see ABSYRTUS, ARGONAUTAE, JASON, MEDEA. 

ABGA&. i. Town in Achaia on the Crathis, with a celebrated 
temple of the god Poseidon, originally one of the 12 Achaean, 
towns, but its inhabitants subsequently removed to Aegira. 2. A 
town in Emathia in Macedonia, the ancient capital of Macedonia and 
the burial-place of the Macedonian kings. It was also called Edessa. 
3. A town in Euboea with a temple of Poseidon, who was hence 
called Aegaeus. 4. Also AEGAEAB. one of the 12 cities of Aeolis, 
N. of Smyrna, on the river Hyllus. 5. A seaport town of CHitia. 

ABGAB6N, son of Uranus (Heaven) by Gaea (Earth). Aegaeon 
and his brothers Gyes or Gyges and Cottus are known under the 
name of the Uranids, and are described as huge monsters with 100 
arms and 50 heads. Most writers mention the third Uranid under 
the name of Briareus instead of Aegaeon, which is explained by 
Homer, who says that men called him Aegaeon, but the gods 
Briareus. According to the most anrf^n-fc tradition, Aegaeon and 
his brothers conquered the Titans when they made war upon the 
gods, and secured the victory to the god Zeus, who thrust the Titans 
into Tartarus, and placed Aegaeon and his brothers to guard them. 
Other legends represent Aegaeon as one of the giants who attacked 
Olympus; and many writers represent him as a marine god living 
in the Aegaean Sea. 

ABGABUM MARE, part of the Mediterranean Sea. It was bounded 
on the N. by Thrace and Macedonia, on the W. by Greece, and on 
the E. by Asia Minor. It contained in its southern part 2 groups 
of islands, the Cyclades, which, were separated from the coasts of 
Attica and Peloponnesus by the Myrtoan Sea, and the Sporades, 
lying off the coasts of Caria and Ionia, The part of the Aegaean 
which washed the Sporades was called the Icarian Sea, from the 
island. Icaria, fM> of the Sporades. 

ABGALfiSs, mountain in Attica opposite SaTarnfe, from which 
Xerxes saw tike defeat of his fleet, 480 B.C. 

AEGATES, tibe Goat Islands, were 3 islands off the W. coast 
of Sicily, between Drepanum and Lflybaeum, near which the 
Romans gained a naval victory over t&e Carthaginians, thus ending 
the first Punic war, 241 B.C. 

ABGBRU or G&R!A, one of the C^neaae (or Nymphs) ia j 


mythology, from whom Numa received his instructions respecting 
the forms of worship which he introduced. The grove in which 
the king had his interviews with the goddess, and in which a well 
gushed forth from a dark recess, was dedicated by him to the 

ABGBUS, son of Pandion and king of Athens, and father of 
THESEUS, whom he begot by Aethra at Troezen. Theseus after- 
wards came to Athens and restored Aegeus to the throne, of which 
he had been deprived by the 50 sons of Pallas. When Theseus went 
to Crete to deliver Athens from the tribute it had to pay to Minos, 
he promised his father to hoist white sails on his return as a signal 
of his safety. On approaching Attica he forgot his promise, and his 
father,, perceiving the black sails, thought that his son had perished 
and threw himself into the sea, which according to some traditions 
received from this event the name of the Aegaean. 

AEGlAXfi or AEGTXr.lU, daughter or granddaughter of Adrastus, 
and wife of DIOMEDES. 



ABG!L!A. i. Island between Crete and Cythera. 2. Island 
W. of Euboea a.nd opposite Attica. 

AEG!NA, island in the middle of the Saronic Gulf, 200 stadia (or 
about 24 miles) in circumference. It early became a place of great 
commercial importance, and its silver coinage was the standard 
in most of the Dorian states. In the 6th century B.C. Aegina 
became independent, and for a century before the Persian war 
was a prosperous and powerful state. It was at that time the chief 
seat of Grecian art. In 429 B.C. the Athenians took possession of 
the island and expelled its inhabitants. In the N.W, of the island 
there was a city of the same name, and OIL a hill in the N.E. of the 
island was the celebrated temple of Zens PanheHenius, some ruins 
of which are still extant. For Aegina in antiquity see the nn. in 
Frazer's Pausanias, vol. iii, pp. 263 sq. 

ABG!N!UM, town of the Tymphaei in Thessaly. 

i MONS, mountain in Megaris. 

formerly Hyperesia, one of the 12 towns of Achaia, 
situated on a steep hill. 

AEGIRUSSA, one of the 12 cities of Aeolis in Asia Minor. 

ABGISTHUS, son of Thyestes by his own daughter Pelopia. He 
slew his uncle Atreus, and placed Thyestes upon the throne, of which 
he had been deprived by Atreus. Homer, however, says only that 
Aegisthus succeeded his father Thyestes in a part of his dominions. 
Aegisthus took no part in the Trojan war, and during the absence 
of Agamemnon, he seduced, his wife Clytemnestra. He murdered 
Agamemnon on his return home, and reigned 7 years over Mycenae, 
la the 8th Orestes, the son of Agamemnon, avenged the death of his 
fattier by putting the adulterer to death. See the Agamemnon of 


AEGL&, that is, ' Brightness/ or ' Splendour/ the name of several 

ABGOSpOxlMi ('goafs-river'), small river, with a town of the 
same name on it, in the Thracian Chersonesus, flowing into the 
Hellespont. Here the Athenians were crushingly defeated by 
Lysander, 405 B.C. Bury, History of Greece, chap. xi. 

AEGYPTUS, king of Egypt, son of Belus, and twin-brother of 
Danaus. Aegyptus had 50 sons, ?d his brother Danaus 50 
daughters. Danaus, fearing the sons of his brother, fled with his 
daughters to Argos in Peloponnesus. Thither he was followed by 
the sons of Aegyptus, who demanded his daughters for their wives. 
Danaus complied with their request, but to each of his daughters 
he gave a dagger, with which they were to kill their husbands on 
the bridal night. All the sons of Aegyptus were thus murdered, 
with the exception of Lynceus, who was saved by Hypermnestra. 
See the Suppliers of Aeschylus. 

AEGYPTUS (Egypt), a country in the N.E. corner of Africa, 
bounded on the N. by the Mediterranean, on the E. by Palestine, 
Arabia Petraea, and the Red Sea, on the S. by Ethiopia, the division 
between the two countries being at the First or Little Cataract of 
the Nile, close to Syene. and on the W. by the Great Libyan Desert. 
From Syene the Nile flows due N. for about 500 miles, through a 
valley whose average breadth is about 7 miles, to a point some few 
miles below Memphis. Here the river divides into branches {7 in 
ancient time, but now only 2), which flow through a low alluvial 
land, called, from its shape, the Delta, into the Mediterranean. The 
whole district thus described is periodically laid under water by the 
overflowing of the Nile from April to October. The river, in sub- 
siding, leaves behind a rich deposit of fine mud, which forms the 
soil of Egypt. All beyond the reach of the inundation is rock or 
sand. Hence Egypt was called the 'Gift of the Nile.' The out- 
lying portions of ancient Egypt consisted of 3 cultivable valleys 
(called Oases), in the midst of the Western or Libyan Desert. At the 
earliest period to which history reaches back, Egypt was inhabited 
by a highly civilized people, under a settled monarchical govern- 
ment, divided into castes, the highest of which was composed of the 
priests. Its ancient history may be divided into 4 great periods: 
(i) From the earliest tunes to its conquest by Cambyses, during 
which it was ruled by a succession of native kings. The last of 
them, Fsammenitns, was conquered and dethroned by Cambyses 
in 525 B.C., when. Egypt became a province of the Persian empire. 
The Homeric poems show some slight acquaintance with the 
country and its river (which is also called Afywrrt*, Od, xiv. 25), 
and refer to the wealth and splendour of 'Thebes with the Hundred 
Gates.' (2) From, the Persian conquest in 525 to the transference 
of frhftiy dominion to ffr* Ma/wf*-grinT*iT in 352-. This* period was 
one of almost constant slfiiggtes between the Egyptians apd tfi^h- 
conquerors* It was during this period that Egypt was visited by 
Greek historians and philosophers, such as Herodotus, Plato, a&4 
others, who brought back to Greece the knowledge of the oooatry 


which they acquired from the priests and through personal observa- 
tion. (3) The dynasty of Macedonian frfag?, from the accession of 
Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, in 323, down to 30, when Egypt became 
a province of the Roman empire. Alexander, after the conquest 
of the country, gave orders for the building of Alexandria. (4) Egypt 
under the Romans, down to its conquest by the Arabs in A.D. 638. 
As a Roman province, Egypt was one of the most flourishing portions 
of the empire. The fertility of its soil, and its position between 
Europe and Arabia and India, together with the possession of such 
a port as Alexandria, gave it the f ull benefit of the two great sources 
of wealth, agriculture and commerce. 


ABLIANUS. i. The Tactician, a Greek military writer, flor. 
A.D. 100. 2. Claudius Aelianus (2nd cent, A.D.), author of 
Variae Historian and De Natwa Animalium. 

ABLLO, one of the HARPIES. 

AEMILIA, wife of Scipio Africanus I and mother of the celebrated 
Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi 

ABM!L!A VIA, made by M. Aemilius Lepidus, consul 187 B.C., 
continued the Via Flaminia from Ariminum, and traversed the heart 
of Cisalpine Gaul through Bononia, Mutiita, Parma, Placentia (where 
it crossed the Po) to M^infonnm. It was subsequently continued 
as far as Aquileia. 

AEM&JANUS. i. The son of L. Aemilius Paulus was adopted 
by P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus the younger, and was thus 
called P. Cornelius Scipio Aemflianus Africanus. [Scipio, 15.] 2. 
Governor of FannonSa and Moesia in the reign of Gallus, was pro- 
claimed emperor by his soldiers in A.D. 253, but was s?* by them 
after reigning a few months. 

AENfcADtts, a patronymic from Aeneas, given to his son Ascanius, 
and to those who were believed to be descended from >mi, sn ch as 
Augustus, and the Romans in general. 

AENfiis, the Trojan hero. Homeric Story. Aeneas was the 
son of Anchises and AphrodHS, and was born on Mount Ida. At 
first he took no part in the Trojan war; and it was not till Achilles 
attacked him on Mount Ida, *>d drove away his flocks, that he 
led his Dai-damans against the Greeks. Henceforth Aeneas and 
Hector appear as the great bulwarks of the Trojans against the 
Greeks. On more than one occasion, he is saved in battle by the 
gods: Aphrodite carried him off when he was wounded by Diomedes, 
and the god Poseidon saved him when he was on the point of perish- 
ing by the hands of AchiHes. Homer ^ makes no allusion to the 
emigration of Aeneas after tiie capture of Troy, but on the contrary 
he evidently conceives Aeneas and his descendants as reigning at 
Troy after the- extinction of the house of Priam. Later Stories. 
Most accounts agree that after the capture of Troy, Aeneas with- 
drew to Mount Ida witii his frUnfitt and the images of the gods, 
MpetiaHy that of Pallas (Palladium}; and that from thence he 
crossed over to Europe, and finally seated at Latrom in Italy, 


where he became the ancestral hero of the Romans. A description 
of the wanderings of Aeneas before he reached Latium is given by 
Virgil in his Aeneid. After visiting Epirns and Sicily, he was 
driven by a storm on the coast of Africa, where he met with Dido. 
[Dn>o.] He then sailed to Latium, where he was hospitably 
received by Latinos, king of the Aborigines. Here Aeneas founded 
the town of Lavinium, called after Lavinia, the daughter of Latinns, 
whom he married. Turnos, to whom Lavinia had been betrothed, 
made war against Latinos and Aeneas. Latinos fell in the first 
battle, and Turnns was subsequently slain by Aeneas; whereupon, 
after the death of Latinos, Aeneas became sole ruler of the Aborigines 
and Trojans, and both nations were united into one. Soon after 
this Aeneas fell in battle against the Rutulians, who were assisted 
by Mezentius, king of the Etruscans. As his body was not found 
after the battle, it was believed that it had been carried op to heaven, 
or that he had perished in the river Nomicius. The TA^P^ erected 
a monument to him, with the inscription To the father and native 
god. Virgil represents Aeneas landing in Italy 7 years after the fall 
of Troy, and comprises all the events in Italy, from the landing to 
the death of Turnus, within the space of 20 days. The story of 
the descent of the Romans from the Trojans through Aeneas was 
believed at an early period, but rests on no historical foundation. 

ABNSAS SiLvIus, son of SUvius, and grandson of Ascanios, is the 
third in the 1st of the mythical longs of Alba in Latiom. 

ABNfisfofiwrus, a celebrated sceptic, born at Cnossos, and Hved 
a little later than Cicero. His works are lost. 

ancient Greek race, originally near Ossa, afterwards 
in southern Thessaly, between Oeta and Othrys, on the banks of 
the Spercheus. 

ABNUS, ancient town in Thrace. 

AB&LBS or Asdiii, one of the branches- of the Hellenic race. 

ABdzl&E iKsttLAB (Lipori Islands), group of islands NJE. of 
Sicily, where Aeolus, the god of the winds, reigned. Virgil accord- 
ingly speaks of only one Aeolian island, supposed to be Strongyle 
or Lipara. These islands were also called HephaestEades or Vul- 
canlae, because Hephaestus or Vulcan was believed to have Ms 
workshop in one of them called Hiera. They were also named 
Lipaxenses, from Lipara, the largest of them. 

AjaSilDfis, a patronymic given to the sons of Aeolus and to his 
grandsons Cephalos, Ulysses, and Phrixos. Aeolis is the patro- 
nymic of the female descendants of Aeolus, given to his daughters 
Canace and Alcyone. 

ABdus or AB&JA, district of Mysia in Asia Minor, was peopled 
by Aeolian Greeks, wboee cities extended from the Treed along the 
shores of the Aegaean to the river Hennas. la early times their 
12 most important cities were independent and formed a league, 
These cities were subdued by Croesus, and were incorporated in the 
Persian empire on the conquest of Croesus by Cyras. 


AE&LUS. i. Ruler of Thessaly, and founder of the Aeolic branch 
of the Greek nation. His children are said to have been very 
numerous; but the most ancient story mentioned only 4 sons, viz. 
Sisyphus, Athamas, Cretheus, and Salmoneus. 2. Son of Hippotes, 
or, according to others, of the god Poseidon. He is represented in 
Homer as the happy ruler of the Aeolian islands, to whom Zeus had 
given dominion over the "winds. 

AEP'&TUS. i. A mythical king of Arcadia. 2. Youngest son of 
the Heraclid Cresphontes, king of Messenia, and of Merope, daughter 
of the Arcadian long Cypselus. When his father and brothers were 
murdered during an insurrection, Aepytus, who was with his grand- 
father Cypselus, alone escaped. The throne of Cresphontes was 
meantime occupied by Polyphonies, who forced Merope to become 
his wife. When Aepytus had grown to manhood, he returned to 
his kingdom, and put Polyphontes to death. 

AEQTJI, Asc*ulc5zj, ABQUlcfiLis, AECjuIctfLlNi, an ancient and 
warlike people of Italy, dwelling in the upper valley of the Anio. 
In conjunction with the Volsci, who were of the same race, they 
carried on constant hostilities with Rome, but were finally subdued 
in 302 B.C. One of their chief seats was Mount Algidus. 


AfisOpfi. wife of PHsthenes, the son of Atreus, by whom she 
became the mother of Agamemnon and Menelaus. After the death 
of PHsthenes, Aerope married Atreus; and her two sons, who were 
educated by Atreus, were generally believed to be his sons. Aerope 
was faithless to Atreus, being seduced by Thyestes. 

ABsXcus, son of Priam and AlexirrhoS, fell in love with Hesperia, 
and while he was pursuing her, she was stung by a viper and died. 
Aesacus in his grief threw himself into the sea, and was changed 
by Thetis into an aquatic bird. 

ABSAR.OT ABSRUS, river in southern Italy. 

ABSCHlNfis, Athenian orator, born 389 B.C. In his youth he 
assisted his father in his school; he next acted as secretary to 
Aristophon, and afterwards to Eubulus; he subsequently tried his 
fortune as an actor, but was unsuccessful ; and at length, after serving 
with distinction in the army, came forward as a public speaker, 
In 347 he was sent along with Demosthenes as one of the xo ft-mfrg-gga.- 
dors to negotiate a peace with Philip. From this tune he appears 
as the friend of the Macedonian party and as the opponent of Demos- 
tiienes. Shortly afterwards Aeschines formed one of a second 
embassy sent to Philip, and on his return to Athens was accused 
by Tunarchus. He evaded the danger by bringing forward a 
counter-accusation against Izmarchus (345)* showing that the moral 
condttct of his accuser was such that he had no right to speak before 
the people. The speech in which Aeschines attacked Tunarchus is 
still extant: Timarchus was condemned and Aeschines gained a 
brilliant triumph. In 343 Demosthenes renewed the charge against 
Aeschines of treachery during his second embassy to Philip. This 
charge of Demosthenes {> Falsa Legations) was not spoken, but 


published as a memorial, and Aeschices answered it in a similar 
memorial on the embassy, which was likewise published. After 
the battle of Chaeronga in 338, which gave Philip the supremacy 
in Greece, Ctesiphon proposed that Demosthenes should be re- 
warded for his services with a golden crown in the theatre at the 
great Dionysia. Aeschines in consequence accused Ctesiphon; but 
he did not prosecute the charge till 8 years later, 330. The speech 
which he delivered on the occasion is extant, and was answered by 
Demosthenes in his celebrated oration On the Crown. Aeschines 
was defeated, and withdrew from Athens. He went to Asia Minor. 
and at length established a school of eloquence at Rhodes. From 
Rhodes he went to Samos, where he died in 314. See Jebb's Attic 
Orators. Speeches translated in Loeb Library (C. D. Adams). 

ABSCH3T.US, tragic poet* son of Euphorion, was born at Eleusis 
in Attica, 525 B.C. At the age of 25 (499) he made his first appear- 
ance as a competitor for the prize of tragedy, without being suc- 
cessful. He fought with his brother at the battle of Marathon (490), 
and also at those of Salami's (480) and Plataea (479). In 484 he 
gained the prize of tragedy; and in 472 he gained the prize with the 
trilogy, of which the Persae, the earliest of his extant dramas, was 
one piece. In 468 he was defeated hi a tragic contest by his younger 
rival Sophocles; and he is said in consequence to have quitted 
Athens in disgust, and to have gone to the court of Hiero, king of 
Syracuse. In 467 his patron Hiero died; and in 458 it appears 
that Aeschylus was again at Athens, from the fact that the trilogy 
of the Oresteia was produced in that year. In the same or the 
following year he again visited Sicily, and he died at Gela in 456, in 
the 69th year of his age. It is said that an eagle, mistaking the 
poet's bald head for a stone, let a tortoise fall upon it to break the 
shell, and so fulfilled an oracle, according to which he was fated 
to die by a blow from heaven. The principal alteration made 
by Aeschylus in the composition and dramatic representation of 
Tragedy was the introduction of a second actor, *"* tie consequent 
formation of the dialogue properly so called, and the limitation of 
the choral parts. He furnished his actors with more suitable and 
cent dress 

magnificent dresses, with, significant a.T*<j various mflgUrg^ and with 
the thick-soled cothurnus to raise their stature to the height of 
heroes. With him also arose the usage of representing at the same 
time a trilogy of plays connected in subject, so that each formed 
one act, as it were, of a great whole. A satirical play commonly 
followed , each tragic trilogy. Aeschylus is said to have wiilleu 
70 tragedies. Of .these only 7 are extant, namely, the Persians, 
the Seven against Thebes, the Suppliants, the Prometheus, the 
Agamemnon, the Ckoephori, and, Eumenides; the last three forming 
the trilogy of the Oresteia. [Complete edition: Paley (1879); 
separate plays try Vezrall; verse renderings by Lewis Campbell and 
Gilbert Murray; see also T. C. Lawson's edition of the Agamemnon 
with verse translation and introduction (1932).] (See Fig. a.) 

ABScnQiJU>!usorAscxS^to f thegodofthemodica2art. IB Homer 
he is not a divinity, hot amply the 'blameless physician' wbeee 


sons, Machaon and PodaHiius, were the physicians in the Greek 
army. The common story relates that Aesculapius was a son of 
Apollo. He was brought up by Chiron, who instructed him in the 
art of healing and in hunting. There are other tales respecting his 
birth, according to some of which he was a native of Epidaurus, 
and +his was a common opinion in later times. After he had grown 
up, he not only cured the sick, but recalled the dead to life. Zeus, 
therefore, fearing lest men might contrive to escape death alto- 
gether, killed Aesculapius with his thunderbolt; but on the request 
of Apollo, Zeus placed him among the stars. The chief seat of the 
worship of Aesculapius was Epidaurus, where he had a temple 
surrounded with an extensive grove. Serpents were sacred to him 
because they were a symbol of renovation, and were believed to have 
the power of discovering healing herbs. The cock was sacrificed to 
him. At Rome the .worship of Aesculapius was introduced from 
Epidaurus in 293, for the purpose of averting a pestilence. The 
supposed descendants of Aesculapius were called by the patronymic 
name of Asclepiadae, and their principal seats were Cos and Cnidus. 
They were an order or caste of priests. The knowledge of medicine 
was regarded as a sacred secret, which was transmitted from father 
to son in these families. (See Fig. 23.) 

AES&PUS, river rising in the mountains of Ida, and flowing into 
the Propontis. 

ABS&N, son of Cretheus and Tyro, and father of Jason, He was 
excluded from the throne by his half-brother Pelias. During the 
absence of Jason on the Argonautic expedition, Pelias attempted 
to murder Aeson, but the latter put an end to his own life. Accord- 
ing to Ovid, Aeson survived tiie return of the Argonauts, and was 
made young again by Medea. 

AES^PUS, writer of fables, lived about '570 B.C., and was a con- 
temporary of Solon. He was originally a slave, and received his 
freedom from his master ladmon the Samian. Upon this he visited 
Croesus, who sent hf to Delphi, to distribute among the citizens 
4 minae fabout ii6] apiece ', but in consequence of some dispute on 
the subject, he refused to give any money at all, upon which the 
enraged Delphians threw tnrn from a precipice. Plagues were sent 
them from the gods for the offence, and they proclaimed their 
gness to give a compensation for his death to any who would 
it. At length ladmon, the grandson of his old master, re- 
ceived the compensation, since no nearer connection could be found. 
Later writers represent Aesop as a perfect monster of ugliness and 
deformity; a notion for which, there is no authority in the r*asmi*l 
authors. "Wheflier Aesop left any written works at aH, is a question 
which affords room for doubt; though it is certain that fabled, 
bearing Aesop's name, were popular at Athens. They were in prose. 
Socrates turned some of them into verse during his imprisonment. 
The only Greek versifier of Aesop, of whose writings any whole fables 
are preserved, is Babrius. Of the Latin writers of Aesopean fables 
Fhaedrufi is the most celebrated. The fables now extant in prose, 
bearing the same of Aesop, are unquestionably spurious. 


Aaso>us CLAUDIUS, or CLdDius, was the greatest tragic actor 
at Rome, and contemporary pi Roscius, the greatest comic actor. 
Both of them lived on intimate terms with. Cicero. Aesopus 
appeared for the last time on the stage at an advanced age at the 
dedication of the theatre of Pompey (55 B.C.), when his voice failed 
him, and he could not go through with his speech. 

Assrft, AESTS-I, or ABSTUI, a people dwelling on the sea-coast, 
in the N.E. of Germany, probably in the modern Latvia, who 
collected amber, which they called glesswn or glaeswn. 

ABTHiLli. or AETH&LIS, called LLVA {Elba} by the Romans, 
a small iafa-nd in the Tuscan Sea, celebrated for its iron mines. 

AETHXiJfofis, the herald of the Argonauts. His soul, after 
many migrations, at length took possession of the body of Pytha- 
goras, in which it still recollected its former migrations. 

ABTHlOpzs was a name applied (x) most generally to all black 
or dark races of men; (2) to all the inhabitants of Inner Africa; 
and (3) most specifically to the inhabitants of the land S. of Egypt, 
which was called ABTHIOWA, and to the nomad tribes dwelling S. of 
Arabia, on the shores of the Erythraean Sea. 

ABTHIO'PIA, Ethiopia (Nubia, Sennaar, Abyssinia}, a country of 
Africa, S. of Egypt. The people of Ethiopia seem to have been of 
the OJ.Ttca3*ar race, and to have spoken a language allied to the 
Arabic. Monuments are found in the country closely resembling 
those of Egypt, but of an inferior style. It was the seat of a powerful 
monarchy, of which M&R0S was the capital. Some traditions made 
Meroe the parent of Egyptian civilisation, while others ascribed the 
civilization of Ethiopia to Egyptian colonization. So great was the 
power of the Ethiopians, that more than once in its history Egypt 
was governed by Ethiopian kings. Under the Ptolemies "Graeco- 
Egyptian colonies established themselves in Ethiopia; but lie 
country was never subdued. The Romans failed to extend their 
empire over Ethiopia, though they made expeditions into the 
country, in one of which C. Petronius, prefect of Egypt under 
Augustus, defeated the warrior queen Candace (22 B.C.). Christi- 
anity very early extended to Ethiopia, probably in consequence of 
the conversion of the treasurer of queen Candace (Acts viii 27). 

AETHRA, daughter of Pittheus of Troezen, and mother of Theseus 
by Aegeus. She afterwards lived in Attica, from whence she 
was carried off to Lacedaemon by Castor and Pollux, and became 
a slave of Helen, with whom she was taken to Troy. At the capture 
of Troy she was restored to liberty by her grandson Acamas or 
Demophon. 2. Daughter of Oceanus, by whom Atlas begot the 
12 Hyades and a son Hyas. 

AfinoN, Greek painter fcth cent. B.C.), famed for his pictures of 
Alexander the Great's marriage. 

AETNA, x. A volcanic mountain in the N.E. of Sicily, between 

Tauromenium and <>**. Zeus buried under it Typhon or 

Enceladns: and in its interior Hephaestus and the Cyclopes forged 

the thunderbolts for Zens. There were several eruptions of Mi. Aetna 



in antiquity. One occurred in 475 B.C., to which Aeschylus and 
Pindar probably allude, and another in 425, which Thucydides says 
was the third on record since the Greeks had settled in Sicily. 
2. A town at the foot of Mt. Aetna, on the road to Catana, formerly 
called Inessa or Innesa. It was founded in 461 B.C., by the in- 
habitants of Catana, who had been expelled from their own town by 
the Siculi. They gave the name of Aetna to Inessa, because their 
own town Catana had been called Aetna by Hiero I. 

AET6LIA, a division of Greece, the mountains of which contained 
many wild beasts, and were celebrated in mythology for the hunt 
of the Calydonian boar. The Aetolians appear to have been early 
united by a kind of League, but this League first acquired political 
importance about the middle of the 3rd century B.C., and became 
a formidable rival to the Macedonian monarchs and the Achaean 
League, The Aetolians took the side of Antiochus III against the 
Romans, and on the defeat of that monarch, 189 B.C., they became 
virtually the subjects of Rome. On the conquest of the Achaeans, 
146 B.C., Aetolia was included in the Roman province of Achaia. 

AETCLUS, son of Endymion and husband of Promo, by whom 
he had two sons, Pleuron and Calydon. He was THng of Elis, but 
having slain Apis, he fled to the country near the Achelous, which 
was called Aetolia after him. 

AEXN, Attic demus of the tribe Cecropis. The inhabitants had 
the reputation of being mockers and slanderers. On the site of 
Aexone a cylindrical base has been unearthed. It bears a choregic 
inscription, recording the victories of jriays by Ecpthantides, Cratinus, 
Sophocles, and an unknown tragedian, named Timotheus. See 
J. U. Powell, New Chapters in the History of Greek Literature, 1933. 

ArsiANtrys. i. Roman comic poet, flourished about 100 B.C. 
His comedies depicted Roman life. Only a few fragments survive. 
2. A person of obscure origin, who was, through Pompey*s influence, 
made consul, 60 B.C. "When Pompey obtained the provinces of 
the two Spains in his 2nd consulship (55), he sent Afranius and 
Petreius to govern them, while he himself remained in Rome. In 
49 Afranius and Petreius were defeated by Caesar in Spain. Afranius 
thereupon passed over to Pompey in Greece; was present at the 
battle of Pharsalia (48) ; and subsequently at the battle of Thapsus 
'in Africa (46). He then attempted to fly into Mauretania, but was 
taken prisoner by P. Sittius and kffled. 

AFRICA was used by the ancients in two senses, (i) for the whole 
continent of Africa, and (2) for the portion of N. Africa which the 
Romans erected into a province, i. In the more general sense the 
name was not used by tfie Greek writers; and its use by the Romans 
arose from the extension to the whole continent of the name of a 
part of it. The Greek name for the continent is Libya. Con- 
siderably Before the historical period of Greece begins, the Phoe- 
nicians founded several colonies on the N. coast of Africa, of which 
Cartilage was the chief. [CARTHAGO.] The Greeks knew very 
Httfe of the country until the foundation of the Dorian colony of 


CYRBNE (260 B.C.). and the intercourse of Greek travellers with 
Egypt in the 6th and 5th centuries. A Phoenician fleet sent by the 
Egyptian king Pharaoh Necho (about 600 B.C.), was said to have 
sailed from the Red Sea, ronnd Africa, and so into the Mediterranean: 
the authenticity of this story is still a matter of dispute. We still 
possess an authentic account of another expedition, which the 
Carthaginians dispatched under Hanno (about 510 B.C.), and which 
reached a point on the W. coast nearly, if not quite, as far as lat. 
10 N. In the interior, the Great Desert (Sahara) interposed a 
formidable obstacle to discovery; but even before the time of 
Herodotus the people on the northern coast told of individuals 
who had crossed the desert, and had reached a great river flowing 
towards the E., which, if the story be true, was probably the Niger 
in its npper course, near Timbuctoo. There were great differences 
of opinion as to the boundaries of the continent. Some divided 
the whole world into only two parts, Europe and Asia, and they 
were not agreed to which of these two Libya (i.e. Africa) belonged"; 
and those who recognized three divisions differed again in j " 
the boundary between Libya and Asia either on the W. of ] 
or along the Nile, or at the isthmus of Suez and the Red SeaT 
last opinion gradually prevailed. Herodotus divides the inhabitants 
of Africa into four racestwo native, namely, the Libyans and 
Ethiopians, and two foreign, namely, the Phoenicians and the 
Greeks. The Libyans, however, were a Caucasian race: the Ethio- 
pians of Herodotus correspond to our Negro races. The whole of 
the north of Africa fell successively under the power of Rome, *""* 
was finally divided into provinces as follows: (x) Egypt; (2) Libya, 
including (a) Libyae Nomos or Libya Exterior, (b) Mannarica, 
(c) Cyrenalca; (3) Africa Propria, the former empire of Carthage 
see below, No. 2; (4) Numidia; (5) Mauretania, divided into (a) Siti- 
fensis, (b) Caesariensis, (c) Tingitana: these, with (6) Ethiopia, 
make up the whole of Africa, according to the divisions recognized 
by the latest of the ancient geographers. 2. AFRICA PROPRIA or 
PfcoviwciA, or simply AFRICA, was the name under which the 
Romans, after the third Punic war, 146 B.C., erected into a province 
the whole of the former territory of Carthage. It extended from 
the river Musca, on the W., which divided it from Numidia, to the 
bottom of the Syrtis Minor, on the S.E. It was divided into two 
districts (regions), namely, (z) Zengis or Zeugitana, the district 
round Carthage, (2) Byzacium or Byzacena, S. of Zeugitana, as 
far as the bottom of the Syrtis Minor. It corresponds to the modern 
regency of Tunis. The province was foil of flourishing towns, and was 
extremely fertile: it furnished Rome with its chief supplies of corn. 

a surname given to the Scipios. [SciPio, 10,] 
s, the S.W. wind, which blew from Africa. 

AcXirilDfis, commonly called son of Erginus, king of Orchomenus, 
and brother of Trophonras, Agamedes and Trophonjns distingnfoned 
themselves as architects. They built a temple of Apollo at Delphi, 
and a treasury of Hyriens, king of Hyria in Boeotia. In the con- 
struction of the latter, they contrived to place a stone in. aocfa a 


manner, that it could be taken away outside -without anybody 
perceiving it. They now constantly robbed the treasury; and the 
king set traps to catch the thief. Agamedes was thus caught, and 
Trophonius cut off his head to avert the discovery. After this 
Trophonius was immediately swallowed up by the earth in the 
grove of Lebadea. Here he was worshipped as a hero, and had a 
celebrated oracle. A tradition mentioned by Cicero states that 
Agamedes and Trophonius, after building the temple of Apollo 
at Delphi, prayed to the god to grant them in reward for their labour 
what was best for men. The god promised to do so on a certain 
day, and when the day came, the two brothers died. 

AGMBMN$N, son of PUsthenes and Aerope" or Eriphyle 1 , and 
grandson of Atreus, king of Mycenae; but Homer and others call 
him a son of Atreus and grandson of Pelops. Agamemnon and his 
brother Menelaus were brought up together with Aegisthus, the son 
of Thyestes, in the house of Atreus. After the murder of Atreus by 
Aegisthus and Thyestes, who succeeded Atreus in the kingdom of 
Mycenae [AEGISTHUS], Agamemnon and Menelaus went to Sparta. 
Here Agamemnon married Qytemnestra, the daughter of Tyndareus, 
by whom he became the father of Iphianassa (Iphigenla), Chryso- 
themis, Laodice (Electra), and Orestes. The manner in which 
Agamemnon obtained the kingdom of Mycenae is differently related. 
From Homer, it appears as if he had peaceably succeeded Thyestes; 
while, according to others, he expelled Thyestes, and usurped his 
throne. He became the most powerful prince in Greece. Homer 
says he ruled over all Argos, which signifies Peloponnesus. When 
Helen, the wife of Menelaus, was carried off by Paris, and the Greek 
chiefs resolved to recover her by force of arms, Agamemnon was 
chosen their commander-in-chief. After two years of preparation, 
the Greek army and fleet assembled in the port of Aulis in Boeotia. 
At this place Agamemnon killed a stag wltich was sacred to Artemis, 
who in return visited the Greek army with a pestilence, and pro- 
duced a calm which prevented the Greeks from leaving the port. 
In order to appease her wrath, Agamemnon consented to sacrifice his 
daughter Iphigenia; but at the moment of the sacrifice she was 
carried off Tby Artemis herself to Tauris, and another victim was 
substituted in her place. The calm now ceased, and the army sailed 
to the coast of Troy. The quarrel between Agamemnon and 
Achilles in the tenth year of the war is related elsewhere. [ACHILLES.] 
Agamemnon, though chief commander of the Greeks, is not tne hero 
of the Iliad, and in chivalrous spirit, bravery, and character is 
altogether inferior to Achilles. At the capture of Troy he received 
Cassandra, the daughter of Priam, as his prize. On his return home 
he was murdered by Aegisthus, who had seduced Qytemnestra 
during the absence of her husband. The tragic poets make Qytem- 
nestra alone murder Agamemnon. His death was avenged by his 
son Orestes. See the Oresteian trilogy of Aeschylus (Agamemnon, 
Ckoepkori, Eum&ti&s}. 

ActwiP^R, a nymph of the fountain of the same name at the 
Soot of Mt. Heficoor in Boeotia. It was sacred to the Muses (who 


were hence called Aganippides), and was believed to inspire those 
who drank of it. 

AoisIAs, a Greek artist, ist cent. B.C. The ' Borghese Gladiator' 
(now in the Louvre) was executed by him. 

AaixHOCLfis, was born at Thermae, a town of Sicily subject to 
Carthage, and was brought np as a potter at Syracuse. His strength 
and personal beanty recommended pirn to Damas, a noble Syracusan, 
on whose death he married his rich widow, and so became one of the 
wealthiest citizens in Syracuse. His ambitious schemes then de- 
veloped themselves, and he was driven into exile. After several 
changes of fortune, he collected an army, and was declared sovereign 
of Syracuse, 317 B.C. In the course of a few years the whole of 
Sicily, which was not under the dominion of Carthage, submitted 
to him. In 310 he was defeated at Himera by the Carthaginians, 
under Hamilcar, who straightway laid siege to Syracuse; whereupon 
he averted the ruin which threatened him, by carrying the war 
successfully into Africa. He constantly defeated the troops of 
Carthage, but was at length summoned from Africa by the affairs 
of Sicily, where many cities >>>! revolted from him, 307. These 
he reduced, after nrnln'ng a treaty with the Carthaginians, He had 
previously assumed the title of king of Sicily. Tn last days were 
embittered by family misfortunes, yj? grandson Archagathus 
murdered his son Agathocles, for the sake of succeeding to the 
crown, and the old king feared that the rest of his family would 
share his fate. He accordingly sent his wife and her two children 
to Egypt; and his own death followed almost immediately, 289, 
after a reign of 28 years, and in the 72nd year of his age. Some 
authors mate an incredible story of his being poisoned by Maeno, 
an associate of Archagathus. The poison, we are told, was con- 
cealed in the quill with which he cleaned his teeth, and reduced him 
to so frightful a condition, that he was placed on the funeral pile 
and burnt while yet living, being unable to give any signs that 
he was not dead. 

AGATH$N, Athenian tragic poet, a friend of Euripides and Plato. 
The banquet he gave in honour of his dramatic victory is immor- 
talized in Plato's Symposium. He died about 400 B.C. 

AO&THYRSI, a people in European Sarmatza, on the river Maris 
(Moras) in Transylvania. From the practice of painting or 
tattooing their skin, they are called by "Virgil picti Agaibyrsi. 

AG&V&, daughter of Cadmus, wife of Echlon, and mother of 
Pentheus. [PBNIHSUS.] 

AoftNOR, i. Son of Poseidon, king of Phoenicia, and father of 
Cadmus and Eoropa. Virgil calls Carthage the city of Agenor, 
since Dido was descended from Agenor. 2. Son of the Trojan 
Anterior and Theano, one of the bravest among the Trojans, 

AGSSANDBR, Greek artist, joint author of Laecodn group. 

AcfislLlus, kings of Sparta, z. Reigned about 836 B.C., and was 
contemporary with the legislation of JLycurgns. 2. Son of Aifcfai- 
II, succeeded his half-brother Agis II, 398 B.C.* 


his nephew Leotychides. [LEOTYCHIDES, 2.] From 396 to 394 he 
carried on the war in Asia Minor -with great success, but in the midst 
of his conquests was summoned home to defend his country against 
Thebes, Corinth, and Argos. In 394 he met and defeated at CoronSa 
in Boeotia the allied forces. During the next 4 years he regained 
for his country much of its former supremacy, till the battle of 
Leuctra, 371, overthrew for ever the power of Sparta, and gave the 
supremacy to Thebes. In 361 he crossed with a body of Lacedae- 
monian mercenaries into Egypt, where he died, in the winter of 
361-360, after a life of above 80 years and a reign of 38. In person 
Agesilaus was small, mean-looking, and lame, on which last ground 
objection had been mnde to his accession, an oracle having warned 
Sparta of evils awaiting her under a 'lame sovereignty.' He was 
one of the best citizens and generals that Sparta ever had. His 
life has been written by Xenophon. 

AofisIpSLis, kings of Sparta, i. Succeeded his father Pausanias, 
while yet a minor, in 394 B.C., and reigned 14 years. 2. Son of 
Qeombrotus, reigned one year, 371. 3. Succeeded Qeomenes in 
220, but was soon deposed by his colleague Lycurgus. 

AGIS, kings of Sparta, i. Son of Eurysthenes, the founder of 
the family of the .Agidae. 2. Son of Archidamus II, reigned 427- 
398 B.C. He took an active part in the Peloponnesian war, and 
invaded Attica several times. While Alcibiades was at Sparta he 
was the guest of Agis, and is said to have seduced his wife Timaea, 
[LBOTYCHIDBS, 2.] 3. Son of Archidamus III, reigned 338-330. He 
attempted to overthrow the Macedonian power in Europe, while 
Alexander the Great was in Asia, but was defeated and killed in 
battle by Antipater in 330. 4. Son of Eudamidas II, reigned 
244-240. He attempted to re-establish the institutions of Lycurgus, 
and to effect a thorough reform in the Spartan state; but he was 
resisted by his colleague Leonidas II, and was put to death by 
command of the ephors, along with his mother and grandmother. 

AoiIlA, 'the bright one/ one of the CHARITES or Graces. 
, AG&RA, the Greek market-place. 

AGRATJLOS. i. Daughter of Actaeus, first king of Athens, and 
wife of Cecrops. 2. Daughter of Cecrops and Agraulos, of whom 
various stories are told. Athena is said to have given Erichthonius 
in a chest to Agraulos and her sister Herse. [ERICHTHONIUS.] 
Agrauloe was punished by being, changed into a stone by Hermes, 
because she attempted to prevent the god from entering the house 
of Herse, with whom he had fallen in love. Another legend relates 
ffcat Agraulos threw herself down from the Acropolis because an 
oracle had declared that the Athenians would conquer if someone 
would sacrifice himself for his country. The Athenians in gratitude 
built her a temple on tfce Acropolis, in which the young Athenians 
took an oath that they would defend their country to the last 
A festival (Agraulia) was celebrated at Athens in her honour. 

AGRI D&cOH&TES, tithe lands, the Roman name of a part of 
Germany, E. erf the Rhine and N. of the Danube, which, the Romans 


gave to the Gauls and subsequently to their own veterans on the 
payment of a tenth of the produce (dec&ma). Towards the end of 
the ist or the beginning of the '2nd century after Christ, these 
lands were incorporated in the Roman empire. 

AGR!COLA, CN. JOLlus, born 13th June, A.D. 37, at Forum Julii 
(Frtfus, in Provence), the son of Julius Graecinus, who was executed 
by Caligula, and of Julia Procilla. He received a careful education; 
he first served in Britain, A.D. 60, under Suetonius Paulinos; was 
quaestor in Asia in 63; was governor of Aquitania from 74 to 76; 
and was consul in 77. In 78 he gave his daughter to the historian 
Tacitus in marriage. In 78 also he received the government oi 
Britain, which he held for 7 years. He subdued the whole of the 
country except the highlands of Caledonia, and introduced the 
language and civilization of Rome. He was recalled in 85 through 
the jealousy of Domrtzan, and on his return lived in retirement till 
his death in 93, which according to some was occasioned by poison, 
administered by order of Domitian. Some writers have contended 
that Agricola embraced Christianity. His character is drawn in the 
brightest colours by Tacitus in the extant Life of Agricola. 

AGR!GENTUM, called AOL&GAS by the Greeks (Girgcnti), city on 
the S. coast of Sicily, about 2}- miles from the sea. It was one of 
the most splendid cities of the ancient world. It was founded by 
a Doric colony from Gela, about 579 B.C., was under the govern- 
ment of the cruel tyrant Phalaris (about 560), and subsequently 
under that of Theron (488-472). It was destroyed by the Cartha- 
ginians (405), and, though rebuilt by Timoleon, it never regained its 
former greatness. It came into the power of the Romans in 210. 
It was the birthplace of Empedocles. There are still gigantic 
remains of the ancient city. 

AGRIPPA, HfiRODfis. i. Called Agrippa the Great, son of Aristo- 
bulus and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great. He was 
educated at Rome, and lived on intimate terms with the future 
emperors Caligula and Claudius. Caligula gave him the tetrarchies 
of Abilene, Ba.tana.ea, Trachonitis, and Auxanitis; and Claudius 
annexed Judaea and Samaria to his dominions. His govfmAnf' 
was exceedingly popular amongst the Jews. It was probably to 
increase his popularity with the Jews that he caused the Apostle, 
James to be beheaded, and Peter to be cast into prison (A.D. 44). 
The manner of his death, which took place at Caesarea in tite same 
year, is related in Acts xii. 2. Son of the preceding, king of ChaZris. 
On the breaking out of the Jewish war he sided with the Romans, 
and after the capture of Jerusalem he went with his sister Berenice 
to Rome, and died in the yoth year of his age, A.D. xoo. It was 
before this Agrippa that the Apostle Paul made his defence^ A.D. 60 
(Acts xxv-xxvi). Consult Dean, Farrar's monograph, Tke Herods. 
; AGRIPPA, M. ViPsIriEus, bora in 63 B.C., of an obscure family, 
studied with young 1 Octavius {afterwards tike ^P^T^^JT Augustus^ 
at Apollonia in Eryria; and upon lite murder of Caesar in 44 was 
one of the friends of Octavias, who advised him to proceed im- 
mediately to Rome. In fee civil wars which followed Agrippa toofc 


an active part; and his military abilities contributed greatly to the 
success of Augustus. He commanded the fleet of Augustus at the 
battle of Actram in 31. In Ms 3id consulship in 27 he built 
the Pantheon. In 21 he married Julia, daughter of Augustus. He 
continued to be employed in various military commands till his 
death in 12 B.C. His chief title to fame rests on his great Map of 
the World, which Augustus had engraved on marble. 

AGRIPPINA, i. Daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa arid of Julia, 
the daughter of Augustus, married Gennanicus, by whom she 
had 9 children, among whom were the emperor Caligula, and 
Agrippina, the mother of Nero. She was distinguished for her 
virtues and heroism, and shared all the dangers of her husband's 
campaigns. On his death in A.D. 17 she returned to Italy; but the 
favour with which she was received by the people increased the 
hatred which Tiberius and his mother Livia had long entertained 
towards her. At length in A.D. 30 Tiberius banished her to the 
island of Pandataria, where she died 3 years afterwards, probably 
by voluntary starvation. 2. Daughter of Gennanicus and Agrip- 
pina [No. i], and mother of the emperor Nero, was born at Oppidum 
Ubiorum, afterwards called in honour of her Colonia Agrippina, now 
Cologne. [COLONIA.] She was beautiful and intelligent, but 
licentious, cruel, and ambitious. She was first married to Cn. 
Domitius Ahenobarbus (A.D. 28), by whom she had a son, afterwards 
the emperor Nero; next to Crispus Passienus; and thirdly to the 
emperor Claudius (49), although she was his niece. In 50 she pre- 
vailed upon Claudius to adopt her son, to the prejudice of his own 
son Britann cos; and in order to secure the succession for her son, 
she poisoned the emperor in 54. The .young emperor soon became 
tired of the ascendancy of his mother, and after making several 
attempts to shake ofi her authority, he caused her to be assassinated 
in 59. See Baring-Gould's Tragedy of the Caesars; Merivale, Hist. 
of Romans under the Empire, vol. vi; and the terrible narrative in 
Tacitus. Annals, xiwiv. . 

AGYIEUS (trisylL in Greek 'A^mafe), a surname of Apollo, as 
tne protector of the streets and public places. 

AO-SETUM, town in Sicily on the Cyamosorus, N.W. of Centuripae 
and N.E. of Enna, the birthplace of Diodorus. 

AEAUL, C. SBRvtLlus, magister equituin in 439 B.C. to the dictator 
L. Cindnnatus, when he slew SP. MAELXUS in the forum, because he 
refused to appear before the dictator. Ahala was brought to trial, 
and only escaped condemnation by a voluntary exile. 

gens* They are said to have been sunxamed Ahenobarbus, i.e. 
'Brazen-beard' or 'Hed^beard/ because the Dioscuri (Castor and 
Pollux) aa&ouBced to one of tihftir ancestors the victory of the 
Romans over the Latins at lake Kftgfllna (496 B.C.), and, to confirm 
tfae truth of wbat-tbey said, stroked his black hair and beard, which 
iauBediaietf became red. i. CN. DOJCTTUS AHENOBARBUS, consul 
122 BLC., conquered the AHobroges in GaoL a. Or. DOMTTIUS 


AHKNOBARBUS, tribune of the plebs, 104, brought forward the law 
(Lex Domitia) by which the election of the priests was transferred 
from the collegia to the people. The people afterwards elected him 
pontifex maxim us out of gratitude. 3. L. DOMITIUS AHBNOBAJLBUS, 
married Porcia, the sister of M. Cato, *n*l was a supporter of the 
azistocratical party. On the outbreak of the civil war in 49 he was 
compelled by his own troops to surrender C^rfudnm to Caesar. 
He next went to Massilia, and, after the surrender of that town, 
repaired to Pompey in Greece: he fell in the battle of Pharsalia (48), 
where he commanded the left wing, and, according to Cicero's 
assertion in the second Philippic, by the hand of Antony. 4. CK. 
DOMITIUS AHENOBARBUS, son of No. 3, was taken with his father at 
Corfinium (49), was present at the battle of Pharsalia (48), and re- 
turned to Italy in 46, when he was pardoned by Caesar. He accom- 
panied Antony in his campaign against the Parthians in 36. He was 
consul in 32, and deserted to Augustus shortly before the battle of 
Actium. 5. CN. DOMITIUS AHENOBARBUS, consul A.D. 32, married 
Agrippina, daughter of Gennanlcus, and was fattier of the emperor 


Aius LoctJrius or LoguEHs, a Roman divinity. A short time 
before the Gauls took Rome (390 B.C.) a voice was heard at Rome 
during the silence of night, announcing that the Gauls were 
approaching. Livy, v. 50. 

AJAX, called AIAS by the Greeks, i. Son of Telamon, iring of 
Manila, and grandson of Aeacns. Homer calls >>"n Ajax the 
Telamonian, Ajax the Great, or simply Ajax, whereas the other 
Ajax, son of Qileus, is always distinguished from the former by 
some epithet. He sailed against Troy in 12 ships, and is represented 
in the Iliad as second only to Achilles in bravery. In the contest 
for the armour of Achilles he was conquered by Ulysses, and <ft t 
says Homer, was the cause of his death. Later poets relate that 
his defeat by Ulysses threw him into a state of madness; that he 
slaughtered the sheep of the Greek army, fancying they -were his 
enemies; and that at length he put an end to his own life. See 
the Ajax of Sophocles. 2. Son of OQens, long of the Locrians, also 
called the lesser Ajax, sailed against Troy in 40 ships. He is de- 
scribed as small of stature, but skilled in throwing the spear, and, 
next to Achilles, the most swift-footed among the Greeks. On his 
return from Troy his vessel was wrecked; he himself got safe upon 
a rock through the assistance of Poseidon; but as he boasted Uiat 
he would escape in defiance of the immortals, Poseidon split the 
rock, and Ajax was drowned. TOf is the account of Homer. 
Virgti teHs us that the anger of A&Ena was excited against him i 
because, on the night of the capture of Troy, he violated Cassandra 
in the temple of the goddess. 

ALA, Latin name far a 'wing' ia battle. Specially, tf cavalry 
of the contingent, including about 300 i ' 

Ai&BJJfi>A, COLL apt and hrmrkm towa in Asia Minor, 


AL&BASTRON, a narrow-necked jar for perfumes. 

ALALcSMfiNAB, town of Boeotia, E. of CoronSa, with temple of 

ALANI, Asiatic people, included under the general name of 
Scythians. They are first found in Albania, another form of the 
same name. [ALBANIA.] At a later time they pressed into Europe, 
as far as the banks of the Lower Danube, where, towards the end 
of the 5th century, they were routed by the Huns and then became 
their allies. In A.D. 406, some of the Alani took part with the 
Vandals in their irruption into Gaul and Spain, where they gradually 
disappear from history. 

ALARICUS, in German AMc (i.e. f AH-powerfaT), king of the 
Visigoths, who took and plundered Rome, 24th August, A.D. 410. 
He died shortly afterwards at Consentia in Bruttium. 

ALBA. i. LONGA, the most ancient town in Latium, is said to 
have been built by Ascanius, son of Aeneas. It was called Longa, 
from its stretching down the Alban mount towards the Alban lake. 
It was destroyed by Tullus Hostilius, and was never rebuilt; its 
inhabitants were removed to Rome. At a later time the surround- 
ing country was studded with the splendid villas of the Roman 
aristocracy and emperors (Pompey's, Domitian's, etc.), each of 
which was called Albanum. 2. POMPEIA, a town in Liguria, colonized 
by Pompeius Magnus, the birthplace of the emperor Pertinax. 

ALBA SiLvIus, mythical king of Alba, son of Latinus, reigned 
39 years. . 

ALBANIA (S.E. part of Georgia), a country of Asia on the .W. 
side of the Caspian, extending from the rivers Cyrus and Araxes 
on the S. to Mt Ceranius (the E. part of the Caucasus) on the N.. 
and bounded on the \V. by Iberia. It was a fertile plain; but the 
inhabitants were warlike. They were a Scythian "bribe, identical 
with the ALANI. The Romans first became acquainted with them 
at the time of the Mithridatic war, when they encountered. Pompey 
with a large army. 

ALBANTJS LACUS, a small lake about 5 miles in circumference, 
W. of the MOILS Albanus between Bovillae and Alba Longa, is the 
crater of an extinct volcano, and is many hundred feet deep. The 
emissarium which the Romans bored through the rock during the 
siege of Veii* in order to cany off the superfluous water of the lake, 
is still to be seen. 

ALBANUS MONS, the mountain in Latium on whose declivity the 
town of Alba Longa was situated. It -was the sacred mountain of 
the TA-hrna, on which the religious festivals of the Latin League were 
celebrated (Feriae Latino*), and on its 'highest summit was the 
temple of Jupiter Latiaris,- to which the Roman generals ascended 

S, C. P&DO, friend of Ovid, who addresses to him one 
of his Epistles from Pontus. 

ALB!NDS or ALBUS, Posxthilus, a patrician family at Rome 


many of the members of which held the highest offices of the state 
tinder the republic. The founder of the family was dictator 498 B.C., 
when he conquered the Latins in the battle near Lake Regillus. 

ALBINUS, CLODICS, was governor of Britain at the death of 
Commodus in A.D. 192. In order to secure his neutrality, Septimius 
Sevems made him Caesar; but after Severus had defeated his rivals, 
he turned his arms against Albinos. A great battle was fought 
between them at Lugdunum (Lyons), in Gaul, 197, in which Albinus 
was defeated and killed. 

ALBION, another name of Britannia, the white land, from its 
white cliffs opposite the coast of Gaul. 

ALBIS (Elbe), the most easterly river of Germany with which the 
Romans became acquainted. 

AuBtfLA, an ancient name of the river TIBER. 

AJLBNA or AJLBCNA, a prophetic nymph or Sibyl, to whom a 
grove was consecrated in the neighbourhood of Tibur. 

ALBURNUS MONS, mountain in Lucania, behind Paestum. 

ALCAEUS, of Mytilene in Lesbos, the earliest of the Aeolian 
lyric poets, began to flourish about 61 1 B.C. In the war between the 
Athenians and Mytilenaeans for the possession of Sigum (606 B.C.) 
he was disgraced by leaving his arms on the field of battle. Alcaeus 
belonged by birth to the nobles, and was driven into exile, with his 
brother Antimenidas, by the popular party. He attempted by 
force of arms to regain his country; but was frustrated by his former 
comrade, PITTACUS, who had been chosen by the people Aesymnetes 
or dictator for the purpose of resisting Him arid the other exiles. 
Surviving fragments of Alcaeus have been added to by the discovery 
of papyri at Oxyrhynchus and HermopoHs in Egypt. The new 
poems ^ypiess the strenuous ambitions of hfe political life more 
than the convivial side of his character, known through previously 
discovered poems and the imitations of Horace. Alcaeus championed 
the nobility against the tyrants, and his most admired poems are 
his warlike odes. All existing remains have been collected into an 
edition by Lobel (Oxford Univ. Press, 1927). See J. U. Powell, 
New Chapters in the History of Greek Literature, 1933. Alcaeus is 
said to have invented the Alcaic metre. 

Athenian statuary, flourished 444-400 B.C., and 
was the most famous of the pupils of Phidias. An original group 
by him, 'Procne and Itys/ has been excavated. 

AiclTHttus, son of Pelops and Hippodamla, obtained as his wife 
Euaechme, the daughter of Megareus, by slaying the CHkaeronian 
lion, and succeeded his father-in-law as king of Megara. He 
restored the walls of Megara, ^rtiich is therefore sometimes called 
Alcathfc by the poets. In this work he was assisted by ApoQo. 
The stone upon which tbe god used to place his lyre white he was 
at work, was believed, even in late times, to give forth a sound, 
when struck, similar to that of a lyre. 

' ALCBSTIS, wife of Admetos, 


ALCB!AD&S, son of CHnias and DinomachJ, was born at Athens 
about 450 B.C., and on the death of his father in 447 was brought 
up by his relation Pericles. He was handsome and wealthy. His 
youth was disgraced by debaucheries, wA Socrates, who saw his 
capabilities, attempted to win him to virtue, but in vain. Their 
intimacy was strengthened by mutual services. At the battle of 
Potidaea (432) his life was saved by Socrates, and at that of 
Delium (424) he saved the life of Socrates. After the death of Cleon 
(422) he became the head of the war party in opposition to Nicias. 
In 415 he was appointed, along with Nicias and Lamachus, as com- 
mander of the expedition to Sicily. There then occurred the mys- 
terious mutilation of the busts of the Hermae, which the popular 
fears connected with an attempt to overthrow the Athenian con- 
stitution, Aldbiades was charged with being the ringleader 'in 
this attempt. He demanded an investigation before he set sail, 
but this his enemies would not grant; but he *nyfl not been long 
in Sicily before he was recalled to stand his trial. On his return 
homewards he escaped at Thurii, and proceeded to Sparta, where 
he acted as the enemy of his country. The machinations of his 
enemy Agis II induced him to abandon the Spartans and take refuge 
with Tissaphernes (412), whose favour he soon gained. Through 
his influence Tissaphernes deserted the Spartans and assisted the 
Athenians, who accordingly recalled Altibiades from banishment 
in 411. He remained abroad, however, for the next 4 years, 
during which the Athenians under M$ command gained "Eh ft victories 
of Cynossema, Abydos, and Cyzicus, and got possession of Chalce- 
don a.TKl Byzantium. In 407 he returned to Athens, where he 
was received witti enthusiasm, and was appointed commander- 
in-dbief on land yiiV sea. But the defeat at Notioni, occasioned 
during his absence by the imprudence of his lieutenant, Antiochus, 
encouraged his enemies, and he was superseded in his command (406). 
He now went into voluntary exile to his fortified domain at Bisanthe 
in the Thracian Chersonesus. After the fall of Athens (404) he took 
refuge with Fharnabazus. He was about to proceed to the court 
of Artaxerxes, when one night his house was surrounded by armed 
men, and set on fire. He rushed out sword in hand, but fell pierced 
with arrows (404). (See Fig. 3.) 

ALdDfis, a name of Hercules, as the grandson of Alcaeus. 

AJX&C&DS, wife of Aeson, and mother of Jason. 

ALC!NOUS, son of Nausithous, and grandson of Poseidon. In the 
Odyssey he is the ruler of the Phaeatians in the island of Scheria. 

AwtfPBRON, the most distinguished of the Greek epistolary 
writers, was perhaps a contemporary of Lutian, about A.D. 180. 
The letters (113 in number) are written by fictitious personages, and 
tto language is distinguished by its purity and elegance, 

ALdrsfifi, daughter of Minyas, changed, together with her 
sisters, into bats, for refusing to join the other women, of Boeotaa 
in the worship of Dionysus. 

ALCMASON, son of Amphiarftus and Eripfcylfc, and* bsxrfter of 


Amphilochus. He took part in the expedition of the Epigoni 
against Thebes, and on his return home he slew his mother as his 
father had commanded. [AUPBLUCAUS.J For this deed he became 
mad, and was haunted by the Erinnyes. He went to Phegeus in 
Psophis, and being purified by the latter, he married his daughter 
Arsinoe or Alphesiboea, to whom he gave the necklace and peplus 
of Hannonia. But as the land of this country ceased to bear on 
account of its harbouring a matricide, he left Psophis and repaired 
to the country at the mouth of the river Achelous. The god 
Achelous gave him his daughter Callirrhoe in marriage. Callirrhoe 
wishing to possess the necklace and peplus (or robe) of Hannonia, 
Alcmaeon went to Psophis and obtained them from Phegeus, under 
the pretext of dedicating them at Delphi; but when Phegeus heard 
that the treasures were fetched for Callirrhoe, he caused his sons 
to murder Alcmaeon. 

ALCMAESNIBAE, a noble family at Athens, who were driven 
out of Pylus in Messenia by the Dorians, and settled at Athens. In 
consequence of the way in which Megacles, one of the family, treated 
the insurgents under CYLON (612 B.C.), they brought upon themselves 
the guilt of sacrilege, and were banished from Athens, about 595. 
About 560 they returned from exile, but were again expelled by 
Pisistratus. [PISISTRATUS.] In 548 they contracted with the 
Amphictyonic Council to rebuild the temple of Delphi, and gained 
popularity throughout Greece by executing the work in a style of 
magnificence which much exceeded their engagement* On the 
expulsion of Hippias in 5x0 they were again restored to Athens. 
They now joined the popular party, and Qisthenes, who was at that 
time the head of the family, gave a new constitution to Athens. 


AJLCMAN, chief lyric poet of Sparta, a native of Messoa, flourished 
615 B.C. The traditional story that he was a native of Sardis in 
Lydia and was brought to Sparta as a slave where he was emanci- 
pated by his master, who discovered his genius, has probably no 
foundation. The longest fragment which survives of his poetry is 
a 'Parthenion' or choir-song for maidens. Alcman wrote in the 
Doric dialect and is said to have been the inventor of erotic poetry. 
Alcman is the Doric form of Alcmaeon. See Murray, Literature of 
Ancient Greece. 

ALCMfiNS or ALCMSHA, daughter of Electryon, king of Mycenae, 
promised to marry Amphitryon, if he avenged the death of her 
brothers, who had been slain by the sons of Pterelans. Amphitryon 
undertook the task; but during his absence, Zeus, in the disguise of 
Amphitryon, visited Alcmene, and pretending to be her husband, 
related in what way he had avenged the death of her brother. 
Amphitryon himself returned tile next day: Alcmene became the 
mother of Hercnles by Zens, and of Iphicles by Amphitryon. 

ALC&ON& or HALCYONS, x. Pleiad, daughter of Atlas and 
Pkione, and beloved by Poseidon. 2. laughter of Aeotas and 
Enarete, and wife of Cefx* Her husband perished in a shipwreck* 


and Alcyone for grief threw herself into the sea, but the gods, out 
of compassion, changed the two into birds. While the bird alcyon 
was breeding, there always prevailed calms at sea. 

the mightiest of the GIGANTES, 
MARE, the E. part of ;the Corinthian Gulf. 

AJL&A, town in Arcadia, S. of the Stymphalean lake. Athena, 
called Alea, was worshipped here and in Tegea. 

AjLEcr6, one of the Furies. [EUMENIDES.] 

ALMANNI (from the German alle Manner, all men), a confederacy 
of German tribes, between the Danube, the Rhine, and the Main. 
Caracalla assumed the surname of Alemannicus on account of a 
pretended victory over them (A.D. 214). After this time they con- 
tinually invaded the Roman dominions, and in the fiftH century 
were in possession of Alsace and of German Switzerland. 

AT.ttttTA or ALAL!A, one of the chief cities of Corsica, on the E. of 
the island, founded by the Phocaeans 564 B.C., and made a Roman 
colony by Sulla. 

AxfisfA, ancient town in Gallia Lugdunensis. It was taken and 
destroyed by Caesar, in 52 B.C. 

AXEUAS, a descendant of Hercules, was ruler of Larissa in Thessaly, 
and reputed founder of the celebrated family of the Aleuadae, 
In the invasion of Greece by Xerxes (480 B.C.) the Aleuadae espoused 
the cause of the Persians, and the family continued to be pre- 
dominant in Thessaly for long afterwards. 

ALEXANDER, the usual name of PARIS in the Iliad. 

ALEXANDER. I. Kings of Epints. i. Son of Neoptolemus and 
brother of Olympias, the mother of Alexander the Great; made 
king of Epirus by Pbilip, 336 B.C. In 332 Alexander crossed over 
into Italy, to aid the Tarentines against the Lucanians and Bruttii. 
He was defeated and slain in battle in 326, near Pandosia. 2. Son 
of Pyrrhus and T..anassa, succeeded his father in 272. 

II. Kings of Macedonia, i. Son of Amyntas I, succeeded his 
father about 505 B.C., was obliged to submit to the Persians, and 
accompanied Xerxes in his invasion of Greece (480 B.C.). He died ~ 
about 455, and was succeeded by Perdiccas II. 2. Son of Amyntas 
II, whom he succeeded, reigned 369-367. 3. Surnamed the GREAT, 
son of Philip II and Olympias, was bom at Pella, 356 B.C. He was 
educated by Aristotle, who acquired a great influence over his mind 
and character. He first distinguished Ttfmadf at the battle of Chae- 
ronea (338). On the murder oi Philip (336) he ascended the throne, 
at the age of 20, and found himself surrounded by enemies. He 
put down rebellion in his own kingdom, and then marched into 
Greece, T^ 1 ' 8 activity overawed all opposition; Thebes submitted 
when he appeared at its gates; and the assembled Greeks at the 
Isthmus of Corinth elected hrm to the command against Persia. 
He now directed his arms against the barbarians of .the north, n^ 
crossed the Danube (335). A report of his death having reached 
Greece, the Thebans once more took up arms. He took Thebes by 


assault, destroyed all the buildings, with the exception of the house 
of Pindar, killed most of the inhabitants, and sold the rest as slaves. 
Alexander now prepared for his great expedition against Persia. 
In the spring of 334 he crossed the Hellespont, with about 35,000 
men. Alexander first defeated the Persians on the river Granlcus 
in Mysia (May 334). In the following year (333) he collected his 
army at Gordium in Phrygia, where he cut or untied the celebrated 
Gordian knot, which, it was said, was to be loosened only by the 
conqueror of Asia. From thence he marched to Issus, on the con- 
fines of Syria, where he gained a great victory over Darius, the 
Persian king. Darius escaped; but his mother, wife, and children 
fell into the h^-n^g of Alexander, who treated them with respect 
Alexander now directed his arms against the cities of Phoenicia, 
most of which submitted; but Tyre was not taken till the middle 
of 332, after an obstinate defence of 7 months. He next marched 
into Egypt, which willingly submitted to him. At the beginning 
of 331 he founded at the mouth of the Nile the city of ALEXANDRIA, 
atifi about the same time visited the temple of Jupiter Ammon, 
in the desert of Libya, and was saluted by the priests as the son 
of Jupiter Ainmon. In the spring of the same year (331) he set out 
against Darius, who had collected another army. He crossed the 
Euphrates and the Tigris, and at length met with the immense hosts 
of Darius, said to have amounted to more than a million of men, 
in the plains of Guagamela. The battle was fought in the month 
of October 331, and ended in the complete defeat of the Persians. 
Alexander was now the conqueror of Asia, and began to 'adopt 
Persian habits and customs, by which he conciliated his new subjects. 
From Arbela he marched to Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis, all of 
which surrendered to him. He is said to have set fire to the palace 
of Persepolis, and, according to some accounts, in the revelry of a 
banquet, at the instigation of Thais, an Athenian courtesan. At 
the beginning of 330 Alexander marched from Persepolis into Media, 
in pursuit of Darius, whom he followed into Partbia, where the 
unfortunate Icing was murdered by Bessus, satrap of Bactria. In 
329 Alexander crossed the mountains of the Paropamisus (the 
Hindoo Koosh) t and marched into Bactria against Bessus, who 
was betrayed to him, and was put to death. During the next 
2 years he was chiefly engaged in the conquest of Sogdiana. He 
also crossed the Jaxartes (the Sir), and defeated several Scythian 
tribes N. of that river. On the conquest of a mountain fortress 
he obtained possession of Roxana, the daughter of the Bactrian 
chief Oxyartes, whom he made his wife. It was about this time 
that he killed his friend Gurus in a drunken brawL He had 
previously pot to death his faithful servant PARMSNION, on the 
charge of treason. In 327 he invaded Tnrtia, and crossed the Indus, 
probably near the modern Attock. He met with BO resistance till 
he reached the Hydaspes, where he was opposed by Poms, an Tertian 
king, whom he defeated after a gallant resistance, and took prisoner. 
Alexander restored to * his kingdom. He founded a town on the 
Hydaspes, called Bucephala, in honour of his horse Bucephahrs, 
who died here, after carrying him throogh so many victories. Prom 


thence he penetrated as far as the Hyphasis (Svtlej). This was the 
farthest point which he reached, for the Macedonians, worn out by 
long service, refused to advance further; and Alexander was obliged 
to lead them back. He returned to the Hydaspes, and then sailed 
down the river with a portion of his troops, while the remainder 
marched along the banks in two divisions. He finally reached the 
Indian Ocean about the middle of 326. Nearchus was sent with the 
fleet to sail along the coast to the Persian Gulf [NBAECHUS]; and 
Alexander marched with the rest of his forces through Gedrosia. 
He reached Susa at the beginning of 325. Here he allowed himself 
and his troops some rest from their labours; and anxious to form his 
European, and Asiatic subjects into one people, he assigned Asiatic 
wives to about 80 of his generals. He himself took a second wife, 
Barsine, the eldest daughter of Darius. Towards the close of the 
year 325, he went to Ecbatana, where he lost his great favourite 
HBPHABSTION. From Ecbatana he marched to Babylon, which he 
intended to make the capital of his empire, as the best point of 
communication between his eastern and western dominions. His 
schemes were numerous and gigantic; but he was cut off in the midst 
of them. He was attacked bv a fever, and he died after an illness 
of ii days, in the month of May or June, 323 B.C., at the age of 32, 
after a reign of 12 years and 8 months. (See Fig. 4.) He appointed 
no one as his successor, but just before his death he gave his ring to 
Perdiccas. His son, Alexander Aegus, was born after his death. 
See Cambridge Ancient History, vol. vi; and U. Wilcken, Alexander 
th* Great, Eng. trans. 1932. 4. AEGUS, son of Alexander the Great 
and Roxaoa, was born shortly after the death of his father, in 
323 B.C., and was acknowledged as the partner of Philip Arrhidaens 
in the empire, under tfoft guardianship of Perdiccas, Antipater, and 
Polyspercaon, in succession. Alexander and his mother Roxana 
were imprisoned by Cassander, when he obtained possession of 
Macedonia in 316, and remained in prison till 311, when they were 
put to death by Cassander. 

III. Kings of Syria, z. BAIAS, a person of low origin, pretended 
to be the son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, and reigned in Syria 
150-146 B.C. He was defeated and dethroned by Demetrius U 
Nicator. 2. ZEBINA or ZABINAS, son of a merchant, was set up by 
Ptolemy Physcon as a pretender to the throne of Syria, 128 B.C. 
He was defeated and slain by Antiochus Grypus, 122. 

IV. Literary, i . OF ABGAS, a Peripatetic philosopher at Rome in 
the first century after Christ, tutor to the emperor Nero. 2. THB 
ABTOLXAN, of Pleuron in Aetolia, Greek poet, lived in the reign of 
Ptolemaens Philadetphus (285-247 B.C.}, at Alexandria. 3. OF 
AFBRODISIAS, in Cana, celebrated commentator on Aristotle, lived 
about AJX 200. See his treatise, On Destiny, text and translation 
by A. Fitzgerald, 1931. 


AI-EXJLNT>SLA. oftener -{A* the name of more than one city founded 
fry, or in memory of, Alexander the Great. Of these the most 
important are: x. The capital of Egypt under the Ptolemies, 


ordered by Alexander to be founded in 332 B.C. It was built on 
the narrow neck of land between the !?>* Mareotis and the Mediter- 
ranean, opposite to the I. of Pharos, which was joined to the city 
by an artificial dyke. On this fctere* a great lighthouse was built 
in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus (283). Under the care of the 
Ptolemies, as the capital of a great kingdom, and commanding by 
its position all the commerce of Europe with the East, Alexandria 
soon became a wealthy and splendid city. It was celebrated for 
its magnificent library, founded by the first two Ptolemies. The 
library suffered severely by fire when Julius Caesar was besieged in 
Alexandria, and was finally destroyed in A.D. 651. Under the 
Romans, Alexandria retained its commercial and literary impor- 
tance, and became a great centre of Christianity and the chief seat 
of the Catechetical School, the first and most important of its 
Trmri in Christendom. The modern city stands on the dyke puiting 
the I. of Pharos to the mai'iitand. .2. A. TROAS, also Troas simply, 
on the sea-coast S.W. of Troy, was enlarged by Antigonus, hence 
called Antigoma, but afterwards it resumed its first name. It 
flourished greatly, both under the Greeks and the Romans; and 
both Julius Caesar and Constantino thought of establishing the seat 
of empire in it. 3. A. AD ISSUM, a seaport at the entrance of Syria, 
a little S. of Issns. 4. A. IN SUSIANA, aft. AOTIOCHIA, aft. CHARAX 
SPASHCC, at the month of the Tigris, buflt by Alexander; destroyed 
by a flood; restored by Antiochus Epiphanes. 

ALEXIS, prolific writer of the middle Attic Comedy (4th cent. B.C.), 
,and uncle of Menander. 

ALF&NUS VARTJS, Roman jurist, originally a shoemaker or a barber. 
He is mentioned by Horace. 

ALG&DUS MONS, range of mountains in Latium, extending S. 
from Praeneste to Mt, Albanus, cold, but wooded and containing 
good pasturage. On it was situated the town of Algidum. It was 
an ancient seat of the worship of Diana. 

ALIMBNTUS, L. Cmcius, Roman annalist, antiquary, and jurat; 
was praetor in Sicily, 209 B.C., and wrote several works, of which 
the best known was his A**ales, which contained an account of the 
second Punic war. 

AiiPHfiRA, a fortified town in Arcadia, situated on a mountain 
on the borders of Elis, S. of the Alphfius. 

AIX!A, or AL!A, small river flowing into the Tiber about 6 notes 
from Rome. The Romans were defeated by the Gauls on its 
banks, i6th July 390 B.C. Hence the dies AUiensis was an unlucky 
day in the Roman calendar. 

AT-T-T*V* or AiiEAE, town of Samnimn, on the "Vulturous, cele- 
brated for large drinking-cups (AUifstnapocvla}. 

AiiSBRtfoss, powerful people of Caul dwelling between the 
Rhodanns (RJt6ne\ aad the Isara (Istra), as far as the lake Lemaanis 
(Lateo/GwiCT*), Theii chief town was ViBNNAoa the Rhone. They 
were conquered, in 121 B.C., by Q. Fabius Maximns AflobrogicBS, and 
e subjects of Home, but they were always disposed to rebellion. 


ALOEUS, son of Poseidon and Canace, married Iphimedia, the 
daughter of Triops. His wife was beloved by Poseidon, by whom 
she had two sons, Otus and Ephialtes, who are usually called the 
Aloldae, from their reputed father Aloeus. They were renowned 
for their strength and daring. At the early age of 9, they threatened 
the Olympian gods with war, and attempted to pile Ossa upon 
Olympus, and Pelion upon Ossa. They would have accomplished 
their object, says Homer, had they been allowed to grow up; but 
Apollo destroyed them before their beards began to appear. They 
also put the god Ares in cha.ins, and kept him imprisoned for 
13 months. 

ALPES (probably from the Celtic a& or alp. 'a height'), the 
mountains forming the boundary of northern Italy, which were 
distinguished by the following names. We enumerate them in 
order from W. to E. (i) ALPES MARMMAE,. the Maritime or Ligurian 
Alps, from Genua (Genoa), where the Apennines begin, run W. as 
far as the river Varus (Var), and then N. to M. Vesulus (Monte Vise), 
one of the highest points of the Alps. (2) ALPES COTTIAE or Cox- 
TIANAE, the Cottian Alps (so called from a king Cottius in the time 
of Augustus), from Monte Viso to Mont Orris, contained M. Matrona, 
afterwards called M. Janus or Janua (Mont Gen&vre), across which 
Cottius constructed a road, which became the chief means of 
communication between Italy and Gaul. (3) ALPES GRAIAE, also 
SAL.TUS GRAIUS (the name is probably Celtic, and has nothing to 
do with Greece), the Graian Alps, from Mont Cenis to the Little 
St. Bernard inclusive, contained the Jugum Cremonis (U Cramonf] 
and the Centronicae Alpes, apparently the Little St. Bernard and 
the surrounding mountains. The little St, Bernard, which is 
sometimes called Alpis Graia, is probably the pass by which Hannibal 
crossed the Alps; the road over it, which was improved by Augustus, 
led to Augusta (Aosta) in the territory of the SalassL (4) ALPES 
PENNlNAE, the Pennine Alps, from the Great St. Bernard to the 
Simplon inclusive, the highest portion of the chain, including Mont 
Blanc, Monte Rosa, and Mont Cervin. The Great St. Bernard was 
called M. Pennlnus, and on its summit the inhabitants worshipped a 
deity, whom the Romans called Jupiter Penninus. The name is 
probably derived from the Celtic pen, 'a height.* (5) ALPES 
LEPONTIORTJM or LBPONTIAE, the Lepontian or Helvetian Alps, 
from the Simplon to the St. Gotthard, (6) ALPES RHABTICAE, tne 
Bhaetian Alps, from the St. Gotthard to the Orteler by the pass of 
the Stelvio. M. Adftla is usually, supposed to be the St. Gotthard. 
(7) ALPES TRIDENTINAE, the mountains of southern Tyrol, in which 
the Athesis (Adige) rises, with the pass of the Brenner. (8) ALPES 
NORICAE, the Noric Alps, N.E. of the Tridentine Alps, comprising 
the mountains in the neighbourhood of Salzburg. (9) ALPES 
&B2ftCAS, the Carnic Alps, E. of the Tridentine, and S. of the 
Koric, to Mount Terglu. (10) ALPES JDLIAE, the Julian Alps, from 
Mount Terglu to the commencement of the Ulyrian or Dalmatian 
mountains, which are known by the name of the Alpes Dalmaticae, 
further north by the name of the Alpes Pannonieae. The Alpes 


Juliae were so called because Julius Caesar or Augustus constructed 
roads across them: they are also called Alpes Venetae. 

ALPHSBOEA, daughter of Phegeus, and wife of Alcmaeon. 

ALPHUS, chief river of Peloponnesus, rising in the S.E. of 
Arcadia, flowing through Arcadia and Etis, not far from Olympia, 
and falling into the Ionian Sea. In some parts of its course the 
river flows underground; and this subterranean descent gave rise 
to the story about the river-god Alpheus and the nymph Arethusa, 
The latter, pursued by Alpheus, was changed by Artemis into the 
fountain of Arethusa in the island of Ortygia at Syracuse, but the 
god continued to pursue her under the sea, and attempted to mingle- 
his stream with the fountain in Ortygia. 

ALsiuM, ancient Etruscan town on the coast near Caere, and a 
Roman colony after the first Punic war. 

ALTHABA, daughter of Thestius, wife of Oeneus, and mother of 
MBLEAGER, upon whose death she killed herself. 

ALTINUM, wealthy town of the Veneti in the N. of Italy, at the 
mouth of the river Silis. 

ALTIS, the sacred grove, near Olympia, where the games were 
Axus or HALTJS, town in Phthiotis in Thessaly. 

Ai/frATTEs, king. of Lydia, 617-560 B.C., succeeded Ms father 
Sadyattes, and was himself succeeded by his son Croesus. The 
tomb of Alyattes, N. of Sardis, near the lake Gygaea, which con- 
sisted of a large mound of earth, raised upon a foundation of great 
stones, still exists. It is nearly a mile in circumference. 

ALYZ!A or ALYZ&A, town in Acarnania near the sea opposite 
Leucas, with a harbour and a temple both sacred to Hercules. 

AMALTH&A, the nurse of the infant Zetfs in Crete, was according 
to some traditions the goat which suckled Zeus, and was rewarded 
by being placed among the stars. According to others Amalthea 
was a nymph, who fed Zeus with the milk of a goat. When this 
goat broke off one of her horns r Amalthea filled it with fresh herbs 
and gave it to Zeus, who placed it among the stars. According to 
other accounts Zeus himself broke off one of the horns of the goat, 
and endowed it with the power of becoming filled with whatever 
the possessor might wish. Hence this horn was commonly called 
the horn of plenty (cornucopia}, and it was used in later times as 
the symbol of plenty in general. 

AiLAXTHflTJM or AxAXTHfiA, a villa of Atticas in Epims, perhaps 
originally a gErm* of the nymph Amalthea, which Attacus converted 
into a summer retreat* 

AMANTJS, a branch of Mt, Taurus, which runs from the head of 
the Golf of Issus N.E. to the principal chain, dividing Syria from 
Cilicia and Cappadocia. 


AMARDZ or MARDI, powerful, warlike tribe who dwelt on the 
S. shore of the Caspian Sea. 

AMARYLLIS, a shepherdess mentioned by Virgil in his Eclogues. 

AMXRYNTHUS, town in Euboea 7 stadia from Eretria, with a cele- 
brated temple of Artemis, hence called Amaxynthia or Amarysia. 

AM!SNUS, small river in Latium, which, after being joined by 
the Ufens, falls into the sea between Circeii and Terracina. 

i, capital of the kings of Pontus. It was the birthplace 
of Mithridates the Great and of the geographer Strabo. 

AMASIS, king of Egypt, 570-526 B.C. During his long reign 
Egypt was prosperous; and the Greeks were brought into close 
intercourse with the Egyptians. 

AMASTRIS. i. "Wife of Xerxes, and mother of Artaxerxes I. 

2. Also called Amastrine, niece of Darius, the last king of Persia. 

3. A city on the coast of Paphlagonia. 

AMATA, wife of long Latinus and mother of Lavinia, opposed 
Lavinia being given in marriage to Aeneas, because she had already 
promised her to Turnus. When she heard that Turnus had fallen 
in battle, she hanged herself. 

AMlTHtJs, ancient town on the S. coast of Cyprus, with a celebrated 
temple of Aphrodite 1 , who was hence called Amathusla. There were 
copper-mines in the neighbourhood of the town. 

AjfAZcfcES and AMAZ$N!DBS (a Greek ,word"breastless), a 
mythical race of warlike females, are said to have come from the 
Caucasus, and to have settled in Asia Minor. They were governed 
by a queen, and the female children had their right breasts cut off 
that they might use the bow with more ease. They constantly occur 
in Greek mythology and in ancient works of art [HERCULES.] 
In the reign of Theseus they invaded Attica. Towards the end of 
the Trojan war, they came, under their queen Penthesilea, to the 
assistance of Priam; but she was killed by Achilles. (See Fig. 5.) 

AMBARVALIA, an Italian festival of blessing the crops. This 
festival took place in May. It corresponded in some of its features 
to those observed in the T.atm Church during the three days before 
Ascension Thursday (Rogation days). - The victim offered on the 
occasion was twice led 'round the fields' before the first corn was 
reaped, or the first grapes cut. Reapers, vine-dressers, and farm- 
servants followed, dancrng and singing hymns to Ceres or Bacchus. 
See the opening pages of Pater's Marius the Epicurean. 

AirsICRix, a chief of the Eburones in Gaul, who cut to pieces the 
Roman troops under Sabinus and Cotta, 54 B.C. 

AMBITUS, in Home, the candidature for a public office, 

AxBRlclA (Arta}, town on the left bank of the Arachthus, N. of 
the Ambracian Gulf, was originally included in Acaxnania, but 
afterwards in Epirns. It was colonized by the Corinthians about 
660 B.C. Pyithus made it the capital of his kingdom, and adorned 
it with public buildings and statues. At a later time it joined the 


Aetolian League, was taken by the Romans in 189 B.C., and stripped 
of its works of art. Its inhabitants were transplanted to the new 
city of Nicopolis. [Nicopoiis.] 

AMBRXdus SINUS (G. of Aria), gulf of the Ionian Sea between 
Epirus and Acarnania. 

AMBR6NES, Celtic people, who joined the Cimbri and Teutoni 
in their invasion of the Roman dominions, and were defeated by 
Marius near Aqnae Sextiae (Aix) in 102 B.C. 

AMBR6siA, the food of the gods, as nectar was their drink. 

AMBRfisros, better known as Saint Ambrose, Archbishop of 
Milan (died 397), is one of the 4 great doctors of the Latin Church 
(Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, Gregory -fee Great). His writings 
are voluminous. Several of his hymns are still used by the Latin 
Church in her Canonical Office. 

AHBR&SUS or AMPHR"?SUS, town in Fhocis, S. of Mt, Parnassus. 

AM&NJLNUS, river in Sicily near Catana. 

AMRA, ancient town in Umbria, and a munidpium, the birth- 
place of Sex. Roscius, was situated in a vine district. 

AMBRI6LA, town of the Sabines, destroyed by 1fce Romans. 

AMESTRXTUS, town, N. of Sicily, not far from the coast. 

AMDA, city in Sophene (Armenia Major) on the upper Tigris. 

AMlslA. ox Anlsius (Ems), river in Germany. 

AM!SUS, city on the coast of Pontus, on a bay of the Euxine Sea, 
called after it (Amisenus Sinus). M't^"'^*** enlarged it. 

AadrERNUM, ancient town of the Sabines, birthplace of the 
historian Sallust. 

AsodiOTS MARCBLL&rus, the last of the great Roman historians, 
by birth a Greek, and a native of Syrian Antioch, served among the 
imperial bodyguards. He attended the emperor Julian in his cam- 
paign against the Persians (AJX 363). He wrote a history of the 
Roman empire, of which 18 books are extant, embracing the period 
from A.D. 353 to the death of Valens, 378. His style is harsh and 
inflated; but his accuracy, fidelity, and impartiality deserve praise. 
[English translation in Loeb Library. For an account of AT 
see Glover, Lift and Letters in tM* Fourth C*n*vry.] 

, Egyptian divinity (Am&n), whom the Greets identified 
with Zens, and the Romans with Jupiter. He possessed a celebrated 
temple nT ^ oracle in the oasis of Ammonium (Siwah) in the Libyan 
desert, which was visited by Alexander the Great. 

AMOR, the god of love, had no place in the religion of the Romans, 
who only translate the Greek name Eros into Amor. [ROS.] 

AMORGUS, island in the Grecian Archipelago, birthplace of Simon- 
ides, and under the Roman emperors a place of banishment. 

AMpfiLtJsiA, the promontory at the W. end of the African coast 
of the Fretum Gaditazmm (Struts of Gibrdier). 

son of deles aad Hypennnestra, a great piopbat 


and hero at Argos. By his wife Eriphyle', the sister of Adrastus, 
he was the father of Alcmaeon, AmphUochus, Eurydice, and De- 
monassa; He joined Adrastus in the expedition against Thebes, 
altnpugh he foresaw its fatal termination, through the persuasions 
of his wife EriphylS, who had been induced to persuade her husband 
by the necklace of Harmonia, which Polynices had given her. 
On leaving Argos he enjoined his sons to punish, their mother for 
his death. During the war against Thebes, Amphiaraus fought 
bravely, but could not escape his fate. Pursued by Periclymenus, 
he fled towards the river Ismenius, and the earth swallowed up the 
pious prophet together with his chariot, before he was overtaken 
by his enemy. He was made immortal, and was worshipped as a 
hero. His oracle between Potniae and Thebes,, where he was said 
to have been swallowed up, enjoyed celebrity for the interpretation 
of dreams. 

AMPHICT.RA, town in the N. of Phocis. 

AMPHICT^O'N, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, believed to have 
been the founder of the Amphictyonic Council. 

AMPHICTYONIC LEAGUE, in Greece, a famous union pledged to 
observe and enforce certain intertribal principles of right. It met 
twice each year, and deputies came from all the states involved. 
The Council lasted into Roman imperial times. See Bury's History 
of Greece, passim. 

AMPHtLOCHlA, the. country of the AmphUochi, an Epirot race, 
at the E. end of the Ambradan Gulf. [AMPHTLOCHUS.] 

AUPH&OCHUS, son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle", and brother of 
Alcrnaeon. He took part in the expedition of the Epigoni. against 
Thebes, assisted his brother in the murder of their mother [Aix> 
MABON], and fought against Troy. Like his father he was a seer. 
He was killed by Mopsus. [Mopsus.] 

AMPHION, son of Zeus and Antiope, and twin-brother of Zethus. 
They were born on Mt. Cxthaeron, and grew up among the shepherds. 
Having become acquainted with their origin they marched against 
Thebes, where Lycos reigned. [LYCUS.] They took the city, and 
killed Lyons and Dizce, his wife, because they had treated Antiope 
with great cruelty. They put Dirce to death by tying her to a 
bull. [DIRCE,] After they had obtained possession of Thebes, 
they f oxtifLed it by a wait Amphion harl received a lyre from the 
god Hermes, on which he played with such magic skin, that the 
stones moved of their own accord and formed the wall. Amphion 
afterwards married Niobe, who bore frfr" many sons and daughters, 
all of whom were killed by Apollo, whereupon he put an end to his 
own life. [NIOBE.] 

Am>HlpSus, town in Macedonia on the E. bank of the Strymon, 
3 mUes from the sea. The Strymon flowed almost round the town, 
whence its name Amphfpolis. It was originally called Ennea 
Hodoi, the ' Nine Ways, and belonged to the Edomans, a Thracian 
people. It was colonized by the Athenians in 437 B.C., who drove 
ti&e Edomana out of the place. It was one of the most important 


of the Athenian possessions N. of the Aegaean Sea. Hence their 
indignation when it fell into the hands of Brasidas (424) and of 
Philip (358). 

AMPHISSA, one of the chief towns on the borders of Phocis, 7 miles 
from Delphi. In consequence of the Sacred War declared against 
Amphissa by the Amphictyons, the town was destroyed by Philip, 
338 B.C., but was afterwards rebuilt. 

AMPHITHEATRON, circular theatre, designed for gladiatorial and 
other contests. [COLOSSEUM.] (See Fig. 6.) 

AMPHlTRlxfi, a Nereid or an Oceanid, wife of the god Poseidon 
and goddess of the sea, especially of the Mediterranean. She was 
the mother of Triton. 

AMPHlnr5f6N or AMPH!TRO, son of Alcaeus and Hipponome, and 
husband of AlcmenS. [ALCMENE.] Hercules, the son of Zeus and 
Alcmene, is called Amphitrfdpiades in allusion to his reputed father. 
Amphitryon fell in a war against Erginus, king of the Minyae. 

AMPHC-RA, 2-handled clay vessel, big-bellied, designed to hold oil, 
honey, wine, or water. Held between 7 and 8 gallons. (See Fig. 7.) 

AMPSANCTUS or AMSANCTUS LACUS, a small fa-fr* in Samwmm 
near Aeculanum, from which mephitic vapours arose. Hence it was 
regarded as an entrance to the lower world. 

AMP^CUS, father of the famous seer Mopsus. 


AH?CLAE. i. Ancient town of Laconia on the Eurotas, 2$ mitea 
S.E. of Sparta. It is said to have been the abode of Tyndarus, 
and of Castor and Pollux, who are hence called Amyclaei Fratres. 
After the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, the Achaeans 
maintained themselves in Amyclae for a long time; but it was at 
length taken and destroyed by the Lacedaemonians under Tefoctas. 
Amyclae continued memorable by the festival of the Hyacmtma, 
celebrated annually, and by the colossal statue of Apollo, hence 
called Amyclaeus. 2. An ancient town of Latium. The inhabitants 
were said to have deserted it on account of its being infested by 
serpents; whence Virgil speaks of taritae Amyclae. 

AMYCLIDS, a name of Hyatinthus, as the son of Amyclas, the 
founder of Amyclae. 

AM^CUS. son of the god Poseidon, king of the Bebryces, celebrated 
for his skfll in boxing. He used to challenge strangers to box -with 
frim and slay them ; but when the Argonauts came to his dominions,. 
Pollux killed fofrn in a boxing-match. 

Au?McVKS, ooe of the 50 daughters of Danans. The fountain 
of Amymone in Argoiis was called after her. 

AMTOTAS. x. King of Macedonia, reigned from about 540 to 
500 B.C. 2. King of Macedonia, son of Ph2fip, the bro&er of 
Pferdiccas n, reigned 393-369, and obtained ihecrown by the murder 
of the usurper Pausanias. He carefully cultivated the friendship of 
Athens. He left by his wife E wrydica 3 90*3, AteTaadrr, Perdjaas. 


and the famous Philip, who is hence called by Ovid Amynti&des. 
3. Greek epigrammatist flourished about 350 B.C.. He was not 
known to us previous to the discovery of a papyrus at Oxyrhynchus, 
containing 2 epigrams. See J. U. Powell, New Chapters in the 
History of Greek Literature, 1933. 

AMYNTOR, king of the Doiopes, and father of Phoenix, who is 
hence called AmyntSridSs. [PHOENIX.] 

AM-STHAON, father of Bias and of the seer Melampns, who is hence 
called AmythaCnlus. 

AX&CES or ANACTBS, i.e. 'the Kings/ a name frequently given to 
Castor and Pollux. 

AN!CHARSIS, a Scythian of princely rank, left his native country 
in pursuit of knowledge, and came to Athens, about 594 B.C. He 
became acquainted with Solon, and by his talents he excited 
admiration. He was killed by his brother Saulius on his return to 
his native country. The letters which go under his name are 

ANACRSCN, lyric poet, born about 550 B.C., at Teos, an Ionian 
city in Asia Minor. He removed to Abdera, in Thrace, when Teos 
was taken by the Persians, but he lived at Samos, under the patron- 
age of Polycrates. After the death of Folycrates, he went to Athens 
at the invitation of the tyrant Hipparchus. He died at the age 
of 85. Of his poems only a few genuine fragments have come down 
to us; for the Anacreontica were composed by imitators five or six 
hundred years after his death. 

town in Acarnania. 

the chief town of the Hernici in Latiura, and sub- 
sequently both a municipium and a Roman colony. In the neigh- 
bourhood Cicero had a beautiful estate, Anagninum (sc. praedium). 

ANAPAEST, a metrical foot consisting of two short syllables 
followed by one long syllable (e.g. p&ero). 

ANAPTJS. z. River in Acarnania. 2. River in Sicily. 

ANAS (Guadiana), one of the chief rivers of Spain, forming the 
boundary between X/usitania and JBaetica^ and flowing into tiie ocean 
by t*o mouths (now only one). 

ANAXAGRAS, a celebrated Greek philosopher of the Ionian 
school, was born at Qazomenae in Ionia, 500 B.C. He gave up his 
property to his relations, and went to Athens at the age of 20; here 

and Pericles. His doctrines offended the Athenians; and he was 
accosBcl of impiety, 450. It was only through the eloquence of 
Pericles that he was not put to death; bat he was sentenced to pay 
a fine and to quit Athens. He retired to Lampsacus, where he died 
in. 428, at the age of 72. He taught that a supreme intelligence 
was the caos of all things, Consult Buroetr Eetrly Greek 
, chap. yi. 

Itiag of Sparta, reigned from about 560 B.C. to 


520. Having a barren wife whom he would not divorce, the ephors 
made hi take with her a second. By her he had. Qeomenes. 

ANAXARCHUS, a philosopher of Abdera, of the school of Demo- 
critus, accompanied Alexander into Asia (334 B.C.) . After the death 
of Alexander (323), Anaxarchus was thrown by shipwreck into the 
power of Nicocreon, king of Cyprus, to whom he had given offence, 
and who had him pounded to death in a stone mortar. 

AjTAxXRSTfl, a maiden of Cyprus, treated her lover Iphis with 
such haughtiness that he hung himself at her door. She looked 
with indifference at the funeral of the youth, but Venus changed her 
into a stone statue. 

ANAXXMANDER, of Miletus, was born 6xo B.C., and died 547. 
He was a philosopher of the Ionian school, and the immediate 
successor of Thales, its first founder. He maintained that the 
Infinite (rb dx/w) was the primary source of all things. 

ANAXladbifis, of Miletus, the third in the series of Ionian philo- 
sophers, flourished about 544 B.C.; but as he was the teacher of 
Anaxagoras, 480 B.C., he must have lived to a great age. He 
considered air to be the first cause of all things. 

ANCABUS. x. Son of the Arcadian Lycorgus, and father of 
Agapenor. He was one of the Argonauts, and was killed by the 
Calydonian boar. 2. Son of the god Poseidon and Astypalaea, also 
one of the Argonauts, and the helmsman of the ship Ajgo after the 
death of Tiphys. 

ANCHlXj-S and -LUS. x. Town in Thrace, on the Black Sea, on 
the borders of Moesia. 2. Ancient city of Cflicia, W. of the Cydnus 
near the coast, said to have been built by Sardanapalus. 

ANCHlsfls, son, of Capys and Themis, the daughter of Hus, and 
long of Dardanus on Mount Ida. In beauty he equalled the im- 
mortal gods> and was beloved by Aphrodite 1 , by whom he became 
the father of Aeneas, who is hence called Anchislades. Having 
boasted of his intercourse with the goddess, he was struck by a flash 
of lightning, which deprived fritn of his sight. On the capture of 
Troy by the Greeks, Aenfias carried his father on his shoulders from 
the burning city. See the and Aeneid of VlrgiL He died soon after 
the arrival of Aeneas in Sicily, and was buried on Mt. Eryx. 

AxdfcB, a sacred shield, said to have fallen from heaven in Numa's 
reign. There was a prophecy that the destiny of Rome was bound 
up with it, and, to avoid theft, eleven other similar shields were 
made like it, Mid their custody entrusted to a college of priests. 

ANC&NA or AJSECON, town and harbour in Picenum on the Adriatic 
sea, lying in a bend of the coast between two promontories, and hence 
called Ancon, or an 'elbow.' It was built by the Syracusans in the 
time of the elder Dionysxus, 392 B.C. Tha Romans made it a colony. 

ANGUS MARCTUS, fourth king of Rome, reigned 640-6x6 B.C., and 
is said to have been the son of Numa's daughter. He took many 
Latin towns and transported the inhabitants to Rome: these con- 
quered Latins formed tb original plebs. 


(Angora), city of Galatia. When Augustus recorded 
the chief events of his life on bronze tablets at Rome, the citizens 
of Ancyra had a copy made, which was cut on marble blocks and 
placed at Ancyra in a temple dedicated to Augustus and Rome. 
This inscription is still extant, and called the ' Monumentnm 
Ancyranum.' It has been described by its latest editor (E. G. 
Hardy: 1923) as 'perhaps the most interesting and important 
inscription that has ever come to light.' Its unique interest lies in 
the fact that it gives us, in his own words, what is almost the dying 
statement of the founder of the Roman Republic, i.e. the emperor 
Augustus. As **" monumental inscription was set up in Greek- 
speaking provinces of the Empire, a Greek version was provided. 
The first (partial) copy of the latin inscription was made in the 
i6th century, but it was not till the year 1861 that a complete 
transcript was secured. In 1882 a plaster cast of the whole (in 
Greek as well as Latin) was made; this transcript formed the basis 
of Mommsen's edition of 1883. The division of this record is four- 
fold: (i) a short summary of the 'deeds done' between 44 and 
28 B.C. ; a considerable part of this section is of a military character; 
(2) domestic administration jvpd constitutional changes, together 
with public 'acts ' such as triumphs, thanksgiving services, honours, 
and titles given or bestowed, and the like; (3) finaTicml matters: 
e.g. sums expended on works of public utility (such as aqueducts 
and roads), pensions and allowances to discharged soldiers, grants 
of com to the citizens of Rome, and costs of gladiatorial and other 
shows; (4) mainly political and diplomatic. 

Besides learning from the record that Augustus wrote it in his 
77th year, we hear that he had been pon&fex maximus, was prin- 
ceps Senatus for 40 years, undertook the building of such temples 
as ttiat of Apollo on the Palatine, the temples of Minerva, Juno, and 
Jupiter, completed the Forum of Julius, constructed bndges and 
made military roads, extended the frontiers of empire, made a 
number of warlike expeditions, established a large number of colonies. 
Besides aH this, the record gives us an immense number of other 
facts. * 

ANi>SclDs, one of the 10 Attic orators, was born at Athens 
in 467 B.C. He belonged to a noble family,, and supported the 
oligarchical party at Athens. In 415 he became involved in the 
charge brought against Aldbiades of having mutilated the Herxnae. 
He was imprisoned, but was set free after denouncing the real or 
pretended perpetrators of the crime. He was four times banished 
from Athens, and died in exile. The most famous of his extant 
speeches is the De Mysteriis^ See Jebb, Attic Orators, voL i. . 

AXDKASICON. i. Husband of Gorge, daughter of Oeneus, king 
of <3atydon hi AetoJia, whom he succeeded, and father of Thoas, 
who is hence called Andraemonides. 2. Son of Oxylus, and husband 
erf Dryope, who was mo&er of Amphissus by Apollo. 

AKDKOCLTTS or -CLfis, the slave of a Roman consul, was sentenced 
to be exposed to the wild beasts in the circus; bat a lion, which had 
been let loose upon him, exhibited signs of recognition, and began 


licking him. Upon inquiry it appeared that Androclus had ran 
away from his master in Africa; and that having taken refuge in 
a cave, a lion entered, went up to him, and held out his paw. Andro- 
clus extracted a large thorn which had entered it. Henceforth they 
lived together for some time, the lion catering for his benefactor. 
But at last, tired of this savage life, Androclus left the cave, was 
apprehended by some soldiers, brought to Rome, and condemned 
to the wild beasts. He was pardoned, and presented with the lion, 
which he used to lead about the city. 

ANDRdofios or ANDRSoftus, son of Minos and PasiphaS, conquered 
all his opponents in the games of the Panathenaea at Athens, and 
was in consequence slain at the instigation of Aegeus. Minos made 
war on the Athenians to avenge the death of his son. [Mixos, 2.] 
Androgeos was worshipped (at a later period) by Athens as a hero. 

AKDR&MXcnfi or ANDRO'MA'CHA, wife of Hector, by whom she had 
a son Scamandrius (Astyanax). On the taking of Troy her son 
was hurled from the walls of the city, and she herself fell to the 
share of Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, who took her to Epirus. 
She afterwards married Helenus, a brother of Hector. 

ANDR6M&DA or AHDROM&DB, daughter of Cepheus, king of 
Ethiopia, and Cassiopea. Her mother boasted that the beauty 
of her daughter surpassed that of the Nereids, and Poseidon sent 
a sea-monster to lay waste the country. The oracle of Ammon 
promised deliverance if Andromeda was given up to the monster; 
and Cepheus was obliged to chain his daughter to a rock. Here 
she was found and saved by Perseus, who slew the monster and 
obtained her as his wife. She had been previously promised tt 
Phineus, and tbi$ gave rise to the famous fight of Phineus and 
Perseus at the wedding, in which the former and all his associates 
were ala-m. After her death, she was placed among the stars. 

ANDRONlctrs Uvlus. [Lrvros.] 

ANDROS, one of the largest islands of the Cyclades, S.E. of Euboea. 
It was celebrated for its wine, whence the whole island was regarded 
as sacred to Dionysus. 

ANDROTI6N, Athenian historian, and pupS of Isocrates* 

ANGU or ANGLTI, German people on the left bank of the Elbe, 
who passed over with the Saxons into Britain, which was called 
after them England. [SAXOKES.] 

ANGRUS, small river, the Minyems of Homer, flowing into the 
Ionian Sea. 

AN!O (A*bne), river which forms at Tibur beautiful waterfalls, 
and flows into the Tiber, 3 miles above Rome, The water of the 
Anio was conveyed to Rome by 2 aqueducts, the Anio Vetus and 
Anio Novus. 

Aldus, son of Apollo by Creusa, and priest of Apollo at Dekts. 
By DrydpS he had 3 daughters, to wbom Dionysus gave the 
power of producing at win any quantity of wine, corn, and dQ, 
whence they were called Oepotiopae. Wth these necessaries they 


are said to have supplied the Greeks during the first 9 years of the 
Trojan war. 

ANNA, daughter of Betas and sister of Dido. After the death 
of the latter she fled from Carthage to Italy, where she was kindly 
received by Aeneas. Here she excited the jealousy of Lavinia, 
and being warned in a dream by Dido, she fled and threw herself 
into the river Nnmicius. Henceforth she was worshipped as the 
nymph of that river under the name of Anna Perenna. 

Airertus MILO. [Mnx>.] 

ANTAEUS, son of Poseidon and GS (Earth), a giant, whose strength 
was invincible so long as he remained in contact with his mother 
earth. Hercules discovered this, lifted him from the earth, and 
crushed him in the air. 

ANTALC!DAS, a Spartan, son of Leon, is chiefly known by the 
celebrated treaty concluded with Persia in 387 B.C., usually called 
the Peace of Aotalcidas. According to this treaty all the Greek 
cities in Asia Minor were to belong to the Persian king: the Athenians 
were allowed to retain only Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros; and all 
the other Greek cities were to be independent. 

ANTENOR, a Trojan, son of Aesyetes and Qeomestra, and husband 
of Theano. He was one of the wisest among the elders at Troy; 
he received Menelaus and Ulysses into his house when they came to 
Troy as ambassadors; and he advised his fellow-citizens to restore 
Helen to Menelaus. On the capture of Troy, Antenor was spared 
by the Greeks. Some relate that he afterwards went with the 
Heneti to the W. coast of the Adriatic, where he founded Patavium. 
TTis sons and descendants were called AntSnfiridae. 

ANX&BQS, brother of Eros, the god of love. [EROS.] 

(Auxcrre), town of Gallia Lugdunensis. 
. town of Boeotia with a harbour, on the coast of the 
Euboean sea, said to have derived its name from Anthedon, son of 
Glaucus, who was here changed into a god. 

ANTHfiMlus, emperor of the West, A.D. 467-72, was killed on 
the capture of Rome by Ridmer, who made Olybrius emperor. 

ANTHOLOGY, THB GREBE. This collection of short poems is one 
of the choicest relics of ancient literature. It is composed of many 
hundreds of pieces, written at different times by different authors, 
from the period of the Persian wars down to the Middle Ages. The 
collection reached its present form by gradual steps. From the 
eaxHest period the Greeks used to carve sentences (for the most part 
in verse) upon their tombs and public monuments; these were 
sobseqoentfy collected; But it was to Meleager that we owe the 
first inception of the Anthology as we now know it. Others followed 
his example; and so the collection grew. The pieces included were 
representative of Greek life in all its multifarious variety. In the 
loth century of oar era Cephalas set himself to re-combine an pre- 
ceding ooflectioiis; and in the I4th century, under the guiding hand 


of a monk, Planudes, the Anthology reached its present form. See 
Mackail, Introduction to his Select Poems from the Greek Anthology 

ANTCCLBA, daughter of Autolycus, wife of Laertes, and mother 
of Ulysses, died of grief at the long absence of her son. It is said 
that before marrying Laertes, she lived with Sisyphus; whence 
Ulysses is sometimes called a son of Sisyphus. 

ANTIC&RA., town in Thessaly, on the Sperchens, not far from its 
mouth. The town was celebrated for hellebore, the remedy for 
madness: hence the proverb Navigct Anticyram (let him sail to 
Anticyra), when a person acted senselessly. 

AsrlGo'NjS, daughter of Oedipus by his mother Jocaste, and sister 
of Ismene and of Eteocles and Polynlces. In the tragic story of 
Oedipus, Antigone appears as a noble maiden, with a heroic attach- 
ment to her father and brothers. When Oedipus had put out 
his eyes, and was obliged to quit Thebes, he was accompanied by 
Antigone, who remained with hm tin he died in Colonus, and then 
returned to Thebes. After her two brothers had killed each other in 
battle, and Creon, the king of Thebes, would not allow Polynlces to 
be buried, Antigone alone defied the tyrant, and buried the body of 
her brother. Creon thereupon ordered her to be shut up in a sub- 
terraneous cave, where she killed herself. Her lover Haemon, the 
son of Creon, killed himself by her side. See the play of Sophocles, 

ANTtaSKfiA and -!A. i. Town in Epirus (Blyricum), at the 
junction of a tributary with the Aous, and near a narrow pass of 
the Acroceraurfian mountains. a. Town on the Orontes in Syria, 
founded by Antigonus as the capital of his empire (306 B.C.), but 
most of its inhabitants were transferred by Seleucus to Antiochia. 

ANTfottNUS. i. King of Asia, surnamed the One-eyed, son of 
Philip of Elymiotis, and father of Demetrius Poliorcetes by Stra- 
tonlce. He was one of the generals of Alexander the Great, and in 
the division of the empire after the death of the latter (323 B.C.), he 
received the provinces of the Greater Phrygia, Lytia, and Pamphylia. 
On the death of the regent Antipater in 319, he aspired to the 
sovereignty of Asia. In 316, he defeated and put Euxnenes to 
death, after a struggle of nearly 3 years. He afterwards carried on 
war, with varying success, against Seleucus, Ptolemy, Cassander, aad 
Lysimachas. After the defeat of Ptolemy's fleet in 306, Antagoniis 
assumed the title of king, and his fnrample was followed by Ptolemy, 
Lysunachos, and Seleucus. Antigonus and his son Demetrius 
were at length defeated by Lysimachus at the decisive battle of 
Ipsus in Phrygja, in 301* Antigonus fell in the battfe in the Sist 
year of his age. 2. GOK&TAS, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, aad 
grandson of the preceding. He assumed the title of king of Mace- 
donia after his father's 4eath in Asia in 283, bat he did not obtain 
possession of the throne till 277. He was driven oat of his kingdom 
by Pyrrhus of Epiras is 273, bet recovered it in the following year. 
He died in 239, He was socceeded by Demetrius H. Hissaxnesae 


Gonatas is usually derived from Gonnos or Gonni in Thessaly; but 
some tbi^V that it is a Macedonian word. See Tarn's monograph 
(1913) on this philosopher-king. 3. DSsCN (so called because he 
was always about to give but never did), son of Demetrius of Gyrene, 
and grandson of Demetrius Poliorcetes. On the death of Deme- 
trius II in 229, he was left guardian of his son Philip, but he married 
the widow of Demetrius, and became king of Macedonia himself. 
He supported Aratus and the Achaean League against Qeomenes, 
king of Sparta, whom he defeated at Sellasia in 221, and took 
Sparta. He died in 220. 


ANTlLScHDS, son of Nestor, accompanied his father to Troy, 
and distinguished hinuwlf by his bravery. He was slain before Troy 
by Memnon the Ethiopian." 

ANT!MCHUS, Greek epic and elegiac poet, flourished towards 
the end of the Peloponnesian war; his chief work was an epic poem 
called Thebafs. His works exist only in fragments. 

ANTINO'O'PO'LIS, city, built by Hadrian, on the E. bank of the 
Nile. [ANTINOTJS, 2.] 

ANTfortSus. i. One of the suitors of Penelope; slain by Ulysses. 
2 . A youth of extraordinary beauty, born at Qaudiopolis in Bithynia, 
was the favourite of the emperor Hadrian, and his companion 
in all his journeys. He was drowned in the Nile, A.I>. 122. The 
grief of the emperor knew no bounds. He enrolled Antinous 
amongst ifce gods, caused a temple to be erected to him at Mantinea, 
and founded the city of ANXIKOO'POIIS in honour of him. 

ANTificHlA and -A. The capital of the Greek kingdom of 
Syria, and long the chief city of Asia, stood on the left bank of the 
Orontes, about 20 miles from the sea, in a beautiful valley. It was 
built by Seleucus Nicator, about 300 B.C., who called it Antiochia 
in honour of his father Antiochus, and peopled it chiefly from the 
neighbouring city of ANTIGONIA. It was one of the earliest strong- 
holds of the Christian faith; the first place where the Christian name 
was used (Acts xi 26) ; and the see of one of the f dur chief bishops, 
who were called Patriarchs. 2. A. AD MABANBRUM, a city of Caria, 
on the Maeander, built by Antiochus I Soter, on the site of the old 
city pf Pythopolis. 3. A city on the borders of Phrygia and Pisidia; 
built by colonists from Magnesia; made a colony under Augustus, 
and called Caesarea. The other cities of the name of Antioch are 
better known under other designations. 

AHTlScHtJS. I. Kings of Syria, i. ANTIOCHUS I SOiftR (reigned 
280-261 B.C.), was the son of Seleucus I, the founder of the Syrian 
kingdom of the Seleuddae. He married his stepmother Stratonice, 
with ftbom he fell violently in love, and whom his father surrendered 
to him. He fell in battle against the Gauls in 261. a. ANTIOCHUS II 
THEOS (261-246 B.C.), son and successor of No. x. The Mfl3foT 
gave hiin his surname of Tkeos, because he delivered them from their 
tyrant. Txmaxchus. He carried on war with Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
king of Egypt, which was brought to a close by his pitting away 


his wife Laodice, and marrying Berenice, the daughter of Ptolemy. 
After the death of Ptolemy, he recalled LaodicS, but in revenge for 
the insult she had received, she caused Antiochus and Berenice to 
be murdered. He was succeeded by his son Seleucus Callinicus. 
His younger son Antiochus Hierax also assumed the crown and 
carried on war some years with his brother. [SELEUCUS iL] 
3. ANTIOCHUS III, surnamed the GREAT (223-187 B.C.), son tod 
successor of Seleucus CaUinicus. He carried on war against Ptolemy 
Philopator, king of Egypt, in order to obtain Coele-Syria, Phoenicia, 
and Palestine, but was defeated at the battle of Raphia near Gaza, 
in 217. He was afterwards engaged for 7 years (212-205) in an 
attempt to regain the eastern provinces of Asia, which had revolted 
during the reign of Antiochus II; but though he met with great 
success, he found it hopeless to effect the subjugation of the Parthian 
and Bactrian kingdoms, and accordingly concluded a peace with 
them. In 198 he conquered Palestine and Coele-Syria, which he 
afterwards gave as a dowry with his daughter Cleopatra upon her 
marriage with Ptolemy Epiphanes. He afterwards became in- 
volved in hostilities with the Romans, and was urged by Hannibal, 
who arrived at his court, to invade Italy without loss of tone; but 
Antiochus did not follow his advice. In 192 he crossed over into 
Greece; and in 191 he was defeated by the Romans at Thermopylae, 
and compelled to return to Asia. In 100 he was again defeated by 
the Romans under L. Scipio, at Mt. Sipylus, near Magnrsia, and 
compelled to sue for peace, which was granted in. 188, on condition 
of his ceding all his dominions E. of Mt. Taurus, and paying 15,000 
Euboic talents. In order to raise the money to pay the Romans, he 
attacked a wealthy temple in Elymais, but was killed by the people 
of the place (187). He was succeeded by his son Seleucus Phifo- 
pator. 4. ANTIOCHUS IV EPIPH!NBS (175-164 B.C.), son of Antio- 
chus III, succeeded his brother Seleucus Philopator in 175. He 
carried on war against Egypt (171-168) with great success, and he 
was preparing to lay siege to Alexandria in 168, when the Romans 
compelled hfm to retire. He endeavoured to root out the Jewish 
religion and to introduce the worship of the Greek divinities; but 
this attempt led to a rising of the Jewish people, under Mattathias 
and his heroic sons the Maccabees, which Antiochus was unable to 
put down. He attempted to plunder a temple in Elymais in 164, 
but he was repulsed, and died shortly afterwards in a state of raving 
madness, which the Jews and Greeks equally attributed to his 
sacrilegious crimes. His subjects gave him the name of Epimxts 
(the * wifldtmm ') in parody of Epiphanes. 5 . ANTIOCHUS V EUPATO& 
(164-162 B.C.), son and successor of Epiphanes, was 9 years old at 
his father's death. He was dethroned and put to death by De- 
metrius Soter, the son of Seleucus Philopator. 6. AKTIOCHUS VI 
THEOS, son of Alexander Balas. He was brought forward as a 
claimant to the crown in 144, against Dcmetrins Nicator by 
Tryphon, bat he was murdered by the latter* who ascended the 
throne himself in 142. 7. ANTIOCHUS VII S!D*TBS (137-128 B.C.), 
so called from Side, in^ Pamphyiia. where Jie was brought up, 
younger son of Demetrius Soter, succeeded Tryphoou Ho was 


defeated and ^in in battle by the Parthians in 128. 8. ANTIOCHUS 
VIII GRYPUS, or Hook-nosed (125-96 B.C.}, second son of Demetrius 
Nicator and Cleopatra. He carried on war for some years with his 
half-brother, Antiochos IX. At length, in 112, the two brothers 
agreed to share the kingdom between them, A. Cyzicenus having 
Coele-Syria and Phoenicia, and A. Grypus the remainder of the 
provinces. Grypns was assassinated in 96. 9. ANTIOCHTJS IX 
CYZICENUS, from Cyzicus, where he was brought np, brother of No. 8, 
reigned over Coele-Syria and Phoenicia from 112 to 96, bnt fell in 
battle in 95 against Selencns Epiphanes, son of Antiochus VIII. 
10. ANTIOCHUS X Eusftsas, son of Cyzicenns, defeated Seleucus 
Epiphanes, and maintained the throne against the brothers of 
Selencns. He succeeded his father in 95. n. ANTIOCHUS XI 
EPIPHANES, son of Grypns, and brother of Selencns Epiphanes, 
carried on war against Eusebes, bnt was defeated by the latter, 
and drowned in the river Orontes. 12. ANTIOCHUS XII DIONYSUS, 
brother of No. n, held the crown for a short time, bnt fell in battle 
against Aretas, king of the Arabians. The Syrians, worn out with 
the civil broils of the Seleucidae, offered the kingdom to Tigranes, 
king of Armenia, who united Syria to his own dominions in 83, and 
held it till his defeat by the Romans in 69. 13. ANTIOCHUS XIII 
ASIATICUS, son of Eusebes, became fe g o f Syria on the defeat of 
Tigranes by Lucullus in 69; but he was deprived of it in 65 by 
Pompey, who reduced Syria to a Roman province. In *hi year 
the Seleucidae ceased to reign. 

II. Kings of Commagene. i. Made an alliance with the Romans, 
about 64 B.C. He assisted Pompey with troops in 49, and was 
attacked by Antony in 38. He was succeeded by Mithridates I 
about 31. 2. Succeeded Mithridates I, and was put to death at 
Rome by Augustus in 29. 3. Succeeded Mithridates II, and died 
in A.D. 17. Upon his death, Commagene became a Roman province, 
and remained so till A.D. 38. 4. Surnamed Epiphanes, received his 
paternal dominion from CaKgnla in A.D. 38. He assisted the Romans 
in their wars against the Parthians under Nero, and against the 
Jews under Vespasian. In 72, he was accused of conspiring with 
the Parthians against the Romans, was deprived of his kingdom, 
and retired to Rome, where he passed! the remainder of his life. 

III. Literary. OF ASCALON, the founder of the fifth Academy, 
was a friend of Lucullus and the teacher of Cicero at Athens (79 B.C.) . 

ANTiSpfi. i. Mother, by Zeus, of Amphion and Zethus. [AM- 
PHION.] She was carried off by Epopeus, king of Sicyon, but 
brought back to Thebes by Lycus. [LYcus.j 2. An Amazon, sister 
of Hippolyte, wife of Theseus, and mother of Hrppolytus. 

AKTP&XER. z. The Macedonian, an officer greatly trusted by 
Philip and Alexander the Great, was left by the latter regent in 
Macedonia, when he crossed over into Asia in 334 B.C. On the 
death of Alexander (323), Antipater, in conjunction with Craterus, 
carried on war against the Greeks, who endeavoured to recover 

their independence. This war, usually called the TA-mfaTi war, from 
Lamia, when Aatipater was besieged in 323, was terminated by 


Antipater's victory over the confederates at Crannon in 322. 
Antipater died in 3x9, after appointing Polysperchon regent, and his 
own son CASSAKDER to a subordinate position. 2. Grandson of the 
preceding, and second son of Cassander and Thessalonlca. He and 
his brother Alexander quarrelled for the possession of Macedonia, 
and Demetrius Poliorcetes obtained the kingdom, and put to 
death the two brothers. 3. Father of Herod the Great, son of a 
noble Idumaean of the same name, espoused the cause of Hyrcanns 
against his brother Aristobulus. He was appointed by Caesar 
in 47 B.C. procurator of Judaea, which appointment he held till 
his death in 43, when he was poisoned. 4. Eldest son of Herod the 
Great by his first wife, conspired against his father's life, and was 
executed five days before Herod's death, 5. OF TARSUS, a Stoic 
philosopher, the successor of Diogenes and the teacher of Panaetins, 
about 144 B.C. 6. OF SIDON, author of several epigrams in the 
Greek Anthology, flourished about 100 B.C. A new epigram has come 
to light on a papyrus from Oxyrhynchus. 

ANrlPATBR, L. CABLIUS, a Roman historian, and a contemporary 
of C. Gracchus (123 B.C.), wrote AnnaJes, which contained a valuable 
account of the second Punic war. 

ANTPATR!A, town in niyricum on the Apsus. 

ANTiPHlNfis, the most important author (with ALEXIS) of the 
Attic middle comedy. 

ANTlPHiTfis, king of the mythical Laestrygones in Sicily, who 
are represented as giants and cannibals. They destroyed n of the 
ships of Ulysses, who escaped with only one vessel. 

AjNTlPBtLTTS, of Egypt, a painter, the rival of Apelles, painted for 
Philip and Alexander the Great. 

AxTiPHdN, the most ancient of the 10 Attic orators, born 480 B.C. 
He belonged to the oligarchical party at Athens, and took an active 
part in the establishment of the government of the Four Hundred 
(411 B.C.), after the overthrow of which he was brought to trial, 
condemned, and put to death. Antiphpn introduced great im- 
provements in public speaking. The historian Thucydides was 
one of his pupils. The orations which he composed were written 
for others; and the only time that he spoke in public himself was 
when he was accused and condemned to death. This speech is 
now lost. We still possess 15 of his orations. See Jebb's Attic 
Orators for detailed information. 

AXTISSA, town in Lesbos, on the W. coast between Methymna 
and the promontory Signnm. 

ANTisrHfcNfis, an Athenian, founder of the sect of the Cynic 
philosophers. In his youth he fought at Tsnagra (426 B.C.), and was 
a disciple first of Gorgias and then of Socrates, whom he never 
quitted, and at whose death he was present. He died at Athens, 
at the age of 70. He taught in the Cynosarges, a gymnasium for 
the use of Athenians born of foreign mothers; whence probably his 
followers were called 'Cynics,' though others derive their name 
from their dog-like neglect of aH forms and usages of society. He 


was an enemy to all speculation, and thus -was opposed to Plato. 
He taught that virtue is the sole thing necessary. From his school 
the Stoics subsequently sprung. Of his pupils, the most famous 
was Diogenes. 

ANTITAURUS (Ali-Dagk), mountains, which strike off NJE. from 
the main rhain of the Taurus on the S. border of Cappadocia. 

ANT!UM, ancient town of Latium on a promontory in the 
Tyrrhenian sea. It was founded by Tyrrhenians and Pelasgians, 
and was noted for its piracy. It was taken by the Romans in 
468 B.C., fr*M* a colony was sent thither; but it revolted, was taken 
a second tune by the Romans in 338, was deprived of all its ships, 
and received another Roman colony. Under the empire, it was a 
favourite residence of many of the Roman nobles and emperors. 
The emperor Nero was born here, and in the remains of his palace 
the Apollo Belvedere was found. Antmm possessed temples of 
Fortune and Neptune. 

ANTSN!A. i . MAJOR, eldest daughter of M. Antonius and Octayia, 
wife of I*. Domitius Ahenobarbus, and mother of Cn. Domitius, 
the father of the emperor Nero. 2. MINOR, younger sister of the 
preceding, wife of Drusus, the brother of the emperor Tiberius, and 
mother of Germanicus, the father of the emperor Caligula, of Livia, 
and of the emperor Claudius. She died A.D. 38, soon after the 
accession of her grandson Caligula. She was celebrated for her 
beauty, virtue, and chastity. 3. Daughter of the emperor 
Claudius, was put to death by Nero, A.D. 66, because she refused to 
marry him. 

ANT&N!A TUXRIS, castle on a rock at the N.W. corner of the 
Temple at Jerusalem, which commanded both the temple and the 

ANTSNhrtSpojJS, city of Mesopotamia, between Edessa and 
Dara, aft. Maxjmianopolis, and aft. Constantia. 


ANTONINUS Pius, Roman emperor, A.D. 138-161, born near 
Lanuvinm, A.D. 86, was adopted by Hadrian in 138, and succeeded 
the latter in the same year. The senate conferred upon h* the 
title of Pius, or the dutifully affectionate, because he persuaded them 
to grant to his father Hadrian the apotheosis usually paid to deceased 
emperors. The reign of Antoninus is almost a Ma^ir in history 
a blank caused by the suspension for a time of war, violence, and 
crime. He was one of the best princes that ever mounted a throne, 
and aQ his thoughts and energies were dedicated to the happiness 
of his people. He died 161, in his 75th year. He was succeeded 
by M. Aarelius, whom he had adopted, when he himself was adopted 
by Hadrian, and to whom he gave his daughter FAUSTINA in 
marriage. See Bigg, Origins of Christianity, chap, xiii; Merivale, 
HistTof Romans under the Empire, vol. viii. 

ANT6nfus. x. M., the orator, born 143 B.C.; quaestor in 113; 
praetor is 104, when he fought against the pirates in Cflicia; consul 
m 99; and censor in 97. He belonged to Sulla's party, and was 


put to death by Marius and Cinna, when they entered Rome in 87. 
Cicero mentions him and L. Crassus as the most distinguished 
orators of their age; and he is introduced as one of the speakers in 
Cicero's Ds Oratore. 2. M., surnamed CRETICUS, elder son of the 
orator, and father of the triumvir, was praetor in 75, and received 
the command of the fleet and all the coasts of the Mediterranean, 
in order to clear the sea of pirates ; but he did not succeed. He died 
shortly afterwards in Crete, and was called Creticus in derision, 
3. C., younger son of the orator, and uncle of the triumvir, was the 
colleague of Cicero in the praetor-ship and consulship. He was one 
of Catiline's conspirators, but deserted the latter on Cicero's 
promising him the province of Macedonia. He had to lead an 
army against Catiline, but unwilling to fight against his former 
friend, he gave the command on the day of battle to his legate, M. 
Petreius. At the conclusion of the war Antony went into his 
province, which he plundered; and on his return to Home in 59 
was accused both of taking part in Catiline's conspiracy and of 
extortion in his province. He was defended by Cicero, "but was 
condemned, and retired to the island of CephaHenia. He was 
recalled, probably by Caesar, and was in Rome at the beginning of 
44. 4. M., the TRIUMVIR, was son of No. 2 and Julia, tiie sister of 
L. Julius Caesar, consul in 64, and was born about 83. His father 
died while he was still young, and he was brought up by Lentulus, 
who married his mother Julia, and who was put to death by Cicero 
in 63 as one of Catiline's conspirators: hence Antony became a 
personal enemy of Cicero. In 58 he went to Syria, where he served 
with distinction tinder A. Gabinius. In 54 he went to Caesar in 
Gaul, and by the influence of the latter was elected quaestor (52). 
He now became one of the most active partisans of Caesar. He 
was tribune of the plebs in 49, and in January fied to Caesar's camp 
in Cisalpine Gaul, after putting his veto upon the decree of the 
senate which deprived Caesar of his command. In 48 Antony was 
present at the battle of Pharsalia. In 44 he was consul with Caesar, 
when he offered him the kingly diadem at the festival of the Luper- 
calia. After Caesar's murder on the I5th of March, Antony 
endeavoured to succeed to his power. He pronounced the speech 
over Caesar's body and read his will to the people; w? he also 
obtained the papers and private property of Caesar. But he found 
a new and unexpected rival in young Octavianus, the adopted son 
and great-nephew of the dictator, who at first joined the senate 
in order to crush Antony. Towards the end of the year Antony 
proceeded to Cisalpine Gaul, which had been previously granted 
him by the senate; but Dec. Brutus refused to surrender the pro- 
vince f o Antony * threw himself into Mutina, where he was 
besieged by Antony. The senate approved of the conduct of 
Brutus, declared Antony a public enemy, and entrusted the conduct 
of the war against him to Octavianos. Antony was defeated at, 
the battle of Mutina, in April 43, and was obliged to cross the 
Alps. Both the consuls, however, had fallen, and the senate now 
began to show their jealousy of Octavianus. Meantime Antony was 
joined by Lepidus with a powerful army: Octavianus became 


reconciled to Antony; and it was agreed that the government of 
the state should be vested in Antony, Octaviamis, and Lepidus, 
under the title of Triumviri Reipublicae Constituendae, for the 
next 5 years. The mutual enemies of each were proscribed, and in 
the numerous executions that followed, Cicero, who had attacked 
Antony in his Philippic Orations, fell a victim to Antony. In 42 
Antony and Octavianus crushed the republican party by the battle 
of Philippi, in which Brutus and Cassius fell. Antony then went to 
Asia, which he had received as his share of the Roman world. In 
Cfficia he met with Cleopatra, and f ollowed her to Egypt, a captive 
to her charms. In 41 Fulvia, the wife of Antony, and his brother 
L. Antonius, made war upon Octavianus in Italy. Antony prepared 
to support his relatives, but the war was brought to a close at the 
beginning of 40, before Antony could reach Italy. The opportune 
death of Fulvia facilitated the reconciliation of Antony and Octa- 
vianus, which was cemented by Antony marrying Octavia, the sister 
of Octavianus. Antony remained in Italy till 39, when the triumvirs 
concluded a peace with Sex. Pompey, and he afterwards went to 
his provinces in the East. la this year and the following Ventidius, 
the lieutenant of Antony, defeated the Parthians. In 37 Antony 
crossed over to Italy, when the triumvirate was renewed for 5 years. 
He then returned to the East, and shortly afterwards sent Octavia 
back to her brother, and surrendered himself entirely to the charms 
of Cleopatra. In 36 he invaded Parthia, but he was obliged to 
retreat. He was more successful in his invasion of Armenia in 34, 
for he obtained possession of the person of Artavasdes, the Armenian 
mri ' Mm to Alexandria. Anton now laid aside 

king, gmri carried ' Mm to Alexandria. Antony now laid aside 
entirely the character of a Roman citizen, and assumed the pomp 
of an eastern despot. His conduct, and the unbounded influence 
which Cleopatra nad acquired over him, alienated many of his 
friends and supporters; and Octavianus saw that the time had now 
come for crushing his rivaL The contest was decided by the 
memorable sea-fight off Actium, 2nd September 31, in which 
Antony's fleet was defeated, Antony, accompanied by Cleopatra, 
fled to Alexandria, where he put an end to his own life in the follow- 
ing year (30), when Octavianus appeared before the city. 5. C., 
brother of the triumvir, was praetor in Macedonia in 44, fell into the 
hands of M. Brutus in 43, and was put to death by Brutus in 42, 
to revenge the murder of Cicero. 6. L., youngest brother of the 
triumvir, was consul in 41, when he engaged in war against Octa- 
vianus at the instigation of Fulvia, his brother's wife. He threw 
himself into ifce town of Perusia, which he surrendered in the 
following year. His life was spared, and he was afterwards 
appointed by Octavianus to the command of Iberia. 7. Ml, elder 
sonoftfce triumvir by Fnhria, was executed by order of Octaviamis, 
after tbe death of his fatter in 30. 8. JULUS, younger son of the 
Liiumvir lay Fulvia, was brought up by his stepmother Octavia 
at Rome, and received great marks of favour from Augustus. 
He was consul in zo B.C., but was put to death in 2, in conse- 
quence of his adulterous intercourse with Julia, the daughter of 


ANTRON, town in Phthiotis in Thessaly, at the entrance of the 
Sinus Maliacus. 

s, Egyptian divinity, conductor of the dead, worshipped 
in the form of a human being with a dog's head. The Greeks 
identified >>im with Hermes. His worship was introduced at Rome 
towards the end of the republic. 

ANYTUS, wealthy Athenian, the most formidable of the accusers 
of Socrates, 399 B.C. He was a leading man of the democratical 
party, and took an active part, along with Thrasybulus, in the 
overthrow of the 30 Tyrants. 

AONES, an ancient race in Boeotia. Hence the poets frequently 
use Aonius as equivalent to Boeotian. As Mt. Helicon and the 
fountain Aganippe were in Aonia, the Muses are called A&nldes. 

AORSI or ADORSI, a powerful people of Asiatic Sarmatia, chiefly 
found between the Palus Maeotis (Sea of Azov) and the Caspian. 

APMA or -!A. i . A. AD ORONTBM, city of Syria, built by Seleucus 
Nicator on the site of the older city of PELLA, in a very strong 
position on the river Orontes or Axius, and named in honour of his 
wife Apama. 2. A. CiBdrus or AD MAEAJSTJRUJI, a great city of 
Phrygia, on the Maeander, close above its confluence with 'the 
Marsyas. It was built by Antiochus I Soter, who named it in 
honour of his mother Apama. 

APBLL&S, Greek painter, was born, most probably, at Colophon 
in Ionia, though some ancient writers call him a Coan and others 
an Ephesian. He was the contemporary of Alexander the Great 
(336-323 B.C.), and he was the only person whom Alexander would 
permit to take his portrait. We are not told when or where he died. 
Throughout his life Apelles laboured to improve himself, especially 
in drawing, which he never spent a day without practising. Hence 
the proverb Nidla dies sing linea. Of his portraits the most cele- 
brated was that of Alexander wielding a thunderbolt; but the most 
admired of all his pictures was the 'Aphrodite Anadyomene,' or 
Aphrodite rising out of the sea; this was brought by Augustus to 
Rome. To Apelles is ascribed the famous Truurim; ffe sitter supra 
crepidam (viz. every man to his own trade). See Walters, The 
Art of the Greeks, p. 157. 

APBLLICON, Peripatetic philosopher. His valuable library at 
Athens, containing the autographs of Aristotle's works, was carried 
to Rome by Sulla (83 B.C.). 

ApEOTrtNUS MONS (Apennines), a rfrain of mountains running 
throughout Italy from N. to S,, and forming the backbone of the 
peninsula. It is a continuation of the Maritime Alpe [AWES], and 
begins near Genua. At the boundaries of SanurigTn, ApuHa, and 
Lucania, it divides into two branches: one runs E. through Apulia 
frtyT, Calabria, yvi terminates at the rfo-Vsn*'**^ promontory, and tfa* 
other W. through Brattium. terminating apparently at Rhegiw& 
and the straits of Messina, bat in reality continued throughout Sfcfrf. 

APBR, A&itras, praetorian prefect; aad soa-io4aw of tiw emperor 


Nuznerian, whom he was said to have murdered: he was himself 
put to death by Diocletian on his accession in A.D. 284. 

APHACA, town of Coele-Syria, between Heliopolis and Byblus, 
celebrated for the worship and oracle of Aphrodite". 

APHAREUS, father of Idas and Lynceus, the Apharfitfdae (also 
Aphdrila proles), celebrated for their fight with Castor and Pollux. 

APHEDNA, Attic demus not far from Decelea, was originally one 
of the 12 towns and districts into which Cecrops is said to have 
divided Attica. Here Theseus concealed Helen, but her brothers 
Castor and Pollux rescued their sister. 

APHR&D!SLAS, the name of several places famous for the worship 
of Aphrodite", i. A town in Caria on the site of an old town of 
the Leleges, named Nindd: under the Romans a free city, and a 
flourishing school of art. 2. Also called VENERXS OPPIDUM, town, 
harbour, and intend on the coast of Cilicia, opposite Cyprus. 

APHRODITE, called VNUS by the Romans, the goddess of love 
and beauty. In the Iliad she is represented as the daughter of Zeus 
and DidnS; but later poets frequently relate that she was sprung 
from the foam of the sea, whence they derive her name. She was 
the wife of Hephaestus; but she proved faithless, and was in love 
with Ares, the god of war. She also loved the gods Dionysus, 
Hermes, and Poseidon, and the mortals Anchises and Adonis. She 
surpassed all the other goddesses in beauty, and hence received the 
prize of beauty from Paris, She likewise had the power of granting 
beauty and invincible charms to others, and whoever wore her magic 
girdle immediately became an object of love and desire. In the 
vegetable kingdom the myrtle, rose, apple, poppy, etc., were sacred 
to her. The animals sacred to her, which are often mentioned as 
drawing her chariot or serving as her messengers, are the sparrow, 
the dove, the swan, and the swallow. She is generally represented 
in works of art with her son Eros. The principal places of her 
worship in Greece were the islands of Cyprus and Cythera. Her 
worship combined, with Hellenic conceptions, many features of 
Eastern origin. [The most famous of her statues in ancient times 
was that by Praxiteles (copy at Munich), and the Melos statue, the 
original of which is at the Louvre. The painting by Apelles was 
renowned. [APELLES.] See Dyer, The Gods in Greece, chap. vii. 
('Aphrodite at Paphos 1 ).] (See Fig. 8.) 

ApHTsdNlus, of Antioch, Greek rhetorician, lived about A.D. 315, 
and wrote the introduction to the study of rhetoric, entitled Pro- 
gymnasmaia. It was used as a school-book for several centuries. 

APH$TIS, town in the peninsula PaHene in Macedonia, with a 
temple and oracle of Zeus Ammon, 

Aptetus, the name of three notorious gluttons, x. The first lived 
in the tfame of SuHa. 2. The second and most renowned, M. Gabras 
Apidms, flourished under Tiberius. Having squandered his fortune 
on &e pleasures of the table, he hanged himself. 3. A contem- 
porary of Trajan, sent to this emperor, when he was in Parthia, 
fresh oysters, preserved by a skilful process of his own. The work 


on cookery ascribed to Apicius was probably compiled later by 
acother writer. 

ApIoXirus, river in Thessaly. 

AP!$N, Greek grammarian of the ist cent. A.D. He wrote a 
spiteful work against the Jews, to which Josephus replied in his 
treatise Against Apion. 

APIS. z. Son of Phoroneus and Laodice", king of Argos, from 
whom Peloponnesus, and more especially Argos, was called APIA. 
2. The sacred Bull of Memphis, worshipped as a god among the 
Egyptians. There were certain signs by which he was recognized 
to be the god. At Memphis he had a splendid residence, containing 
extensive walks and courts for his amusement. His birthday, which 
was celebrated every year, was a day of rejoicing for all Egypt. His 
death was a season of public mourning, which continued tin another 
sacred bull was discovered by the priests. 

ApoixlNis PROMONTORIUM, promontory in N. Africa, forming the 
W. point of the Gulf of Carthage. 

APOLLO, Greek god, son of Zeus and Leto and twin brother of 
Artemis, was born in the island of Delos, whither Leto had fled from 
the jealous Hera. The powers ascribed to Apollo are apparently of 
different irinrf^ but aB are connected with one another, as win be 
seen from the following classification. He is (z) The god who 
punishes, whence he is represented with a bow and arrows. AH 
sudden deaths were believed to be the effect of his arrows; and with 
them he sent the plague into the camp of the Greeks before Troy. 
(2) The god who affords help and wards off evil. As he had the 
power of punishing men, so ne was also able to deliver men, if duly 
propitiated. From his being the god who afforded help, he is the 
father of Aesculapius, the god of the healing art, and was also 
identified in later times with Paeeon, the god of the healing art in 
Homer. (3) The god of prophecy. Apollo exercised *frfa power in 
his numerous oracles, and especially in that of Delphi Hence he is 
frequently called the Pythian Apollo, from Pytho, the ancient -nam* 
of Delphi. He had the power of communicating the gift of prophecy 
both to gods and men. (4) The god of song and music. We find 
l in the Iliad delighting the immortal cods with his phonnim; 
and the Homeric bards derived their art of song either from ApoQo 
or the Muses. Hence he is placed in close connection with the 
Muses, * and is called Musagetes, as leader of the Muses. Later 
tradition ascribed to Apoflo even the invention of the flute aad lyre, 
while it is more commonly related that he received the lyre from 
Hermes. Respecting his "musical contests, see MARSTAS. MTDAS. 
(5) The god who protects the flocks and cattle. There are in Homer 
only a few aQnsioas to this feature in the character of ApoEo, bat 
in later writings it assumes a very prominent form, aad in the story 
of ApoQo tending the flocks of Admetos at Pherao in Thessaly. the 
idea reaches its height, (6) Thtgodmho delights in the foundation of 
towns and the establishment of civil constitutions. Hence a town of a 
colony was never founded by the Greeks -without coasahmg an 


oiacle of Apollo, so that he became, as it were, their spiritual leader. 
(7) The god of the Sun. In Homer, Apollo and Helios, or the Sun, 
are distinct, and his identification with the Sun, though almost 
universal among later writers, was the result of later speculations 
and of Egyptian influence. Apollo had more influence upon the 
Greeks than any other god. It may safely be asserted that the 
Greeks would never have become what they were without the 
worship of Apollo: in htm the brightest side of the Grecian m* is 
reflected. In the religion of the early Romans there is no trace of 
the worship of Apollo. The Romans became acquainted with this 
divinity through the Greeks, and adopted all their notions about M 
from the latter people. During the second Punic war, in 212, the 
Ludi Apollinares were instituted in his honour. The most beautiful 
among the extant representations of Apollo is the Apollo Belvedere 
in the Vatican at Rome, in which he appears as the ideal of youthful 
TTi*nlinflgg (See Fig. 10.) 

APOLLODORUS. i. Of Carystus, Greek poet of the New Comedy. 
2. Athenian historian and mythographer of the 2nd cent. B.C. His 
Library (Bibtiotheca) is translated, with text, by Sir J. G. Frazer 
in the Loeb Library. 3. Greek painter; the first to show light and 
shade in his pictures: flor* 420 B.C. 4. Architect of Trajan's 

APOLLONIA. i. Town in Hryria. It was founded by the Corin- 
thians and Cprcyraeans, and was celebrated as a place of commerce 
and of learning. Many distinguished Romans, among others the 
young Octavius, afterwards the emperor Augustus, pursued their 
studies here. 2. Town in Macedonia, on the via Egnatia, between 
Thessalonica and Amphipolis, and S. of the Lake of Bolbe. 3. Town 
in Thrace on the Black Sea, colony of Miletus, had a temple of Apollo, 
from which Lucullus carried away a colossus of *hfa god, and erected 
it on Ike Capitol at Rome. 4. Town in Cyrenaica: birthplace of 

APOLLONIS, city in Lydia, between Fergamns and Sardis, r^o-m^ 
after Apollonis, mother of king Eumenes. 

Apoixdnlus. z, OF ALABANDA in Caria, rhetorician, taught 
rhetoric at Rhodes, about B.C. xoo. 2. OF ALABANDA, surnamed 
MOLO, likewise a rhetorician, taught rhetoric at Rhodes. In Si B.C. 
Apollonius came to Rome as ambassador of the Rhodians, on which 
occasion Cicero heard him; Cicero also received instruction from him 
in rhetoric. 3. PBRGAEUS, from Perga in Pamphylia, one of the 
greatest mathematicians of antiquity, commonly called the 'Great 
Geometer/ was educated at Alexandria under the successors of 
Eactid, and flourished about 250-220 B.C. 4. RBODHJS, poet and 
ggMKwrian, born at Alexandria, and flourished 222-181 B.C. In 
hi* yotrtn he was instructed by CaUimachos; but they afterwards 
becuM qoemica. ApoOonins taught rhetoric at Rhodes with so 
zavch soccees that the Rhodians honoured *"" with their franchise: 
hence he was called the 'Rhodian.' He afterwards returned to 
Alexandria, where he succeeded Eratosthenes as chief librarian at 
Alexandria. His poem, called the Argox<mtit* f gma a description 


of the adventures of the Argonauts. Translation (in English verse) 
by Way (in Dent's Temple Classics); also in Loeb Library. 5. 
TYANBNSIS or TYANABUS, i.e. of Tyana in Cappadocia, a Neo- 
Pythagorean philosopher, was born about 4 years before the 
Christian era. Apollonins obtained great influence by pretending 
to miraculous powers. His life is written by Philostratus. After 
travelling extensively, he settled down at Ephesus, where he be- 
came master of a school. Like many modern occultists P. was 
a quack. 

APP!A "VTA, celebrated Roman road, was commenced by Ap. 
Claudius Caecus, when censor, 312 B.C. It issued from the Porta 
Capena, and terminated at Capua, but was eventually extended 
to BrT m< '^ R "' ITn 

APPI&NUS, Roman historian, native of Alexandria, lived at Rome 
during the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius. He 
wrote a Roman history in 24 books, of which only part has come 
down to us. His style is clear; but he possesses few merits as an 
historian. Translation in the Loeb Library (H, White: 4 vols.). 


APPULEIUS, of Madaura in Africa, born about A.B. 124, educated 
first at Cartilage and afterwards at Athens, where he studied the 
Platonic philosophy. He next travelled extensively. After his 
return to Africa he married a rich widow, PudentiUa. This led to a 
legal action, in which he was acquitted; his speech in his own 
defence is extant in the Apologia (edition by Butler and Owen, 
1914). His important work is the Metamorphoses, known as the 
Golden Ass, which, with the exception of the Satyricon of Petronius, 
is the only surviving example of the Latin novel. The tale of 
Cupid and Psyche forms an episode in this work (edition with 
commentary, by L. C. Purser; Adlington's 1566 version reprinted in 
Dent's Temple Classics and in Loeb Library. Pater's translation is 
given in his Marius the Epicurean). A complete translation of 
Apuleius, by H. E. Butler, is in the Oxford Translation series. 


AF&LANI, Ligurian people on the Macra, subdued by the Romans 
after a long resistance and transplanted to Samnium, 180 B.C. 

ApfJilA, included the whole of the SJE. of Italy from the river 
Frento to the promonotory lapygrom. In its narrower sense it 
was the country E. of Sft-nfininm on both sides of the Aufzdus, the 
Dannia and Peucetia of the Greeks: the SJE. was called Calabria by 
the Romans. The country was very fertile. 

AQUAE, Roman name given to medicinal, springs and bathing 
places, z. CUTILIAB, mineral springs in SaTnninm, near the ancient 
town of Cutilia, which perished in early times, and K of Reate. 
There was a celebrated lake in its neignbotirhood with a floating 
island, which was regarded as the umbilicus ox centre of Italy. 
Vespasian died at this place. 2. SBXTIAE (Aix) t a Roman colony in 
GalHa Narboaensis, founded .by Sertius Calvinus, 122 B.C.; its 
mineral waters were long celebrated. Near this place 


defeated the Teuton!, 102 B.C. 3. STATEELLAB, a. town of the 
Statielli in Liguria, celebrated for its warm baths. 

AQUEDUCTS, ROMAN. These are among the finest structures of 
the old world. They often conveyed the water for long distances, 
in covered stone channels, on lofty arcades stretching over hill and 
valley. Four are stfll in use at Rome. Among the best preserved 
of these aqueducts are those at Tarragona and Segovia in Spain, 
and the magnificent Pont du Card (see illustration, Fig. 9) near 
Ntmes, in S. France. The height of the lowest row of arches above 
the water's edge is 65 feet; the second row is another 65 feet above 
the lowest; the top row above the second, 28 feet; total height 158 
feet. The water channel (specus) is seen at the top. The ancient 
name of the place was Nemausus. See Bury, Student's Roman 
Empire, chap, xxxz; also Ashby and Richmond, Tht Aqueducts oj 
Ancient Rome. 1935. 

AQUXL&IA. Town in Gallia Transpadana at the very top of the 
Adriatic. It was founded by the Romans in 182 B.C., as a bulwark 
against the northern barbarians. It was also a flourishing place of 
commerce, and, in imperial times, became noted for the worship of 
Mithras. It was taken and completely destroyed by Attila in 
A.D. 452; its inhabitants escaped to the lagoons, where Venice was 
afterwards built. 

AQOTLIIUS OR Aguiilus. i. Consul, B.C. 129, finished the war 
against Aristonicus, son of Eumenes of Pergamus. 2. Consul, 
101 B.C., finished the Servile war in Sicily. In 88 he was defeated by 
Mitkridates, who put him to death by pouring molten gold down 
his throat. 

town in Latium; birth-place of Juvenal 

the country of the Aquitani, extended from the 
Garomna (Garonne) to the Pyrenees. 

ARAB!A, a country at the S.W. extremity of Asia, forming a large- 
peninsula, bounded on the W. by the ARABICUS SINUS, on the S. 
and S.E. by the ERYTHRAEUM MARE, and on the N.E. by the 
Persians .Sinus. On the N. or land side its boundaries were in- 
definite, but it included the whole of the desert country between 
Egypt and Syria, on the one side, and the banks of the Euphrates 
on the other. It was divided into 3 parts: (z) Arabia Pstrata, 
including the triangular piece of land between the two heads of the 
Red Sea (the peninsula of Mt. Sinai) and the country immediately 
to the N. and N.E.; and called from its capital Petra, while the 
literal signification of the name, 'Rocky Arabia/ agrees also with 
tfete nature of the country: (2) Arabia Deserta, including tire great 
Syrian Desert and a portion of the interior of the Arabian peninsula: 
(3) Artbi* Felix, consisting of the whole country not included in the 
other two divisions. There is only on the W. coast a belt of fertile 
land, wtaack caused the ancients in their ignorance of the country to 

of Arabia wore of the race cafied Semitic or Aramaean, and closely 
xobtod to the Iwauditaa. The N.W. district (Arabia Fetraea) was 


inhabited by the various tribes which constantly appear in Jewish 
history: the AmaleMtes, Midianites, Edomites, Moabites, Am- 
monites, etc. The Greeks and Romans called the inhabitants by the 
name of NABATAEI, whose capital was Petra. The people of Arabia 
Deserta were called Arabes Scenitae, from their dwelling in tents, and 
Arabes Pomades, from their mode of life. From the earliest known 
period a considerable traffic was carried on by the people in the N. 
(especially the Nabataei) by means of caravans, and by those on the 
S. and E. coast by sea, in the productions of their" own country 
(chiefly gums, spices, and precious stones), and in those of India 
and Arabia. The only part of Arabia ever conquered was Arabia 
Petraea, which became under Trajan a Roman province. Chris- 
tianity was early introduced into Arabia, where it spread to a great 
extent, and continued to exist side by side with the old religion 
(which was Sabaeism, or the worship of heavenly bodies), and with 
some admixture of Judaism, until the rise of Mnha.TnineHa.'mfijp 
in 622. 

ARAB^CUS SINUS, the Red Sea, long narrow gulf between Africa 
and Arabia, connected on the S. with the Indian Ocean by the 
Straits of Bab-el-Mandtb, and on the N. divided into two heads by 
the peninsula of Arabia Petraea (Penins. of Sinai), the E. of which 
was called Sinus Aelanites or Aelaniticus (Gulf of Akaba), and the 
W. Sinus Heroopolites or Heroopoliticus (Gulf of Suex). [RY- 

ARACHNE, a Lydian maiden, daughter of Idmon of Colophon, a 
famous dyer in purple. Arachne* excelled in the art of weaving, 
and, proud of her talent, ventured to challenge Athena to compete 
with her. The maiden produced a piece of cloth in which the 
amours of the gods were woven, and as the goddess could find no 
fault with it, she tore the work to pieces. ArachnS in despair hung 
herself: Athena loosened the rope and saved her life, but the rope 
was changed into a cobweb and ArachnS herself into a spider 

ARACHSSLA, one of the E. provinces of the Persian (and after- 
wards of the Parthian) Empire, bounded on the E. by the Indus, on 
the N. by the Paropamisadae, on the W. by Drangiana, and on the 
S. by Gedrosia. It was a fertile country. 

AsicYNTHUS, mountain on the S.W. coast of Aetolia, near 
Pleuron, sometimes placed in Acarnania. Later writers erroneously 
make it a mountain between Boeotia and Attica, and hence mention 
it in connection with. Amphion, the Boeotian hero. 

AR&R or AitXRis (Sa6ne\, river of Gaul, rises in the Vosges, re- 
ceives the Dnbis (Doubs) from the E., after which it becomes 
navigable, and flows into the Rhone at Lugdunnm (Lyons). 

AEATUS. i. General of the Achaeans, son of Qimas, was bora 
at Sicyon, 271 B.C. His father was murdered when he was a child, 
and was brought up at Argos, At 20 years of age he delivered 
Sicyon from the rule of its tyrant and united the city to the Ar.haftan 
League, which gained in consequence a great accession of power. 


251 B.C. In 245 he was elected general of the league. But he 
excelled more in negotiation than in war; and in his war with the 
Aetolians and Spartans he was often defeated. In order to resist 
these enemies he cultivated the friendship of Antigonus Doson, 
king of Macedonia, and of his successor Philip: but as Philip was 
evidently anxious to make himself master of all Greece, dissensions 
arose between him and Aratus, and the latter was eventually 
poisoned in 213 by the king's order. 2. Of Soli, in Cilicia, flourished 
270 B.C., and spent the latter part of his life at the court of Anti- 
gonus Gonatas, king of Macedonia. He wrote an astronomical 
poem, entitled Phaenomena, which was very popular in ancient 
times. Translated into T^atiii by Cicero. English translation in 
Loeb Library (G. R. Mair). 

ARAXES. i . River in Armenia, rising in Mt. Aba or Abus, joining 
the Cyrus, and falling with it into the Caspian sea. TheAraxes 
was proverbial for the force of its current. 2. In Mesopotamia. 
;ABORRHAS.] 3. River in Persia, on which Persepolis stood, 
flowing into a salt lake not far below Persepolis. 4. It is doubtful 
whether the Araxes of Herodotus is the same as the Oxus, JAX- 
ARTES, or the Volga. 

ARBACES, the founder of the Median empire. 

ARBLA, city of Adiabene in Assyria, celebrated as the head- 
quarters of Darius Codomannus, before the last battle in which 
he was overthrown by Alexander (331 B.C.), which is hence fre- 
quently railed the battle of Arbela, though it was really fought near 
GAUGAMELA, about 50 miles W. of Arbela. 

ARCAD!A, a country in the middle of Peloponnesus, surrounded on 
all sides by mountains. The Achelous, the greatest river of Pelo- 
ponnesus, rises in Arcadia. The X. and E. parts of the country 
were barren and unproductive; the W. and S. were more fertile, 
with numerous valleys where corn was grown. The Arcadians 
regarded themselves as the most ancient people in Greece: the 
Greek writers call them indigenous and Pelasgians. They were 
chiefly employed in hunting and the tending of cattle, whence their 
worship 01 Pan, who was especially the god of Arcadia, and of 
Artemis. They were passionately fond of music. The Arcadians 
experienced fewer changes than any other people in Greece, and 
retained possession of their country upon the conquest of the rest 
of Peloponnesus by the Dorians. After the second Messenian war, 
the different towns became independent republics, of which the 
and PHENEUS. The Lacedaemonians made many attempts to 
obtain possession of parts of Arcadia, but these attempts were 
finally frustrated by the battle of Leuctra (371 B.C.) ; and in order 
to resist all future aggressions on the part of Sparta, the Arcadians, 
upon the advice of Epaminondas, built the city of MEGALOPOLIS. 
""" ay subsequently joined the Achaean League, and finally became 
>ject to the Romans. 

ARCADIUS, emperor oi the East, elder son of Tneodosius I, M 


brother of Honorius, reigned A.D. 395-408. See Gibbon, Decline, 
and Fall; Bury, History of Later Roman Empire. 

ARCAS, king of the Arcadians, son of Zeus and Callisto, from whom 
Arcadia was supposed to have derived its name. 

ARCS!LAUS. i. Greek philosopher, born at Pitane in Aeolis, 
succeeded Crates about 241 B.C. in the chair of the Academy at 
Athens, and became the founder of the second or middle Academy. 
He is said to have died in his y6th year from a fit of drunkenness. 
2. The name of four kings of Gyrene". [BATTIADAE.] 

ARCS!US, father of Laertes and grandfather of Ulysses. 

ARCHLAUS. i. Son and successor of HEROD the Great, was 
appointed by his father as his successor, and received from Augustus 
Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea, with the title of ethnarcii. In 
consequence of his tyrannical government, Augustus banished him 
in A.D. 7 to Vienna in Gaul, where he died. 2. King of MACEDONIA 
(413-399 B.C.), an illegitimate son of Perdiccas II, obtained the 
throne by the murder of his half-brother. His palace was adorned 
with paintings by Zeuxis; and Euripides, Agathon, and other men 
of eminence were among his guests. 3. A distinguished general of 
MITHRIDATES, defeated by Sulla in Boeotia, S6 B.C. He deserted 
to the Romans, 81 B.C. 4. Son of the preceding, was raised by 
Pompey, in 63 B.C., to the dignity of priest of the goddess at Comana 
in Pontus or Cappadocia. In 56 or 55 Archelaus bacaine king of 
Egypt by marrying Berenice, the daughter of Ftclein}- Auletes, who, 
after the expulsion of her father, had obtained the sovereignty of 
Egypt. But at the end of 6 months he was defeated and slain in 
battle by Gabinius, who restored Ptolemy Auletes. 5. Son of No. 4, 
and his successor in the office of high-priest of Comaca, was deprived 
of his dignity by Julius Caesar in 47. 6. Son of No. 5, received 
from Antony, in 36 B.C., the kingdom of Cappadocia a favour 
which he owed to the charms of his mother Glaphyra. He was 
deprived of his kingdom by Tiberius, A.D. 17; and Cappadocia was 
then made a Roman province. 7. A philosopher of the Ionic 
School, born either at Athens or at Miletus. He flourished about 
45<> B.C. 

ARCHM&RUS or Opheltes, son of the Nemean king Lycurgns. 
When the Seven Heroes on their expedition against Thebes stopped 
at Nemea, Hypsipyle, the nurse of the child Opheltes, while showing 
the way to the Seven, left the child alone. The child was killed by 
a dragon, and Amphiaraus saw in **"* an omen boding destruction 
to himself and his companions. They called the child Arche- 
morus, ' Forerunner of Death,' and instituted the Nemean games in 
honour of him. 

ARCH!AS. i. A Heraclid of Corinth, who founded Syracuse, 
734 B.C. 2. A. LICINIUS ARCHTAS, Greek poet, born at Antioch in 
Syria, about 120 B.C., came to Rome in 102. and was received by 
the Luculli, from whom he obtained the gentile name of Licinius. 
He was enrolled as a citizen at Heraclea in Lucania; and as this 
town was united with Rome by a foedvs, he subsequently obtained 


the Roman franchise in accordance with the Lex Plautia Papilla 
passed in 59 B.C. In 6x he -was accused of assuming the citizenship 
illegally. He was defended by his friend M. Cicero in the extant 
speech'Pro Arckia* 

ARCHID.IMUS, the name of 5 kings of Sparta from the 7th to the 
end of the 3rd cent. B.C. The most famous of these kings invaded 
Attica, 431 B.C., with 100,000 men. 

ARCHlLdcHus, of Paros, one of the earliest lyric poets, celebrated 
for his lampoons. He perfected the Iambic metre. He flourished 
about 714-676 B.C. He went from Paros to Thasos with a colony, 
but afterwards returned to Paros, and fell in battle in a war against 
the Naxians. He had been a suitor to Xeobulfi, one of the daughters 
of Lycambes, who first promised and afterwards refused to give 
his daughter to the poet. Enraged at this treatment, Archilochus 
attacked the whole family in an Iambic poem with such effect, that 
the daughters of Lycambes are said to have hung themselves through 
shame. See J. U. Powell, Xew Chapters in the History of Greek 
Literature, 1933. 

ARCH!MDS, of Syracuse, the most famous of ancient mathe- 
maticians and natural philosophers, was born 287 B.C. He was 
a friend, if not a kinsman, of Hiero, for whom he constructed various 
engines of war, which, many years afterwards, were so far effectual 
in the defence of Syracuse against Marcellus, as to convert the siege 
into a blockade. His inventions and discoveries were many and 
highly important, e.g. a pump, known as the water-screw of Archi- 
medes. When Syracuse was taken (212 B.C.), Archimedes was killed 
by the Roman soldiers, being at the time intent upon a mathematical 
problem. Some of his works have come down to us. 

ARCHITECTURA. There are two chief divisions of ancient classic 
architecture: (i) Greek; (2) Roman. The distinguishing styles are 
called Orders, which may be (roughly) classified as (i) Greek: Doric; 
Ionic; Corinthian; and (2) Roman: Tuscan; Composite. Of these 
Orders, the Greek are alone true ; the Roman are adapted. Though 
the Roman Orders were never used by the Greeks, the Doric, Ionic, 
and Corinthian were common to both Greeks and Romans. 

Of the three 'true* Orders used by the Greeks, the Doric is the 
oldest and, in many ways, the noblest. The greatest example of 
Doric in the world is the PARTHENON at Athens. Another grand 
example of Doric is to be seen in the great temple of Poseidon at 
Paestum (6th cent. B.C.). This Order has no 'base*; the capital is 
simple and massive; the shaft fluted; and the entablature far more 
significant than in the other Orders. In the Doric column there 
are 20 flutes, so arranged as to touch each other. 

The Ionic Order is easily distinguished by the spiral volutes on the 
capital. The shaft of the column is fluted; generally, 24 flntes 
with fillets between, the flutes being semicircular. The base is 
known as 'Attic* (Le. two torus mouldings separated by a scotia 
with intervening fillets) . Among ancient examples, we may mention 
the portico of the Erechthenm at Athens; among modern, the 
facade of the British Museum. Roman Ionic does not differ, in 


principle, from Greek; but note: the cornice is deeper, the frieze 
narrower, the volutes smaller, and the shaft is plain. 

The Corinthian Order was employed by the Greeks but little, the 
most noteworthy examples now extant being the Choragic Monu- 
ment of Lvsicrates at Athens, and the temple of Olympian Zeus at 
Athens. With the Romans *V"5 Order was a great favourite, as it 
suited their ideas of superabundance and magnificence. The finest 
example of Roman Corinthian is the PANTHEON at Rome. The 
distinguishing feature of the Order is the 'foliated capital/ often 
most elaborately carved. The base of the Corinthian column is not 
unlike the Ionic, and is superimposed on a stylpbate, or square 
plinth. Roman Corinthian differs from Greek in the following 
respects : there are no * antefixae ' carvings on the top ; the crowning 
moulding is supported by carved consoles, beneath which runs the 
egg-and-tongue moulding. Besides this, the capital differs in many 
details; and the shaft is frequentlv plain, whereas in Greek Corinthian 
the shaft is fluted. 

A good example of the Roman Composite Order is to be found 
in the Arch of Titus (Rome), 

See Anderson and Spiers's Architecture of Greece and Ronie, 3rd ed. 
revised, 1927. 

ARCHO"N (= ruler), the name given at Athens to the supreme 
authority set up after the abolition of royalty. There were 9 
archons, and the year was always named after the" president for that 

ARCHYTAS, of Tarentum, philosopher, mathematician, general, 
and statesman, lived about 400 B.C. He was contemporary with 
Plato, whose life he saved by his influence with the tyrant Dionysius. 
He was drowned while upoa a voyage on the Adriatic. He belonged 
to the Pythagorean school. 

ARCONNSUS. i. Island off Ionia, near Lebedus, also called 
Aspis. 2. Island off the coast of Caria, opposite Halicamassns. 

ARcrlxus, of Miletus, the most distinguished among the cyclic 
poets, probably lived about 776 B.C.. 


ARCTOS, 'the Bear/ two constellations near the K. Pole. i. THE 
GREAT BEAR (Ursa Major), also called the Waggon (Plaustrum). 
The ancient Italian name of this constellation was Scptem Triones, 
the 'Seven Ploughing Oxen,' also Septenirio, and with the epithet 
Major to distinguish it from the Septentrio Minor, or Lesser Bear. 
2. THE LESSER or LITTLE BEAR (Ursa Minor), likewise called the 
Waggon, and Cynosura, 'dog's tail/ from the resemblance of the 
constellation to the upturned curl of a dog's tail. The constellation 
before the Great Bear was called Bodies, Arctopltylax, or A returns, 
At a later time Arctophylax became the general name of the constella- 
tion, and the word Arcturus was confined to the chief star in it. All 
these constellations are connected in mythology with the Arcadian 
nymph Callisto, the daughter of Lycaon. [CALLISTO.] In the 
poets the epithets of these stars have constant reference to the 


family and country of CalHsto; thus we find them called Lycaoms 
Arctos : Manulia Arctos and Maenalis Ursa (from M. Maenalus in 
Arcadia) : Erymanihis Ursa, (from M. Erymanthus in Arcadia) : 
ParrMasides steUae (from the Arcadian town Fantasia). Though 
most traditions identified Bootes with Areas, others pronounced 
him to be Icarins or his daughter Erigone, Hence the Septentzxones 
are called Boots /com. 

ARDA, chief town of the Rutuli in Latram, situated about 3 
miles from the sea, one of the most ancient places in Italy, and the 
capital of Turnus. It was conquered and colonized by the Romans, 
443 B.C. 

ARDYS, eon of Gyges, king of Lydia, reigned 678-629 B.C. 

ARJLL&TB, AB&LAS, or JU&L&ruv, Arlts, town in GaDia Nar- 
bosenszs, and a Roman colony. The Roman remains at Aries 
attest the greatness of the ancient city. 

ARflNB, town mentioned by Homer as belonging to the dominions 
of Nestor, and situated near the month of the Mznyefus. [ANIGRUS.] 

AnfioplGUS, at Athens, a rocky promontory lying to the W. of, 
and not far from, the Acropolis. It was the Hill of Ares (Mars' 
Hitt; cf. Acts zvii). The name was also given to the council which 
held their meetings here. This council, which consisted of ez- 
axchons, was the criminal court of Athens, and it also exercised the 
same power over reKgkms matters as the Boole did over political, 
bat this power was reduced about the middle of the 5th century B.C. 

AK*S, catted MARS by the Remans, the Greek god of war, and one 
of the great Oiynqaaa gods, is called the son of Zoos aad Heza. His 
sgyags aad mngnjuary character mate him hated by the ofeer gods 
aad by Us own parents. He was wooocbd by Dkw&edes, who was 
assisted by Athena, and in his fall he roared like ten thousand 
waiiiuna. The gigantic Aloldac had likewise conquered "hrm t and 
kept bun a prisoner for 13 months, until he was delivered by Hermes. 
He was also conquered by Hercules, with whom he fought on account 
of bis son Cycxms, and was obliged to return to Otympos. This 
fierce and gigantic but witital handsome god, loved, and was beloved 
by, Apfenxfit*. According to a late tradition. Ares slew Halir- 
iboduus. the son of Poseidon, when bet was offering violeace to 
AicippA. tiie daughter of Ares. Hereupon Poseidon accused Ares 
in tiae Areopagus, wfaeee the QJympiaa gods wroasaeHibied in court 
Anas was acquitted, aud ibis rent was befeeved to have given rise 
to the BAB* Areopagus, la Gteeee tke wocshap of Ares was not 
fisfy genera^ aadrtwmsprofettbiy introduced Iw Ctoeof 

* best knowft tatw of An BOW extant is that in tbe ViBa 

Jbdfeis, the aoM off sewn* kin^s of Anima PWiaea. i. A 
1 of Pompcy, onraded Jvdaea bt 65 B.c. fc m order ta 

of Axfetobotefi. a. Tke fatfaewn^iw of 
Jadaaa, betaq 

of his 


AR&TB&SA, one of the Nereids, and the nymph at the fountain of 
Axethusa in the island of Ortygia near Syracuse, [ALPHBUS.] 

ARGlLfiTUM, district in Rome, extending from the S. of the 
Quirinal to the Capitoline and the Fornm. It was inhabited by 
mechanics and booksellers. See Warde Fowler, Serial Life at 

ARGiNtJSAB, 3 small islands off the coast of AeoBs, opposite 
Mytilfinfi in Lesbos, celebrated for the naval victory of ti Athenians 
over *fr>** T jtrWiajmyyift jan under CaHicratidas, 406 B.C. 

ARGlpfiowrSs, 'slayer of Argus,' a snrname of Hermes. Sach is 
the traditional interpretation; but the legend inferred is unknown. 
Possibly the root of the word is jar-, and the meaning would be T\* 
Swift Aftxmrer, a name for the messenger of the gods, 

AxGlvA, a snrname of Hera from Argos. 

ARG&JS. [Ascos.] 

ARG&NAUTAB, the Argonauts, 'sailors of the Argo,* were the heroes 
who sailed to Aea (afterwards called Colchis) for the purpose of 
latching the golden fleece. In order to get rid of Jason, Pdias, king 
of lolcns in Xhessaly, persuaded h* to fetch the golden fleece, 
which was suspended on an oak tree in the grove of Ares in Colchis, 
and was guarded day and night by a dragon. Jason undertook 
the enterprise* and commanded Argus* the son of Fhrixus* to build 
a ship with 50 oars, which was called Argo after the name of the 
builder. Jason was accompanied by an the great heroes of the age, 
such as Hercules, Castor and Pollux, Theseus, etc.: their number is 
said to have been 50* After many adventures, they arrived at the 
month of the river Phasis. The Crrfr.hiau king Aettes promised to 
give up the golden fleece if Jason would yoke to a plough two fire- 
breathing ftTfm with brazen feet, and sow the dragon's teeth which 
had not been used by c^mnm. a t Thebes. Medea, the daughter of 
AeStes, fell in love with Jasoa, and on his promising to many her, 
she furnished him with the means of resisting fire and steel, and sent 
to sleep the dragon who guarded the golden fleece. After Jason 
had taken the treasure, he and his Argonauts embarked by night, 
along with Medea, and sailed away. On their return they were 
driven by a storm to the W. of Italy; and after wandering about the 
W. coasts of the Mediterranean, they arrived at loteus. The 
legend of the Argonauts is very ancient; Homer speaks of it 

it were universally famifiar. See Hie Arg&uKdice <rf Apc*- 
krnius frteyHns (Way's translation). 

ARGOS. In Homer we **"* mention of tie Belasgic 4*Q8, tbat 
is, a town cc district of Tbessaly, and of tibte ocfayft* Argos, by 
which he meaaq sometimes the whole FeJoponneeas, sometimes Aga- 
memnon's Vinglom of Arps oi which Mycewftfegttel, and 
sometimes the (uwxJi of Argos. As Argos 
whole Peloponnesos, so tbe A^j<* often occ 
of tiie wbole body Of *h Cniietn; 
use Argiri. i. 


Argolis became the usual name of the country, while the word Argos 
or Argi was confined to the town. The Roman Argolis was bounded 
on the N. by the Corinthian territory, on the W. by Arcadia, on the 
S. by Laconia, and included towards the E. the whole peninsula be- 
tween the Saronic and Argolic Gulfs : but during the time of Grecian 
independence Argolis or Argos was only the country lying round the 
Argolic gulf, bounded on the W. by the Arcadian mountains, and 
separated on the N. by a range of mountains from Corinth, Cleonae, 
and Phlius. The main part of the population consisted of Pelasgi 
and Achaei, to whom Dorians were added after the conquest of 
Peloponnesus by the Dorians. 2. ARGOS, or ARGI, -ORUU, in the 
Latin writers, the capital of Argolis, situated in a level plain a little 
to the W. of the Inachus. It had an ancient Pelasgic citadel 
called Larissa. It was celebrated for the worship of Hera, whose 
great temple, Heraeum, lay between Argos and Mycenae, During 
excavations on the site of the Heraeum (1925) Mycenaean tombs, 
as well as some neolithic pottery, were discovered. The city is said 
to have been built by INACHUS or his son PHORONEUS, or else by 
ARGUS. The descendants of Inachus were deprived of the sovereignty 
by DANAUS. who is said to have come from Egypt. The descen- 
dants of Danaus were in their turn obliged to submit to the Achaean 
race of the Pelopidae. Under the rule of tibe Pelopidae Mycenae 
became the capital of the kingdom, and Argos was a dependent 
state. Thus Mycenae was the royal residence of Atreus and of his 
son Agamemnon; but under Orestes Argos again became supreme. 
Upon the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians Argos fell to the 
share of Temenus, whose descendants ruled over the country. AH 
these events belong to mythology ; and Argos first appears in history 
about 750 B.C., as the chief state of Peloponnesus, under its ruler 
PBIDOV. After the time of Phidon its influence declined; and its 
power was weakened by wars with Sparta, In consequence of its 
jealousy of Sparta, Argos took no part in the Persian war. In the 
Peloponnesian war it sided with Athens against Sparta. At this 
time its government was a democracy, but at a later period it fen 
under the power of tyrants. In 243 it joined the Achaean League, 
and on the conquest of the latter by the Romans, 146, it became a 
part of the Roman province of Achaia. 

ARGUS, i. Surnamed Panoptes, 'the all-seeing,' because he had 
a hundred eyes, son of Agenor, or Axestor, or Inachus. Hera 
appointed him guardian of the cow into which lo had been meta- 
morphosed; but Hermes, at the command of Zeus, sent * to sleep 
by the sweet notes of his flute, and then cut off his head. Hera 
his eyes to the tail of the peacock, her favourite bird. 

2. The baHder of tie Argo. son of Phrixns. 3. The faithful old dog 
of tJrvsses who died of joy at seeing his master after his twenty 
years' .absence from home (Horn. Od. acvii. 292). 

JbU&RfrA. [ARPX.] 

A*!A or -lA, the most important of the eastern provinces of the 
aacioat Persian Empire, was bounded on the E. by the Paropa- 


and on the S. by the desert of Carmania. From Aria was derived the 
name Aziana, under which all the eastern provinces were included. 

AalADNft, daughter of Minos and PasiphaS , fell in love with Theseus, 
when he was sent by his father to convey the tribute of the Athenians 
to the Minotaur, and gave him the clue of thread by means of which 
he found his way out of the Labyrinth. Theseus in return promised 
to many her, and she accordingly left Crete with him; but on their 
arrival in the island of Dia (Naxos), she was killed by Artemis. 
This is the Homeric account; but the more common tradition 
related that Theseus deserted Ariadne in Naxos, where she was 
found by Dionysus, who made her his wife, and placed among the 
stars the crown which he gave her at their marriage. 

AaTAKUS, the friend of Cyrus, commanded the left wing of the 
army at the battle of Cunaxa, 401 B.C. After the death of Cyrus, 
he purchased his pardon from Artazerxes by deserting the Greeks. 

AalANA. [ARIA.] 

AR!ARATHS, the name of several kings of Cappadocia. i. Son 
of Ariamnes I, defeated by Perdiccas, a^ crucified, 322 B.C. Eu- 
menes then obtained possession of Cappadocia. 2. Son of Holo- 
phernes, and nephew of Ariarathes I, recovered Cappadocia after the 
death of Eumenes, 315. He was succeeded by Ariamnes II. 3. 
Son of Ariamnes II, and grandson of No. 2, married Stratonlce, 
daughter of Antiochus II, king of Syria. 4. Son of No. 3, reigned 
220-162. He married Antiochis, the daughter of Antiochus the 
Great, and assisted Antiochus against the Romans. After the 
defeat of Antiochus, Ariarathes sued for peace in 188, which he 
obtained on favourable terms. 5. Son of No. 4, surnamed Fhilo- 
pator, reigned 163-130. He assisted the Romans against Aristoni- 
cus of Pergamus, ayrd fell in this war, 130. 6. Son of No. 5, reigned 
130-96. He married Laodice, sister of Mithridates VI, king of 
Pontus, and was put to death by Mithridates. 7. Son of No. 6, also 
murdered by Mithridates, who became king. The Cappadocians 
rebelled against Mithridates, and placed upon the throne, 8. 
Second son of No. 6; but he was speedily driven out of the kingdom 
by Mithridates, and afterwards died. 9. Son of Ariobarzanes HE, 
reigned 42-36. He was deposed and put to death by Antony, who 
appointed Archelaus. 

AKI&SPAB, a people in the S. part of Drangiana. 

Aaldf A., ancient town of Latium at the foot of the Alban Mount, 
on the Appian Way, 16 miles from Rome. It was subdued by the 
Romans in 338 B.C., and received the Roman franchise. In its 
neighbourhood was the celebrated grove and temple of Diana 
Aridna, on the borders of the Lacus Nemorensis. Diana was 
worshipped here with barbarous customs: her priest; called rex 
Nemorensis* was always a runaway slave, who obtained his office 
by killing his predecessor in single combat. See Frazar, The Golden 

ABIES, a battering-ram. 

AK&ASPX, a people in the N. of Scythia, repres 


men who fought with the griffins for the possession of the gold in 
their neighbourhood. The fable is perhaps founded on the fact 
that the Ural mountains abound in gold. 

AR!HI and AK!HA, names of a mythical people, district, and 
range of mountains in Asia Minor, which the old Greek poets made 
the scene of the punishment of the monster Typhoeus. 

(Rimini), town in Umbria. 

I. Kings or Satraps ofPontus. i. Betrayed by 
his son Mithridates to the Persian long, about 400 B.C. 2. Son of 
MithrMa*q I, reigned 363-337. He revolted from Artaxerxes in 
362, and may be regarded as the founder of the kingdom of Pontus. 
3. Son of Mithridates in, reigned 266-240, and was succeeded by 
Mithridates IV. II. Kings of Cappadocia. i. ARIOBARZANES I, 
surnamed Philoromaeus, reigned 93-63 B.C., and was elected 
king by the Cappadocians, under the direction of the Romans. He 
was several times expeHed from his kingdom by Mithridates, but 
was finally restored by Pompey in 63, shortly before his death- 2. 
ARIOBARZANBS II, surnamed Philopator, succeeded his father in 
63. 3. ARIOBARZANBS III, surnamed Eusebes and Philoromaeus, 
son of No. 2, whom he succeeded about 51. He assisted Pompey 
against Caesar, who not only pardoned him, but even enlarged his 
territories. He was slain in 42 by Cassius. 

AJR&N. i. Of Methymna in Lesbos, lyric poet and player on 
the cithara, and the inventor of dithyrambic poetry. He lived 
about 625 B.C., and lived at the court of Periander, tyrant of Corinth. 
On one occasion Arion went to Sicily to take part in some musical 
contest. He won the prize, and, laden with presents, he embarked 
in a Corinthian ship to return to his friend Periander. The sailors 
coveted his treasures, and meditated his murder. ^ After trying in 
vain to save his life, he at length obtained permission once more to 
on the cithara, and as soon as he had invoked the gods in 
ad strains, he threw Titmyfrf into the sea. But many song- 
dolphins had assembled round the vessel, and one of them 
now took the bard on its back and carried him to Taen&nzs, from 
whence he returned to Corinth in safety, and related his adventure to 
Periander. Upon the arrival of the Corinthian vessel, Periander 
inquired of the sailors after Arion, who replied that he had remained 
behind at Tarentum; but when Arion came forward the sailors 
owned their guilt, a. A fabulous horse, which is said to have been 
begotten by Poseidon. 

ARIOVXSTOS, German chief, who conquered a great part of 
Goal, but was defeated by Caesar, 58 B.C. See the Gallic War of 

AJUSTAEUS, son of Apollo and CyrfinS, was born in Libya. He 
went to Thrace, where he feE in love with EurydlcS, the wife of 
Orpheus. The latter, while fleeing from Mm, perished by the bite 
of a serpent; whereupon the Nymphs, in anger, destroyed the bees 
of Axistaeus. The way in which he recovered his bees is related 
in tfae 4th G*orgic of Virgil. After his death he was worshipped 


as a god. He was regarded as the protector of flocks and shepherds, 
of vine and olive plantations, and he tattght men to keep bees. 

ARISTXGORAS, of Miletus, brother-in-law of Histiaeus, was left 
by the latter, during his stay at the Persian court, in charge of the 
government of Miletus. Having failed in an attempt upon Naxos 
(501 B.C.) on behalf of the Persians, and fearing the consequences, 
he induced the Ionian cities to revolt from Persia. He applied for 
assistance to the Spartans and Athenians: the former refused, but 
the latter sent him 20 ships and some troops. In 499 his army 
captured and burnt Sardis, but was finally chased back to the coast. 
The Athenians now departed; the Persians conquered most of the 
Ionian cities; and Arislagoras in despair fled to Thrace, where he 
was slain by the Edonians in 497. 

ARISTARCHUS. i. Of Samos, mathematician and astronomer at 
Alexandria, flourished between 280 and 264 B.C. Of his important 
works on astronomy, only one remains, a treatise on the sun and 
moon (text, translation, and commentary by SirT. L. Heath, 1913). 
2. Of Samothrace, grammarian and greatest critic of antiquity, 
flourished 156 B.C. He was a pupil of Aristophanes, and founded 
at Alexandria a grammatical and critical school. At an advanced 
age he went to Cyprus, where he died at the age of 72, of voluntary 
starvation, because he was suffering from incurable dropsy. He 
published an edition of Homer, which has been the basis of the text 
from his time to the present day. He divided the Iliad and Odyssey 
into 24 books each. 

ARIST&AS, the writer of a celebrated 'letter* professing to give a 
contemporary account of the translation of the Pentateuch into 
Greek in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247 B.C.). Tne 
writer poses as a courtier in the service of that king, who is interested 
in Jewish antiquities. But the letter was not contemporary with 
the events described, and its later date may be put at about 100 B.C. 
Text in Swete's Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek (2nd ed., 
1902); translation by H. St. J. Thackeray (new ed., 1927). 

AjtisxlDfis. i. An Athenian, son of Lysimachus, suxnamed the 
' Just,' was of an ancient and noble family. He fought at the battle 
of Marathon, 490 B.C. ; and next year, 489, he was archon. He was 
the great rival of Themistocles, and it was through the influence of 
the latter that he suffered ostracism in 483 or 482. He was stiH in 
exile in 480 at the battle of Salamis, where he did good service by 
dislodging the enemy, with a band raised and armed by hwnarif, 
from the islet of PsyttalSa. He was recalled from banishment 
after the battle, was appointed general (479), and commanded the 
Athenians at Plataea. In 477, when the allies had become disgusted 
with Pausanias and the Spartans, he and his coQeagoe Cimon 
obtained for Athens the command, of the maritime confederacy: 
and Aristides drew up its laws and^ fixed its assessments. The 
first tribute of 4^ talents, paid into a rftmmem treasury at 
Deles, bore his name, and was regarded by the allies, in after tim** 
as marking tneir Satarnian age. Tins is his last recorded act He 
pcbbabiy died in. 468. He died so poor that his daughters were 


portioned by the state, and his son Lysimachus received a grant of 
land and of money. 2. The author of a licentious romance, in 
prose, entitled Milesiaca, having Miletus for its scene. It was 
translated into Latin by L. Cornelius Sisenna, a contemporary of 
Sulla, and became popular with the Romans. The title of his work 
gave rise to the term Milesian, as applied to works of fiction. 3. 
Of Thebes, a celebrated Greek military painter, flourished about 
360-330 B.C. His pictures fetched enormous prices. 4. P. AZLIUS 
AJUSTIDES, surnamed Theodoras, Greek rhetorician, born A.D. 117. 
Two of his treatises and over 50 of his speeches are extant. 5. 
ARISTZDBS of Athens, early Christian apologist and philosopher. 
His Apology for Christianity was presented to Antoninus Pius 
(136-161). The Apology was partially recovered and published by 
the Mechitarist Benedictines of Venice in 1878. Since then the 
whole has been found in a Syriac translation and in chaps, xxvi- 
xxvii of St. John Damascenes Barlaam and Josapkat. 

ARISTIPPUS, native of Gyrene 1 , and founder of the Cyrenaic school 
of philosophy (or the system of Hedonism, which makes pleasure 
the end of human life), flourished about 370 B.C. The fame of 
Socrates brought him to Athens, and he remained with the latter 
almost up to the time of his execution, 399 B.C. Though a disciple 
of Socrates, he was luxurious. He passed part of his life at the 
court of Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse; but he appears at last to 
have returned to Cyrene, and there to have spent his old age. His 
writings are not now extant. 

ARISTOCLSS. i. Greek artist. 2, Athenian sculptor. Both 
flourished in 5th cent. B.C. 

ASOST&BCLUS. i. The name of several princes of Judaea. Of 
these the best known in history is the brother of HYRCANTJS, 2. Of 
Cassandrea, served under Alexander the Great in Asia, and wrote a 
history of Alexander, which was one of the chief sources used by 
Arrian in the composition of his work the Anabasis. 

Awsro'DfiMUS. i. A descendant of Hercules. He was killed at 
Nanpactns by lightning, just as he was setting put on the expedition 
into Peloponnesus. 2. A Messeman, the chief hero in the first 
Messenian war. He sacrificed his own daughter to save his country. 
He was afterwards elected king in place of Euphafis; and continued 
the war against the Spartans, till in despair he put an end to Ms life 
on the tomb of his daughter, about 723 B.C. 

AsxsT$M&Nfis, the MgniaT the hero of the second war with 
Sparta, belongs more to legend than to history. He was a native 
of Anriamia aod was sprung from the royal line of Aepytns. Tired 
of the yoke of Sparta, he began the war in 685 B.C. After the defeat 
of <&e linsBflffrians in the third year of the war, Aristomenes retreated 
to the VKxmtain fortress of Ira, and there maintained the war for 
ix years, constantly ravaging lite land of T.svMift In ooe of his 
mcursiODS tne Spartans o v etipo witid him, and carrying Tnt>>, with 
50 of bis comrades to Sparta, cast them into the pit where condemned 


criminals were thrown. The rest perished; not so Aristomenes, the 
favourite of the gods; for legends tell how an eagle bore him up on 
its wings as he fell, and a fox guided him on the third day from the 
cavern. But the city of Ira, which he had so long successfully 
defended, fell into the hands of the Spartans, who again became 
masters of Messenia, 668 B.C. Aristomenes settled at lalysus in 
Rhodes, where he married his daughter to Damagetus, king 
of lalysus. 

ARISTON. i. Of Chios, Stoic philosopher, and disciple of Zeno, 
flourished about 260 B.C. 2. Peripatetic philosopher of lulis in 
Ceos, succeeded Lycon as head of the Peripatetic School, about 
230 B.C. 

AXIST&N!CUS, natural son of Eumenes II, of Pergamus. Upon 
the death of his brother Attains III, 133 B.C., who left his kingdom 
to 'the Romans, Aristonicns claimed the crown. He defeated in 
131 the consul P. Licinius Crassus; but in 130 he was defeated and 
taken prisoner by M. Perperna, was executed in Rome, 129. 

ARIST&PHXNS. i. Comic poet, was born about 444 B.C., and 
probably at Athens. His father Philippus had possessions in 
Aegina, and may originally have come from that island, whence 
a question arose whether Aristophanes was a genuine Athenian 
citizen : Clean attempted to deprive him of his civic rights. [LEON.] 
He had three sons, Philippus, Araros, and Nicostratus, but of his 
private history we know nothing. He died about 380 B.C. The 
comedies of Aristophanes are of the highest historical interest, con- 
taining caricatures on the leading men of the day. The first evil 
against which he inveighs is the Peloponnesian war, to which he 
ascribes the influence of demagogues like Cleon at Athens. 1 Another 
object of his indignation was the education introduced by th* 
Sophists, which he attacks in the Clouds, rnairing Socrates the 
representative of the Sophists. Another feature of the times was 
the excessive love for litigation at Athens, which he ridicules in the 
Wasps. Eleven of the plays of Aristophanes have come down to us. 
He was a complete master of the Attic dialect, which appears in his 
works in its greatest perfection. [The best translations of Aristo- 
phanes are by Frere (reprinted in Everyman's Library) and by 
Benjamin Bickley Rogers. The latter's is accompanied by the 
Greek text and a commentary (n vols., 1902-16; reprinted in 
the Lpeb library, 3 vols.). Of editions, Blaydes' is perhaps tfce 
best ; it is a mine of information. See also the edition of Lysistrata 
by Wilamowitz-Mcvnendorf (1927); and Gilbert Murray/ Aristo- 
phanes, 1933.] 2. Of Byzantium, an eminent Greek grammarian, 
was a pupil of Zecodotus and Eratosthenes, and +yVr of Aris- 
tarchus. He hved about 264 B.C., and had the management of the 
library at Alexandria. He introduced the use of accents in the 
Greek language. 

ARISTO'TE'T.BS, the philosopher, was born at StagSra, a town in 
Chalcidice in Mftcgdonia v 384 B.C. His father, Nicomachns, was. 

'See Professor G. Murray, Arutopkatux ami Ou Wmr Party (1919). 


physician to Amyntas II, king of Macedonia; his mother's name 
was Phaestis or Phaestias. In 367 he went to Athens and there 
became a pupil of Plato, who named him the ' intellect of his school' 
He lived at Athens for 20 years, bat quitted the city upon the death 
of Plato (347) and repaired to his friend Hermlas at Atameus, 
where he married Pythias, the adoptive daughter of the prince. On 
the death of Hermias, who was killed by the Persians (344), Aristotle 
fled from Atarneus to Mytilene. Two years afterwards (342), 
he accepted an invitation from Philip of Macedonia, to undertake 
the instruction of his son Alexander, then 13 years of age. His 
native city, Staglra, which had been destroyed by Philip, was 
rebuilt at his request. Aristotle spent 7 years in Macedonia. On 
Alexander's accession to the throne in 335, Aristotle returned to 
Athens. Here he had the Lycgnm, a gymnasium sacred to Apollo 
Lycens, assigned to him by the state. He assembled round him 
a large number of scholars, to whom he delivered lectures on 
philosophy in the shady walks (re/raroc) which surrounded the 
Lyceum, while walking up and down (rcpttrarwv), and not sitting, 
which was the general practice of the philosophers. From one or 
other of these circumstances the name Peripatetic is derived, which 
was afterwards given to his school. He gave two different courses 
of lectures every day. Those which he delivered in the morning 
(called esoteric) to a narrower circle of hearers, embraced subjects 
connected with the more abstruse philosophy, physics, and dia- 
lectics. Those which he delivered in the afternoon to a larger 
circle (called exoteric), extended to rhetoric, sophistics, and politics. 
He presided over his school for 13 years (335-323)* During this 
time he also composed the greater part of his works. In these 
labours ha was assisted by the liberality of his former pupil, who 
caused large collections of natural curiosities to be made for him, to 
which posterity is indebted for one of his most excellent works, the 
History of Animals. While at Athens his wife died. Later he 
entered upon a permanent union with a woman of Staglra. Herpyllis. 
She bore him a son. Nicomachus, who gave his name to his redaction 
of the Hicomachean Ethics. After the death of Alexander (323), 
Aristotle was looked upon with suspicion at Athens as a friend of 
Macedonia; bat as it was not easy to bring any political accusation 
against him, he was accused of impiety. He withdrew from Athens 
before his trial, and escaped in the beginning of 322 to Chalcis in 
Euboea, where he died in the course of the same year, in the 63rd 
year of his age. He bequeathed to Theophrastus his library and 
the originals of his writings. His works, which treated of almost all 
the subjects of human, .knowledge cultivated in his time, have 
ttuemoaed a powerful influence upon the human mind; and his 
treatbeB on philosophy sad logic still claim the attention of every 
student of those sciences. [Of editions of Aristotle, Bekker's, 
published by the Clarendon Press in n vols., 1837, is still the most 
serviceable; and the great Oxford translation, edited by J. A. Smith 
and W, D. Rosa, and completed in 2931, corresponds to the xz 
Bekker *ob. Of individual works, the Poetics, the Ethics, the 
PoKJtcs, the jBMarte, and the De Amtut are most easily accessible 


in English versions. The most important of recent literary dis- 
coveries was that of a papyrus, containing a copy of the Constitution 
of Athens. Aristotle's authorship of t*i work is not disputed, and 
it forms part of a lost work on the constitutional history of 158 
states. The Constitution of Athens has been edited and translated by 
F. G. Kenyon, 1891 ; also ed. Opperman, 1927. The Laws have been 
translated by A. E. Taylor (1934). No work of Aristotle's is, how- 
ever, of more importance than the Xicomachean Ethics (consult 
Grant's edition, 1885). The Eudemian Ethics is now also reckoned 
as a recension of a genuine work of Aristotle's. For general works 
on Aristotle see E. Wallace, Outlines of the Philosophy of Aristotle, 
3rd ed., 1887; and books by A. E. Taylor (1919), W. D. Ross (1930), 
and W. Jaeger (in Eng., 1934)-] 

ARIST&E&NUS, of Tarentum, Peripatetic philosopher and a musi- 
cian, flourished about 3 18 B.C. His work on Harmonics is still extant 
{see text, translation, and introduction, by H. S. Ma^r^n 1902). 

ARMM!A, a country of Asia, lying between Asia Minor and the 
Caspian, is a lofty table-land, backed by the chain of the Caucasus, 
watered by the rivers Cyrus and Araxes, and containing the sources 
of the Tigris and of the Euphrates, the latter of which divides the 
country into 2 unequal parts, which were called Major and Minor. 
The people of Armenia were one of the most ancient families of 
the Caucasian branch of the human race. They were conquered by 
the Assyrians and Persians, and were at a later time subject to the 
Greek longs of Syria. When Antiochus the Great was defeated by 
the Romans (190 B.C.], the country regained its independence, and 
was at this period divided into the two kingdoms of Armenia Major 
and Minor. Ultimately, Armenia Minor was made a Roman pro- 
vince by Trajan; and Armenia Major, after being a perpetual object 
of contention between the Romans and the Farttuans, was subjected 
to the revived Persian enipite by its first king Artaxerxes in A.D. 226. 

Axuftrfus (the Latinized form of Hermann, 'the chieftain'}, chief 
of the tribe of the Cherusci, who inhabited the country to the N. of 
the Harz mountains. He was born in 18 B.C. ; and in his youth, he 
led the Cherusci as auxiliaries of the Roman legions in Germany, 
where he learnt the Roman language, was admitted to the freedom 
of the city, and enrolled amongst the equitea. In A.D. 9 Arminius 
persuaded his countrymen to rise against the Romans, who were now 
masters of this part of Germany. Wig attempt was crowned with 
success. Quintains Varus, with 3 legions, was defeated [VAIHJSJ; and 
the Romans relinquished all their possessions beyond the Rhine. In 
14 Arminrns had to defend his country against Germanicns, At first 
he was successful; but Germanicus made good his ieiieat to the 
Rhine. It was in the course of this campaign that the wife of 
Arminius fell into the hands of the Romans. In 16 Arminius was 
defeated by Germanicus, and his country was pxcfbabiy only saved 
from subjection bytifre jealousy of Tiberias, iibosacaQed Gezmaakus 
in the following year. At length Arminius aimed at absolute power, 
and was in consequence cot off by his own relations in the 3781 year 
of his age, AJX 19. * 


AxtHdRfcA or ARx5nXcA, the N.W, coast of Ganl from the Ligeris 
(Loire) to the Sequana (Seine). 

AKXA, town in Umbria, near Penisia. 

ARNAB, town in Chalcidice, S. of Aulon. 

ARNISSA, town in Eordaea in Macedonia. 

A&Ndslus, an African of Greek descent. He flourished in the 
reign of Diocletian, 284-305, and wrote a book, Adversus Nationes, 
in defence of Christianity. 

ARNUS (Amo), chief river of Etruria. 

., promontory of Africa furthest E., at the S. extremity of 
the Arabian Gulf. 

ARPI, inland town in the Dannian Apulia, founded, traditionally, 
by Diomedes, who called it Argos Hippium, from whicn its later 
names of Argyrippa, or Argyripa, and Arpi are said to have arisen. 
It revolted to Hannibal after the battle of Cannae, 216 B.C., but was 
retaken by the Romans in 213. 

AxrlNUif , town of Latium on the Fibretaos, originally belonging to 
the Volsdans and afterwards to the Samnites, was a Roman zrmnici- 
pinm, and received the ju* suffragii, or right of voting in the Ronraa 
comitia, 188 B.C. It was the birthplace of Marias and Cicero. 

AKRflrltnt or A&firfmc (Arexxo), one of the most important of the 
12 cities of Etruria, celebrated for its red pottery. 

ARRHIDABUS or ARTDABUS, son of FhiHp and a female dancer, 
Fbilinna of Larissa, was imbecile. On the death of Alexander, 323 
B.C., he was elected king and in 322 he married Enrydice. On their 
return to Macedonia, ne and Ms wife were made prisoners, and pat 
to death by order of Olympias, 317. 

ARfiU, wile of Caecpa Paetos. Whea her husband was ordered 
by the emperor Claudius to put an end to his life, A.D. 42, and hesi- 
tated to do so, Arria stabbed herself, handed the dagger to her 
husband, and said: 'Paetus, it does not pain me.' 

Ajutl&xras, Greek historian and philosopher, wasborn atMcomedia 
in Bitbynia, about A.D. 90. He was a pupal and friend of Epictetns, 
whose lectures he published at Athens. In 124 he received from 
Hadrian the Roman citizenship, and, from ***** tim* assumed the 
name of flavins. In 136 he was appointed prelect of Ceppadotia* 
which was invaded in the year after by the Alaui or Massagetae, 
viiom he defeated. Under Antoninus Has, in 146, he was consul; 
and he died at an advanced age in the reign of K. Anrelius. Arzian 
was a dose imitator of Xenophon both in the subjects of his works 
and in the stylft in which they were written. The most important 
of tihem is nis history of tifcie expedition of Alexander the Great, in 
7 books- [AaisxoBDLUS,] Translation in Loeb library (E. 1+ Robson). 

Ajtifailts, the fonixfor of tiie Parthian empire. Hte successore 
war* calfed the Arsftcttae. x. He was of obscure 4fi0fe but 1 
xadmced fea PactksaBB to revolt from Antiochiis II, king of Syria, and 
became iiie first monarch of the Partaians, abomt ?^o B.C. Ho 


reigned only 2 years, and was succeeded by his brother Tiridates. 
2. TIRIDATES, reigned 37 years, 248-211 B.C., and defeated Seleucus 
Callinicus, the successor of Antiochus. 3. ARTABAOTS I, son of the 
preceding, was attacked by Antiochus III (the Great), who, however, 
at length recognized him as king, about 210. 4. PRIAPATTUS, son of 
the preceding, reigned 15 years, and left 3 sons, Phraates, Mithridates, 
and Artabanns. 5. PHRAATES I, was succeeded by his brother, 
6. MITHRIDATES I, who enlarged the Parthian empire by his con- 
quests. He defeated Demetrius Nicator, king of Syria, and took him 
prisoner in 138. He died during the captivity of Demetrius, between 
138 and 130. 7. PHRAATES II, son of the preceding, defeated and 
slew in battle Antiochus VII Sidetes, 1 28 B.C. Phraates himself was 
shortly after killed by the Scythians. 8. ARTABANTJS II, youngest 
son of No. 4, fell in battle against the Thogarii or Tocharii, apparently 
after a short reign. 9. MITERIDATXS II, son of the preceding, added to 
the Parthian empire, whence he obtained the surname of Great. He 
sent an ambassador to Sulla, 92 B.C. 10. MNASCXHES ( ?} , the successor 
of the preceding, i x . SAN ATROCBS, reigned 7 years, and died about 70 
B.C. 12. PHRAATES III, son of the preceding, lived at the time of 
the war between the Romans and Mithridates of Pontus, by both of 
whom he was courted. He was murdered by his 2 sons, Mithridates 
and Orodes. 13. MITHRIDATES HI, son of the preceding, was ex- 
pelled on account of his cruelty, and was succeeded by his brother 
Orodes. 14. ORODES I, brother of the preceding, was the Parthian 
king whose general Surenas defeated Crassus, 53 B.C. [CRASSUS.] 
After the death of Grassus, Orodes gave the command of the army to 
life son Pacorus, who invaded Syria both in 51 and 50, but was in each 
year driven back by Cassms. TTI 40 the ^^^Trrn^TiR acoun invaded 
Syria, under the command of Pacorus and Labienus, but were 
defeated in 39 by Ventidius Bassos, one of Antony's legates. In 38 
Facorus once more invaded Syria, but was defeated and feH in the 
battle. Orodes shortly afterwards surrendered the crown to his son, 
Phraates. 15. PHRAATES IV, was a tyrant. In 36 Antony invaded 
Parthia, bat was obliged to retreat. Phraates was eventually driven 
out of the country by his subjects, and Tiridates proclaimed king. 
Phraates, however, was restored by the Scythians, and Tiridates fled 
to Augustus, carrying with him the youngest son of Phraates. 
Augustus restored his son to Phraates, on condition of his surrender- 
i-ngr tl\p Roman standards and prisoners taken in the war with 
Crassus and Antony. They were given up in 20, and their restora- 
tion was celebrated. Phraates also sent to Augustus as hostage his 
4 sons. In A.D. 2 Phraates was poisoned by his wife Thermnsa, and 
her son Fhraataces. 16. PHRAATACES, reigned only a short time, as 
he was expeSed by his subjects on account of his crimes. The Bar- 
thian nobles then elected as king Orodes, who was of the family of the 
Arsacidae. 17. ORODBS II, reigned a short time, as he was kitted by 
the Parthians on account of his cruelty. Upon his death the 
Parthians appEed to tfce Romans for Vonones, one of the sons of 
Phraates IV, who was accordingly granted to them, 18. VONOICEB I, 
soa of Phraates IV, was also disliked by his subjects, who therefore 
iffvited Artabanus, king of Media, ix> take possession of the kingilon* 


Artabanus drove Vonones out of Parthia, who resided first in 
Armenia, next in Syria, and subsequently in Cilitia. He was put to 
death in A.D. 19. 19. ARTABANTTS III, obtained the Parthian king- 
dom soon after the expulsion of Vonones, about A.D. 16. Artabamis 
was involved in hostilities with the Romans, and was expelled more 
than once by his subjects. 20. GOTARZES, succeeded his father, 
Artabanns III, but was defeated by his brother Bardanes and retired 
into Hyrcania. 21. BARDANES, brother of the preceding, was put 
to death by his subjects in 47, whereupon Gotarzes again obtained 
the crown. 22. VONONES II, succeeded Gotarzes about 50. His 
reign was short 23, VOLOGESES I, sou of Vonones II or Artabanus 
III. He conquered Armenia, which he gave to his brother Tiridates. 
He was later defeated by Domitius Corbulo, and at length made 
peace with the Romans on condition that Tiridates should receive 
Armenia as a gift from the Roman emperor. Accordingly Tiridates 
came to Rome in 63, and obtained from Nero the Armenian crown. 
24. PACORUS, succeeded his father Vologeses I, and was a contem- 
porary of Domitian and Trajan. 25. CHOSROSS or OSROES, suc- 
ceeded his brother Pacorus during the reign of Trajan. His conquest 
of Armenia occasioned the invasion of Parthia by Trajan, who made 
the Parthians for a time subject to Rome. [TRAJANUS.] Upon the 
death of Trajan in A.D. 1x7 Hadrian relinquished the conquests of 
Trajan, and made the Euphrates, as before, the eastern boundary of 
the Roman empire. 26. V OLOGESBS II, succeeded his father Chos- 
roes, and reigned from about A.D. 122 to 149. 27. VOLOGESES III, 
was defeated by the generals of the emperor Verus, and purchased 
peace by ceding Mesopotamia to the Romans. From this time to 
the downfall of the Parthian empire, there is great confusion in the 
list of kings. 28. The last king of Parthia was ARTABANTJS IV, in 
whose reign the Persians recovered their long-lost independence. 
They were led by Artaxerxes, the son of Sassan, and defeated the 
Parthians in three great battles, in the last of which Artabanus was 
taken prisoner and killed, A.D. 226. Thus ended the Parthian 
empire of the Arsatidae, after it had existed 476 years. The 
Parthians were now obliged to submit to Artaxerxes, the founder 
of the dynasty of the Sassanidae, which continued to reign tin 

A.D. 651. 


ASSES or PARSES, youngest son of king Artaxerxes III. Ochus, 
was raised to the Persian throne by the eunuch Bagoas after he had 
poisoned Artaxerxes, 339 B.C., but he was murdered by Bagoas in 
the 3rd year of his reign. 

Assfodft. z. Mother of Ptolemy I, was a concubine of Philip. 
fatiMr of Alexander the Great, and married Lagus while she was 
pngnaat with Ptolemy. 2. Daughter of Ptolemy I and Berenice; 
maniad first Lysunachus, king of Thrace, in 300 B.C.; secondly, her 
half -toother, Ptolemy Ceraunus, who murdered her children by 
g; and thirdly, her own brother Ptolemy II 

in 279. Though Arsinofi box* Ptolemy no children, she was exceed- 
ingly beloved by him; he gave her name to several cities, called & 


district of Egypt Arsinoites after her, and honoured her memory in 
various -ways. 3. Daughter of Lysimachus, married Ptolemy II 
Philadelphia soon after his accession, 285 B.C. 4. Daughter of 
Ptolemy XI Auletes, was carried to Rome by Caesar after the 
capture of Alexandria, and led in triumph by him in 46. She 
afterwards returned to Alexandria; but her mister Cleopatra per- 
suaded Antony to have her put to death in 41. 

ARslN&fi, the name of several cities in Egypt, each called after one 
or other of the persons mentioned above. The most important were : 
i. In the Nomos Heroopolites in Lower Egypt, near or upon the 
head of the Sinus Heroopolites of W. branch of the Red Sea (Gvifof 
Sv&t). It was afterwards called Cleopatra. 2. The city of the 
Nomos Arsinoites in Middle Egypt; formerly called CrocodHopdlis, 
the seat of the Egyptian worship of the crocodile. 

ARTXB&CTJS. i. Brother of Darius, is mentioned in the reign of 
his nephew Xerxes, as a wise counsellor. 2. Commander ofthe 
bodyguard of Xerxes, assassinated this king in 465 B.C. 3. Kings 
of Parthia. [ARSACES, 3, 8, 19, 28.] 

ARTABAZUS. i. Persian general in the army of Xerxes, served 
under Mardonius in 479 B.C., and after the defeat of the Persians at 
Plataea, he fled with 40,000 men and reached Asia in safety. 2. A 
Persian general, fought under Artaxerxes II, and Artaxerxes in, 
and Darius III Codomannus. One of his daughters, BarsmS, 
became by Alexander the mother of Hercules. 

ARTABRI, Celtic people in the N.W. of Spain, near the Pro- 
montory Nerzum or Celticum, also called Axtabrum after them 
(C. Finisterre}. 

ARTACB, seaport town of the peninsula of Cyzicns, in the Pro- 
pontisz also a mountain in the same peninsula. 

ARTAEI, was, according to Herodotus* the native name of the 
Persians. It signifies noble, and appears, in the form Aria, as the 
first part of a large number of Persian proper names. 

ARTAJ>HERNS. i. Brother of Darius, He was satrap of Sardis 
during the Ionian revolt, 500 B.C. 2. Son of the former, com- 
manded, with Datis, the Persian army of Darius, which was defeated 
at Marathon, 490 B.C. He commanded the Lydians and Mysians 
in the invasion of Greece by Xerxes in 480. 

ARTAVASDS or ARTABAZHS. i. King of Armenia Major, suc- 
ceeded his father Tigranes. He betrayed Antony in his <wnpo*g" 
against the Parthians in 36 B.C. Antony accordingly invaded 
Armenia in 34, took Artavasdes prisoner, and carried him to Alex- 
andria. He was killed after ill* battle of Actram by order of Cleo- 
patra, 2. King of Armenia, probably a grandson of No. x t was 
placed upon the throne by Augustus, but was deposed by the 
Armenians. 3. King of Media, Atropatene, and an enemy of Arta- 
vasdes I, king of Armenia. H died shortly before 20 B.C. 

AjtxjtxATA. later capital of Armenia Major, built by Artaxias, 
under the advice of Hannibal, en a peciBsnla, TrnM*Ac| by *****" 


ziver Araxes. After being burnt by the Romans tinder Corbulo 
(58 B.C.), it was restored by Tiridatos, and called Neroniana. 

ARTJbtERxfis, the name of 4 Persian kings, i. ARTAXERXES I, 
surnamed Longimanus, from his right hand being longer than his 
left, succeeded his father Xerxes I and reigned 464-425 B.C. He 
carried on war against the Egyptians, who were assisted in their 
revolt by the Athenians. He was sncceeded by his son Xerxes II. 
2. ARTAXERXBS II, surnamed Mnempn, from his good memory, 
succeeded his father, Darius II, and reigned 405-359 B.C. Respect- 
ing the war between *"tn and his brother Cyrus, see CYRUS. Tis- 
saphernes was appointed satrap of W. Asia in the place of Cyrus, and 
was actively engaged in wars with the Greeks. [AGESZLAUS, 2.] 
Artaxerxes msun+s^neA a long straggle against Evagoras of Cyprus, 
from 385 to 376; and his attempts to recover Egypt were unsuccess- 
ful. Towards the end of his reign he put to death his eldest son 
Darius, who had formed a plot to assassinate him. His last days 
were further embittered by his son Ochus, who caused the destruc- 
tion of two of his brothers, in order to secure the succession for 
himself. Artaxerxes was succeeded by Ochus, who ascended the 
throne under the name of Artaxerxes III. 3. ARTAXERXBS III, 
also called Ochus, reigned 359-338 B.C. By the aid of his Greek 
generals and mercenaries, he reconquered Phoenicia and Egypt. The 
rains of government were entirely in the hands of the eunuch 
Bagoas, and of Mentor the Rfaodian. At last he was poisoned by 
Bagoas, and was succeeded by his youngest son ARSES. 4. 
ARTAXERXES IV, the founder of the dynasty of the SASSANTDAS. 

ARTAXIAS or ARTAXES, the name of 3 kings of Armenia, i. Tne 
founder of the Armenian kingdom, was one of the generals of Antio- 
chos tho Great, but revolted, and became an independent sovereign. 
Hannibal took refuge at the court of Artaxias, and he superintended 
the building of ARTAXATA. Artaxias was conquered and taken 
prisoner by Antiochus IV Epiphanes, about 165. 2. Son of 
Artavasdes, was put to death by his own subjects in 20 B.C., and 
Augustus placed Tigranes on the throne. 3. Son of Polemon, vg 
of Pontns, was proclaimed king of Armenia by Germamcus, in 
18 JL.D. He died about 35. 

ART&dDd'RUS. i . Of Ephesus, Greek geographer, lived about zoo 
B.C. 2. Also of Ephesus, lived at Rome between A.D. 138 and 180, 
and wrote a work on the interpretation of dreams, in -5 books, 
which is stai extant. 

ART&MIS, Greek goddess, called DIANA by the Romans. According 
to the most ancient account, she was daughter of Zeus and Leto, and 
the twin-sister o ApoBo, bora with *"*" in the island of Delos. (z) 
ArUmis AS the sister ef ApoUo is a female divinity representing the 
sedftft idea that Apollo did as a male divinity. Artemis is, like her 
tooffbear, armed with a bow, quiver, and arrows, and sends plagues 
aod sadden death among men, women, and anfmab. As ApoQo 
was not only a destructive god, bat also averted ev3s, so Artemis 
titucnviBe cured &nd aDevi&tod the sufferings of mortals. Jn the 
Trojan war afae aided, Hkc Apolk>, wife the Trojans. Sbe was more 


especially the protectress of the young; and from her watching over 
the young of females, she came to be regarded as the goddess of the 
flocks and the chase. In this manner she became the huntress 
among the immortals. Artemis* like Apollo, is unmarried; she is a 
maiden-divinity never conquered by love. She slew ORION with 
her arrows because he attempted her chastity; and she changed 
ACTAEOX into a stag, because he had seen her bathing. With her 
brother Apollo, she slew the children of NIOBE, who had deemed 
herself superior to Leto. When Apollo was regarded as identical 
with the Sun or Helios, his sister was looked upon as Selene" or the 
Moon. Hence she is represented as in love with ENDYMION, whom 
she kissed in his sleep; but this legend properly relates to Selene* 
or the Moon, and is foreign to the character of Artemis, who was a 
goddess unmoved by love. (2) The Arcadian Artemis is a goddess 
of the nymphs, and was worshipped in Arcadia in early times.* 
She hunted with her nymphs on the Arcadian mountains, and her 
chariot was drawn by 4 stags with golden antlers. There was no 
connection between the Arcadian Artemis and Apollo. (3) The Tau- 
rian Artemis. There was in Tauris a goddess, whom the Greeks 
identified with their own Artemis, and to whom all strangers thrown 
on the coast of Tauris were sacrificed. Iphigenla and Orestes 
brought her image from thence, and laaded at Brauzon in Attica, 
whence the goddess derived the name of Brauronia. The Rranronian 
Artemis was worshipped at Athens and Sparta, and Spartan boys 
were scourged at her altar till it was besprinkled with their blood. 
(4) The Ephesian Artemis was distinct from the Greek goddess. She 
was an ancient Asiatic divinity whose worship the Greeks found 
established in Ionia, when they settled there, and to whom they 
gave the name of Artemis. Her image in the magnificent temple of 
Ephesus was represented with many breasts. The representations 
of the Greek Artemis in works of ait are different according as she 
is represented either as a huntress, or as tne goddess of the moon. 
As the huntress, her breast is covered, and the legs up to the knees 
are naked, the rest being covered by the chlamys. Her attributes 
are the bow, quiver, and arrows, or a spear, stags, and dogs. As the 
goddess of the moon* she wears a long robe which reaches down to 
her feet, a veil covers her head, and above her forehead rises the 
crescent of the moon. The most famous of her Mfaffrig statues is 
the Versailles ' Diana ' (now in the Louvre, Paris), 

ARTttidslA. z. ARTEMISIA I, queen of Halicarnassus in Caria, 
accompanied Xerxes in his invasion of Greece, wl in the battle 
of Salarnis (480 B.C.) greatly distinguished heraelf by her prudence 
and courage, for which she was honoured by the Persian king. 2. 
ARTEMISIA H, venowned in history for her grief at the death of 
her husband MausSlus, prince of Caria, 352-350 B.C. To perpetuate, 
his memory she built at Haficcpnassas the MyvfftUjre [H&u- 

ARTBMlsTuM, tract of country on the K. coast of Euboea; off tins, 
coast the Greeks defeated the fleet of Xerxes, 480 B.C. 
ARUNS, an Etruscan word, xegaaled by tho ttna^iy as a proper 


name, bat perhaps signified a younger son in general, i. Younger 
brother of Lucnmo, i.e. L, Tarquinius Priscus. 2. Younger brother 
of L. Tarquinias Strperbus, murdered by his wife. 3. Younger son 
of Tarquinins Superbus, fell in combat with Brutus. 

ARVAL BROTHERS, a college of 12 priests, devoted to the worship 
of Dea Dia, a Roman corn-deity. 

ARVERNI, Gallic people in Aquitania (Auvergne). In early times 
they were the most powerful people in the S. of Gaul: they 
were defeated by Domitins Ahenobarbus and Fabms Maximas in 

12 1 B.C. 

As, a Roman coin, worth about d. or a little more. 

ASANDER. i. Son of Philotas, brother of Parmenion, and one of 
the generals of Alexander the Great. After the death of Alexander 
(323 B.C.) he obtained Caria for his satrapy. 2. A general of 
Pharaaces II, king of Bosporus, whom he pnt to death in 47, in 
hopes of obtaining the kingdom. He was confirmed in the 
sovereignty by Augustas. 

ASC&L&FHUS. i. Son of Ares and AstyochS, led, with his brother 
lalmenus, the Minyans of Orchomenus against Troy, and was .slain 
by Defphobns. 2. Son of Acheron and Gorgyra or Orphne. When 
Pinto gave Persepho'nC permission to return to the upper world, 
provided she had eaten nothing. Ascalaphus declared that she 
had eaten part of a pomegranate. Persephone, in revenge, changed 
him into an owl, by sprinkling him with water from the river 

AscXLdN , one of the chief cities of the Philistines, 

AsciNlus or ICzus, son of Aeneas by Creusa, accompanied his 
father to Italy. He founded Alba Longa, and was succeeded on the 
throne by his son Sflvius, The gens Julia at Rome traced its origin 

AscLfipIiDfis, the name of several physicians, which they derived 
from the god Asclepins. [AESCULAPIUS.] The most celebrated 
was a native of Bithynla, who came to Rome about 50 B.C.* where 
be acquired a great reputation* 

AscLfipIXDfis, Greek poet, contemporary of Theocritus. Some 
of his poems are preserved in the Anthology. 


Asc&tfus F&DliHUS* Q., Roman grammarian, born at Patavium 
(Pflrfibt), about 2 B.C., aad died in his $5th year. _ He wrote a 
valuable Coinmentary on tf*^ speeches of Cicero, of which we still 
possess considerable fragments (ed. A* C. Clark, 1906). 

ASCRA, town in Boeotta oa Mt. Hehcon, where Heskxi resided. 

ASC*LUM, i. PICBNTTM, chief town of Picenum, and a Roman 
, destroyed by the Romans in tne Social War (89 B.C.), 

bet afterwards rebuilt, a. AJTTLUM, town of Apnfia in Daunia 
rwbick ibe fiomans were defaatod by Pyniras, 729 B.C. 


AsBLLlo, P. SmcpRdNfus, tribune of the soldiers under P. 
Scipio Africanus at Numantia, 133 B.C., wrote a Roman history from 
the Punic wars inclusive to the times of the Gracchi. 

AslA, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, wife of lapetus, and 
mother of Atlas, Prometheus, and Epimetheus. 

A.S!A, in the poets Asis, one of the 3 great divisions which the 
ancients made of the known world. It was first used by the Greeks 
for the W. part of Asia Minor, especially the plains watered by the 
river Carter, where the Ionian colonists first settled. The S. part 
of the continent was supposed to extend further to the E. than it 
does, while to the N. and N.E. parts, which were unknown, too 
small an extent was assigned. The different opinions about the 
boundaries of Asia on the side of Africa are mentioned under AFRICA: 
on the side of Europe the boundary was formed by the river Tanais 
{Don), the Palus Maeotis {Sea of Azov), Pontus Euximis (Black 
Sea), Propontis (Sea of M 'armor -a), and the Aegean (Archipelago). 
The most general division of Asia was into 2 parts, which were 
known by different names. To the earliest Greek colonists the 
river Halys, the eastern boundary of the Lydian kingdom, formed 
a natural division between Upper and Lower Asia; and afterwards 
the Euphrates was adopted as a boundary. Another division was 
made by the Taurus into A. intra Taurum, i.e. the part of Asia N. 
and N.W. of the Taurus, and A. extra Tavrum, aU the rest of the 
continent. The division ultimately adopted, but apparently not 
till the 4th century A.D., was that of A. Major and A. Minor. 
i. ASIA MAJOR was the part of the continent E. of the Tanais, the 
Euxine, an imaginary line drawn from the Emrine at Trapezus 
(Trebizond) to the Gulf of Issus, and the Mediterranean: thus it 
included Sarmatica Asiatica with all the Scythian tribes to the E., 
Colchis, Iberia, Albania, Armenia, Syria, Arabia, Babylonia. 
Mesopotamia, Assyria, Media, Susiana, Persis, Ariana* Hyrcaaia, 
Margiana, Bactriana, Sogdiana, India., the land of the Sinae and 
Serica; respecting which, see the several articles. 2. ASIA MINOR 
(Anatolia), was the peninsula on the extreme W. of Asia, bounded 
by the Euxine, Aegean, and Mediterranean on the N., W., and S.; 
anH on the E. by the mountains on the W. of the upper course of the 
Euphrates. It was divided into Mysia, Lydia, and Caria, on the 
W., Lytia, Bamphylia, and Ciliria, on the S. ; Bithynia, Faphlagooia, 
and Pontus, on the E.; and Phrygia, Pisidia, Galatia, and Cappa- 
docia, in the centre. 3. ASIA PROPRIA, or simply ASIA, the Roman 
province, formed ont of the kingdom of Pergamos, which was 
bequeathed to the Romans by ATTALUS III (130 B.C.), and the 
Greek cities on the W. coast, and the adjacent islands, wife 
Rhodes. It included the districts of Mysia, Lydia. Caria, and 
Phrygia; and was governed at first by propraetors, afterwards by 

Asbra. x. Town in Laoonia on the coast between Taeranm 
and Gytibdmn. 2. Town in Argolis, W. of Hermione, was boflt by 
the Dryopes, who -were cocpefled by tbe Argzves after the firafc 
Messeniatt war,, adyd bttOi Ho. 3. 3, Town in 


Promontory Acritas, on the Mesaeman Gulf, which was hence also 
caiiad the Asinaean Gulf. 



AS&PTJS. z. River flowing through Sicyonian territory into the 
Corinthian Golf. The god of this river was son of Oceanus and 
Tethys, and father of Evadne, Enboea, and Aegina, each of whom 
was therefore called Asopis. Aeacus, the son -of Aegina, is called 
Asopiades. 2. River in Boeotia. 3. River in Thessaly. 

ASPASU, the elder, of Miletus, danghter of Axiochns, the most 
celebrated of the Greek Hetaerae. She oanm to Athens, where she 
gained the affections of Pericles. Having parted with his wife, 
Pericles lived with Aspasia, during the rest of his life* His enemies 
accused Aspasia of impiety, and it required all his personal influence 
to procure her acquittal. The house of Aspasia was the centre of 
the best literary and philosophical society of Athens, and was 
frequented even by Socrates. On the death of Pericles (429 B.C.), 
Aspasia is said to have attached herself to one Lysicles, a dealer in 
cattle, and to have made him by her instructions a first-rate orator. 

-ASPKHDUS, town hi PamphyHa (Asia Minor), on the river Eury- 
medon. This city was called Primopolis at tiie council of Ephesus, 
AJD. 431* In ancient ^jmag it bad considerable importance; but 
to-day it is all bat deserted. The ruins of its magnificent theatre 
are gigantic. Its scats are intact and its ctcaea is still crowned with 
the original arcade. It -was built by an (tcnknovra) person to com- 
memorate the victorious return of Lucius Veros from the East; this 
is recorded in a still extant inscription. See the account and photo- 
graphs in Hogarth's Accidents of out Antiquary's Life (19x0), 
pp. IX&-00. 

AssXHlcus, feing o f Troy, son of Tros, father of Capys, grandfather 
of Anchises. and great-grandfather of Aeneas. Hence the Romans, 
as reputed descendants of Aeneas, are called domus Assaraci. 

AssfisDS, town of Ionia, near Miletus, with a temple of Athena 
sornarned Assesia. 

Assus, city in the Troad, on the Adraroyttian Gulf, opposite to 
Lesbos: the birthplace of Qeantbes the Stoic. 

ASSYRIA, x. The country properly so called, in the narrowest 
sense, was a district of Asia, extending along the E. side of the 
Tigris, wbxch divided it on the W. and K.W. from Mesopotamia and 
Babylonia, and bounded on the N. and E. by M. Niphates and 
M. Zagnzs, which separated it from Armenia arid Media, and on the 
S.E. by Sosiana. It was watered by several streams, flowing into 
tbe Tigrfe from tfee E.; 2 of which, iiie Lycos or Zabatns (Great 
Zob)> and the Caprus or Zabas or Anzabas (Little Zab), divided the 
into 3 parts: that between the Upper Tigris aad the 
Atnria (a mere dialectic variety of Assyria), was 

parefcafcip the moat ancient seat of the monarchy, and cootained the 
capttaiL Kias^A cr Hna; tiiat between the Lycos and the Capros 


was called Adiabene: and the part S.E. of the Caprus contained the 
districts of Applloniatis and Sittacene. 2. In a -wider sense the 
name was applied to the whole country watered by the Euphrates 
and the Tigris, so as to include Mesopotamia and Babylonia. 3. By 
a farther extension the word is used to designate the whole Assyrian 
Empire. Its reputed founder was Ninus, the builder of the capital 
city; and in its widest extent it included the countries just men- 
tioned, with Media, Persia, Armenia, Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine, 
except the kingdom of Judah. The fruitless expedition of Senna- 
cherib against Egypt, and the miraculous destruction of his army 
before Jerusalem (714 B.C.), so weakened the empire, that the Medes 
revolted and formed a separate kingdom. In 606 B.C. Nineveh was 
taken, and the Assyrian empire destroyed by Cyaxares, the king 
of Media. 

ASTA, 2 Roman colonies, i. (Asii in Piedmont), town of Liguria 
on the Tanarus. 2. Town in Hispania Baetica, near Gades. 

AsrXsSRAS and ASTAPUS, two rivers of Aethiopia, rising in 
Abyssinia and uniting to form the Kile. The land enclosed by them 
was the island of Meroe. 

AsTlcus, city of Bithynia, on the Sinus Astaoenus, a bay of the 
Propontis, was a colony from Megara, but afterwards received fresh 
colonists from Athens, who called tiie place Oltria. It was destroyed 
by Lysimachus, but was rebuilt on a neighbouring site, by 
Nicomedes I, who named his new city XICOMEDIA. 

AsrXpus. [ASTABORAS.] 


AsrfiRlA, or ASTfesIfi, daughter of the Titan Coeus and Phoebe, 
sister of Leto (Latona), wife of Perses, and mother of Hecate. In 
order to escape the embraces of Zeus, she is said to have taken the 
form of a quail (ortyx), and to have thrown herself down from heaven 
into the sea, where she was metamorphosed into the island Astoria 
(the island which had fallen from heaven like a star), or Ortygia, 
afterwards called Delos. 

ASTRABA (= star-maiden), daughter of Zeus and Themis, and 
goddess of justice, lived during the golden age among men ; but when 
the wickedness of men increased, she withdrew to heaven and was 
placed among the stars, under the name of Virgo. 

ASTRAEUS (star-man), a Titan, husband of Eos (Aurora), and 
father of the winds and the stars. 

ASTUXBS, a warlike people in the N. of Spain, combining modern 

AsTURlCA AUGUSTA {Astorga), capital city of the Astures, founded 
by Caesar. 

ASTAGBS, SOB of Cyaxares* last king of Media, reigned 594-559 
B.C. He was deposed by his grandson Cyrus. 

ASTANAX, son of Hector and Andromache. After tiie capture 
of Troy the Greeks hurled Mm down from i&e walls, that he might 
not restore tiie kingdom of Troy. 


ASTTOAMAS, Greek' tragedian; flourished in 4th cent. B.C. His 
works are lost. 

l, the heads of the city police at Athens. 
, an island, S. of the Grecian archipelago. 

ATALANTA, or ATLANT&. i. The Arcadian Atalanta, was a 
daughter of lasns and Clymene. She was exposed by lasns in 
infancy, and was suckled by a she-bear, the symbol of Artemis. 
After she had grown up she lived in pure maidenhood, slew the 
centaurs who pursued her, and took part in the Calydonian hunt, 
receiving from MTCT.EAGBR the hide of the boar as the prize of victory. 
Her father subsequently recognized her as his daughter; and when 
he desired her to marry, she required every suitor to contend with 
her in the foot-race, because she was the most swift-footed of mortals. 
If he conquered her, she would marry him; if he was conquered, he 
was to die. She was at length overcome by MUanion with the 
assistance of Aphrodite. The goddess had given him 3 golden 
apples, and during the race he dropped them one after tie other: 
their beauty charmed Atalanta so much, that she stopped to gather 
them, and MOaxuon thus gained the goal before her. Sfr* accord- 
ingly became his wife. 2. The Boeotian Atalanta. The same stories 
are related of her as of the Arcadian Atalanta, except that her 
parentage and the localities are described differently. Thus she is 
said to have been a daughter of Schoeneus, and to have been married 
to Hippomenes. 

ATARG&TIS, a Semitic deity (the name is a form of Astarte) 
worshipped in Syria. [SYRIA DBA.] 

ATAX (Audet), originally called Narbo, river in Gaflia Narbonensis, 
rising in the Pyrenees, and flowing by Narbo Martins into the Lacus 
Rubresus or Rubrensis. 

AT&, daughter of Eris (strife) or Zeus, was an ancient Greek 
divinity, who led both gods and men into rash actions. She per- 
sonifies Infatuation, her curse implying guilt in the infatuate, 

ATBLLA (A versa), town in Campania between Capua and Neapolis, 
originally inhabited by the Oscans, afterwards a Roman colony. 
AteQa owes its celebrity to the AUttanae fabidae or Oscan farces. 

ATBSTS (Estt), Roman colony in the country of the Veneti in 
Upper Italy. 

ATHXMAN!A, mountainous country in the S. of Epirns, on the W. 
side of Kudus, of which Argithea, was the chief town. The Atha- 
xnSnes were a Thessalian people, who had been driven out of Thessaly 
by th Lapithae. 

ArabtAS, son of Aeolus and Bnarete. and king of Orchomenns in 
Boeotia. At the command of Hera, Athamas married NephelS, by 
whom be became tite faifcer of Phrixus and Helle*. But he was 
secretly in tore with Ino, the daughter of Cadmus, by whom he begot 
Leaidns aad Meticertes. Incurring the anger both of Hera and of 
Nepheli, Athaots was seiaed with miyhiftM, and killed his owa son, 
Leazchus. lao tfarw herself with tf elxcertes into iie sea, and both 


were changed into marine deities, Ino becoming Leucothea, and 
Meticertes Palaemon. Athamas, as the murderer of his son, was 
obliged to flee from Boeotia, and settled in Thessaly. 

ATHANASlus, ST., one of the Christian fathers, born at Alexandria 
about A.D. 296, became archbishop of that city in 326. He cham- 
pioned the orthodox faith, as expounded at the Council of Nice, 
326, and was persecuted whenever the Arians got the upper hand. 
He was driven from his see four times. He died in 373. The 
Athanasian Creed was not composed by Athanasius, but the whole of 
it could be made out of the works of the saint; its real author is 

ATH&NA, or ATHENE, called MINERVA by the Romans, was one of 
the great divinities of the Greeks. She is frequently called Pallas 
Athena, or simply Pallas. She was the daughter of Zeus and Metis 
(=wise counsel). Before her birth Zeus swallowed her mother; and 
Athena afterwards sprung forth from the head of Zeus in complete 
armour. As her father was the most powerful **** her mother the 
wisest among the gods, so Athena was a combination of the two. 
She appears as the preserver of the state, and presided over the 
intellectual and moral side of human life. As the protectress of 
agriculture, Athena is represented as creating the olive tree (see 
below), inventing the plough and rake, etc. She was the patroness 
of both the useful and elegant arts, such as weaving. She was 
believed to have instituted the ancient court of the Areopagus at 
Athens. She also protected the state from outward enemies. In 
the Trojan war she sided with the Greeks. As a goddess of war she 
usually appears in armour, with the aegis and a golden staff. In 
the centre of her breast-plate or shield appears the head of Medusa, 
the Gorgon. She is represented as a virgin divinity. She was the 
protecting deity of Athens and Attica. The tale ran that in the 
reign of Cecrops both Poseidon and Athens contended for the 
possession of Athens. The gods resolved that whichever of them 
produced a gift most useful to mortals should have possession of 
the land. Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and straight- 
way a horse appeared. Athena then planted the olive. The gods 
thereupon decreed that the olive was more useful to man *fran the 
horse, and gave the city to the goddess, from whom it was called 
Athenae. At Athens the magnificent festival of the PANATBENASA 
was celebrated in honour of the goddess. At this festival took place 
the grand procession, which was represented on the frieze of ffce 
PARTHENON. The two most famous of her statues (both by Phidias) 
were on the Acropolis at Athens. (See Fig. n.) 

ATHENAB (Athens}, the capital of ATTICA, is situated about 3 miles 
from the sea-coast. The city is grouped round the Acropolis, which 
rises to a height or about 180 feet above the^ and is about z,ioo 
feet in length by 500 in breadth. This was the original settlement, 
and, even in classical times, was called ' the City 1 ; though Athens, ia 
the more extended aanse, included the lower city as well as the 
harbour of PIRAEUS, with which the city was connected by tbe 
famous 'long walls' (built by Betides, destroyed by Hie Spturtaas 


in 404 B.C., and rebuilt by Cooon) . The Attic Plain, which surrounds 
the city on 3 sides, was bounded by Mt. Hymettus on E., Pentelicus 
(famous for its marble quarries) on N.E., on N. by Barnes. From 
the Acropolis can be seen Lycabettus, a hill nearly 1,000 feet high. 
The AGORA, lay towards the N. of the entrance to the Acropolis. 
Recent excavation in the Agora (1931-6) has revealed the sites of 
many celebrated buildings, including the Bouleuterrum, the council 
chamber of the Five Hundred, and the Metroum, the sanctuary of 
the Mother of the Gods, and a temple of Apollo. The Agora is 
known now to have been bounded on the S. by a great colonnade, 
and on the E. was another colonnade, identified as the Stoa of 
Attains, and on the W. side was the smaller Stoa of Zeus. In the 
3rd century A.D. the Agora was deserted, being left out of the city 
by a new city wall, called the Valerian Wall, but a century later the 
Agora was rebuilt again. Adjoining the Agora on the S.W., and 
reached by a flight of steps, was the AREOPAGUS; S.W. of the 
Areopagus was the PNYX. Outside the walls of the City which, 
roughly, measured i by ij miles lay the suburbs, gardens, and 
cemeteries. The Ceramlcus (or N.W. suburb) was famous; for a 
road, bordered by tombs of the illustrious dead, led to the garden 
called the Academy, Plato's favourite haunt, by the banks of the 
I&ssus, Under the E, slope of the Acropolis lay the Odeum, or HaH 
of Song; and, to the S.E., the great stone theatre, built to accom- 
modate 25,000 spectators. Tnis theatre dates from about 330 B.C. 
Athens was an Aegean city state in the 2nd millennium. TraoUtioii- 
aSy, the AcropoSs, fke most ancient part, was founded by the 
mythical Qscrqps, and the legendary Theseus is credited with the 
fonnatksi o the city of Ataens by a union of the 12 independent 
states or townships of Attica, Between 800 and 600 B.C. Athens 
grew in importance as the leader of the lonians. The legend of 
T&eseus probably covers the work of some real statesman of the 
S& ceurfetiry. The rulers consisted of a king, who was also the chief 
priest, and later, about 650 B.C., lost his kingly power, a polemarch 
or military ruler, and an archon or civil ruler. The first code of 
laws is^ attributed to the semi-mythical Dracon, but the first historic 
name in Athenian history is Solon, who was elected archon in 
594 B.C. [SotON.j The archonship of Solon was succeeded by the 
tyranny of BESKTRATUS, who fsrifcer established t&e power of 
Athens without destroying the democracy created by Solon. The 
overiiirow df the successors of PJsistratus paved te way for the 
further democratic reforms of CUsthenes, JpusrHEisis.] Replaced 
tfee political government oa a basis of equaj representation of the 
people, and tiie strong state which he organized emerged, under the 
&i&&QS&<& TSBIBSTOCLES, tfcrOHgh tfee Bersaan wars as the powerful 
liaabrctfaa AtibesJan coofedeffaey. Toe city bad, been burnt down 
fey Xjraes in 480 BXL, bot was soon rebuilt by Thesnistocies and 
vxxk is iMs was axapieted on a grand scale fey 
power of w&afc was aa Athenian mpse broogat 
coogict with Spaiist; and tbe Athenian commander, 
*i beftgred in oo-operatioo with Sparta, was emled by tfee 
dale also marks fee rise t& powfcr o 


PBRICXBS, and the beginning of the greatest period in Athenian 
history, terminated eventually by the outteeak of tbe war with 
Sparta ia 431 B.C. and tbe death of Pericles in 429. The Peiopon- 
nesian war lasted through 2 phases until tbe final sarrewier of 
Athems in 404. The long walls of the Piraeus were dismantled, and 
Lysaader, the Spartan commander, set up an oligarchy in Athens, 
carried on by Critias and the Thirty Tyrants. Although tke 
oligarchy was overthrown by THRASYBULUS, 411 B.C.. the restored 
Athenian democracy did not again recover its supremacy. Of earlier 
architectural remains mention must be made of the great Temple of 
Olympian Zeus begun by Pisistratus (but not finished); fihis was 
completed in the 2nd century A.B. by Hadrian. Ruins oi this 
splendid building still remain. But the main glories of Athens* on 
the architectural side, are of course to be sought for on the Acropolis. 
On this rose the PARTHENON ; the ERECHTHEUM, an exquisite Ionic 
temple, with three divisions, the E. division containing the oldest 
image of Athena ; the temples of * Wing!ess Victory/ and of Artemis; 
and the colossal statue of A^xena Promachos {*= champion). At a 
lower level stood the Tkeseum {so called}, surrounded by 34 beautiful 
Doric columns. This btiilding is 3&L1 in a good state of preservation 
The approach to t$ Acropolis was through the magnificent PRO- 
PYLAEA designed by.MnesicJes ia 437 B.C. The beaety of A&eos 
was owing to its public buildings, for the private ho*ses were 
insignificant, aad ite streets badly laid oat. Towards the ead of &e 
PeJopomiesiaB ^war it contained 10,000 houses, which at tfae rate of 
12 inhabitants to Jt boose, wouid give a population of 120,000, 
though some writers make the inhabitants as many as 180,000, 
Under tie Romans Athens continued to flourish, and retained many 
privileges when the south of Greece was formed into the Roman 
province of Achaia. It suffered greatiy on its capture by Sulla, 
86 &.<?. l*r.rrogr tfee t&aty centarks &f tbe Christian era it was ooe 
of the chief seats of learning; aad the Romans were accustooaed 
send their sons to Athens for<*fceir education. 

resided in the city (A.D. 122-8), adoxned it witfe niaay new bnildiags, 
and his example was followed by Herodes Abacus, who beautified 
the city in iie reign oi M. Aurelms. I^or tfee administcatioii of 
Athens see AREOPAGUS ; BOTJI^ ; ECCLBSIA, For fuitlier detafe see 
Professor Tucker's Life in Ancient Athens, and dbap. Triii In Itetjf 
Gartens New Chapter in Gm?i History (i&9<2), on ttre ej.U^ajQUa 
of i&fe Acropolis, and E. A. Gardner's Ancient Jtikens: IW ^ 
descrk>tkm of the Acropolis see Rogers's ed. of iire Lys#$b*M t 
(1911)- (See Hgs, 12, 13.) / ^ '' 

ATgBKAggM^ in geo&ral a temple or place sacred to Atfegsa. The 
nam> wa& specaaly gyren to a literary an4 . 

by iie empeio^ ^ Jpwirian at BoiQ)& aboat A.D. 

aboct A.D. 23% fest at Afexarniria a4 Mtorvra^fe at ^eme. Hie 
work is 


Athenaeus has been translated into English by Professor Gulick 
(7 vols., Loeb Library). 

ATHSNAG&RAS of Athens, Greek apologist of the 2nd cent., 
Christian Philosopher, author of an Apology (Uptffptta) in favour 
of the Christian religion. It was presented to Marcus Aurelius, 
probably in x 77. Athenagoras wrote also a book on the resurrection 
of the dead. 

ATHfi2*6D6RUS. i. Of Tarsus, Stoic philosopher surnamed Cor- 
dylio, was the keeper of the library at Pergamus, and afterwards 
removed to Rome, where he lived with M. Cato, at whose house he 
died. 2. Of Tarsus, Stoic philosopher, surnamed Cananites, from 
Can a in Cilicia, the birthplace of his father. He taught at Apollonia 
in Epirus, where the young Octavius (subsequently the emperor 
Augustus) was one of his disciples. 3. Greek sculptor, who helped 
to produce the Laocodn group. 

^THfisis (Adige or Etsch), rises in the Rhaetian Alps, receives the 
Atagis (Eisach], flows past Verona to the Adriatic. 

Arads, mountainous peninsula, also called Acts, which projects 
from Chalcidfce* in Macedonia. At its extremity it rises to the height 
of 6,349 feet; the voyage round it was so dangerous that Xerxes had 
a canal cut through the isthmus which connects the peninsula with 
the mainland. The isthmus is about i$ miles across; and there are 
stOI traces of the canal. The peninsula contained several flourishing 
cities in antiquity, and is now studded with monasteries, cloisters, 
and chapels. In these monasteries some valuable MSS. of ancient 
authors have been discovered. 

AT!A, mother of AUGUSTUS. 

AxtLlUS J&ftG&LUS. [RBGULtrS.] 

ArlNA (Atina), town of the Volsci, in Latram, afterwards a Roman 

AxiNTiNEs, Epirot people in Hryria. 


ATLANTIS, according to an ancient tradition, a great island W. 
of the Pillars of Hercules in the Ocean, opposite Mt. Atlas: its 
powerful princes invaded Africa and Europe, but were defeated by 
the Athenians and their allies: its inhabitants afterwards became 
wicked and impious, and the island was in consequence swallowed up 
in the ocean in a day and a night. This legend (and it is no more) 
is given by Plato in the Timaeus, and is said to have been related to 
Solon by the Egyptian priests. 

ATLAS (the bearer or endurer), son of lapetus and CiymSne, and 
brother of Prometheus and Epimetheus. He made war with the 
other Titans upon Zeus, and, being conquered, was condemned to 
bear heaven on his head aad. hands. The myth seems to have 
arisen from the idea that lofty mountains supported the heayexi. 
Another tewfction relates .that Perseus came to Atlas and asked for 
shelter, which was refused, whereupon Perseus, by means of the 
bead of Medusa, changed him into Mt. Atlas, on which rested heaven 


with all its stars. Atias was the father of the Pleiades, and of the 
Hyades and Hesperides by Aethra. In Greek architecture, Atlantes 
are colossal statues used, in place of columns, to support buildings. 
Atlantlades, a descendant of Atlas, especially Mercery, his grandson 
by Maia. and Hermaphroditus, son of Mercury. Atiantias and 
Atlantis, a female descendant of Atlas, especially one of the Pleiades 
and Hyades. 

ATLAS MONS was the name of the great mountain range of X. 
Africa between the Mediterranean and Great Desert (Sahara), on 
the X. and S., and the Atlantic and the Lesser Syrtis on the W. 
and . 

ATOSSA, daughter of Cyrus, and wife successively of her brother 
Cambyses, and of Darius Hystaspis, by whom she became the 
mother of Xerxes. 

ATRAX, town in Pelasgiotis in Thessaly. inhabited by the Per- 
rhaebi, so called from the mythical Atrax, son of PenSns and Bura, 
and father of Canaeus and Hippodamia. Hence Canaeus is called 
Atracldes and Hippodamia Atracis. 

ATRfiBAxfis, people in Gallia Belgica, in the modem Artois, which 
is a corruption of their name. 

ATREUS, son of Pelops and Hippodamia, grandson of Tantalus, and 
brother of Thyestes and Nitippe". [PELOPS.] He was first married 
to Qeola, by whom he became the father "of Plisthenes; then to 
Aerope 1 , the widow of his son Plisthenes. who was the mother of 
Agamemnon, Menelaus, and Anaxibia, either by Plisthenes or by 
Atreus [AGAMEMNON]; and lastly to Pelopia, the daughter of his 
brother Thyestes. In consequence of the murder of their half- 
brother Chrysippus, Atrens and Thyestes were obliged to take to 
flight; they were hospitably received at Mycenae; and, after the 
death of Eurystheus, Atreus became king of Mycenae. Thyestes 
seduced Arop, the wife of Atreus, and was in consequence banished 
by his brother: from his place of exile he sent Plisthenes, the son of 
Atreus, whom he had brought up as his own child, in order to slay 
Atreus, but Plisthenes fell by the hands of Atreus, who did no't 
know that he was his own son. In order to take revenge, Atreus, 
pretending to be reconciled to Thyestes, recalled him to Mycenae, 
killed his two sons, and placed their flesh before their father at a 
banquet. Thyestes fled with horror, and the gods cursed Atreus 
and his house. The kingdom of Atreus was now visited by famine, 
and the oracle advised Atreus to caB back Thyestes. Atreos, -oho 
went out in search of him, came to king Thesprotus, where he 
married his third wife, Pelopia, the daughter of Thyestes, whom 
Atreus believed to be a daughter of Thesprotus. Pelopia was at the 
time with child by her own father. This child, Aegisthns, afterwards 
slew Atreus because the latter had commanded him to slay his own 
father Thyestes. 


ATRlDAE, sons of Atrens, Agamemnon and Menelaus. 

ATRIUM* the large haH of a Roman house. 


or Media Atropatia, the N.W. part of Media, 
adjacent to Armenia, named after Atropaies, a native of the country, 
who, having been made its governor by Alexander, founded there a 
kingdom, which long remained independent. 
ATR&POS. One of the three Fates. 

Air&xJA. i. City of Lydia, formerly called Agrolra. 2. City Qn 
the coast of Pamphylia, founded by Attains II Philadelphus, and 
subdued by the Romans under P. Servilius Isauricus. 

ATTALUS. kings of Pergamns. i. Son of Attains, a brother of 
Philetaerus, succeeded his cousin, Eumenes I, and reigned 241-197 
B.C. He took part with the Romans against Philip and the Achaeans. 
He was a wise and just prince, and was distinguished by his patronage 
of literature. 2. Surnamed Philadelphns, 2nd son of Attalus, suc- 
ceeded his brother Eumenes II, and reigned 159-138. Like his 
father he was an ally of the Romans. 3. Surnamed PhilomCtor, son 
of Eumenes II and Stratonice, succeeded his uncle Attalus II, and 
reigned 138-133. In his will, he made the Romans his heirs; but his 
kingdom was claimed by Aristonicus. 

ATTHIS or Axns. [ATYS.] 

ATTIC ORATORS: the *ten' greater orators of Athens were.Aim- 

ATT!CA, a division of Greece, has the form of a triangle, two sides 
of which are washed by the Aegaean Sea, while the third is separated 
from Boeotia on the N. by the mountains Cithaeron and. Panics. 
Megaris, which bounds it on the N.W., was formerly a part of Attica. 
In ancient times it was called Acte and Actice, or the 'coastiand' 
[ACTE], from, which the later form Attica is said -to have been 
derived. According to tradition it derived its name from Atthis, the 
daughter of the mythical king Cranaus; and it is not impossible that 
Att-ica may contain the root Att or Ath t which we find in Atthis and 
Athena. Attica is divided by many ancient writers into 3 districts : 
(i) Tbt Highlands. (2) The Plain. (3} The Sea*o*st District. 
Besides these 3 divisions we also read of a fourth, Tht Midland 
District, stifl called Mesogia, an undulating plain in the middle of the 
country. The soil of Attica is not very fertile: the greater part of it 
is not adapted for growing corn; but it produces olives, figs, and 
grapes, especially the two former in great perfection. Hie country 
is dry; the chief river is the Cephissns, rising in Fames and flowing 
through the Athenian plain. Marble was obtained from the quarries 
of Pentelicns, N.E. of Athens, silver from the mines of Laurium near 
Sunium. The area of Attica, including the island of Salamis, which 
belonged to it, contained between 700 and 800 square miles; and its 
population in its flourishing period was probably about 500,000, of 
which nearly four-fifths were slaves. Attica is said to have been 
originally inhabited by Pelasgians. Its most ancient political divi- 
sk>a was into 12 independent states, attributed to 'CECROPS. Subse- 
quently Ion, the grandson of Helen, divided the peopleinto 4 tribes, 
Gtkonies, Bopfates t Arga&s, and AogUores] and Tneseos, who united 


the 12 independent states of Attica into one political body, and made 
Athens the capital, again divided the nation into 3 classes, Eupatridai, 
Geomori, and Demiurgi. Clisthenes (510 B.C.) abolished the old 
tribes and created 10 new ones, according to a geographical division : 
these tribes were subdivided into 174 demi or townships. 

Axrlcus HBRdDES, Tlsftitfus CtAVDlus, Greek rhetorician, born 
about A.D. 104, at Marathon in Attica. He taught rhetoric both at 
Athens and at Home. The future emperors M. Aurelius and L. 
Verus were among his pupils, and Antoninus Pius raised him to the 
consulship in 143. He spent part of his immense wealth in embellish- 
ing Athens. He died at the age of 76, in 180. 

Arrlcus, PoMPCsrfus, Roman eques, born at Rome, 109 B.C. His 
proper name after his adoption by Q. Caecflius, the brother of 
his mother, was Q. Caecilius Pompoaianus Atticus. His surname, 
Atticus, was given him on account of his long residence in Athens. 
He kept aloof from all political affaire, and thus lived on intimate 
terms with the most distinguished men of all parties. His chief 
friend was Cicero, whose correspondence with him, beginning in 68 
and continued down to Cicero's death, is one of the most valuable 
remains of antiquity. He purchased an estate at Buthrotum in 
Epirus. He died in 32 B.C. , at the age of 77, of voluntary starvation, 
when he found that he was attacked by an incurable illness. His 
wife, Pilia, bore M a daughter, Pomppnia or Caecilia, who was 
married to M. Vipsanius Agrippa. The sister of Atticus, Pomponia, 
was married to Q. Cicero, the brother of the orator. In philosophy 
Atticus belonged to the Epicurean sect. 

AxrlLA, king of the Huns, reigned A,D. 434-53. He was called 
'the Scourge of God.' The first part of his career (A.D. 445-50) 
consists of the ravage of the Eastern empire between the Euxine and 
the Adriatic, and the second of his invasion of the Western empire 
(45~ 2 )- His defeat by the Romans on the field of Chalons was one 
of the decisive battles of the world. He took Aqufleia in 452, after 
a siege of 3 months, but he did not attack Rome, in consequence, it 
is said, of his interview with Pope Leo the Great. He died in 453. 

ATYS, shepherd of Phrygia, beloved by the Phrygian goddess 
Cybele. Having proved unfaithful to the goddess, he was thrown 
by her into a state of madness, and was changed into a fir-tree. A 
festival was held in his honour in the spring. [See Frazer's Adonis, 
Attis, Osiris."] 2. Latin chief, from whom the Atia Gens derived its 
origin. Augustus was believed to be descended from him on his 
mother's side. 

, town in Saxnnium on the river Sagrus, 
the principal river of Apulia, flowing with a rapid 
current into the Adriatic, [VENUSIA.] 

Auofi, or AUG!A, daughter of Aleus and Neaera, was a priestess 
of Athena, and mother by Hercules of Tefephns, UELEPHUS.] She 
afterwards married Teuthras, king of the Mysians. 



a priestly college at Rome, whose business was to take 
the 'auspices' on all important state occasions. 

AUGUSTA, the name of several towns founded or colonized by 
Augustus. Of these the most important were Augusta Praetoria 
(Aosta) at the foot of the Italian Alps, Augusta Taurinorum (Turin) 
in Northern Italy, Augusta Trevirorum (Trier) in Germany, Augusta 
Emerita (MM da} in Western Spain, Augusta Vindelicorum (Augs- 
burg) in Rhaetia, etc. 

AuousTtLus, ROMULUS, last Roman emperor of the West, was 
deposed by Odoacer, A.D. 476. 

AucusTlNus, AUREL}US (usually called ST. AUGUSTINE), one of the 
Latin fathers, was born A.D. 354 at Tagaste in Numidia. He studied 
rhetoric at Carthage where he embraced the Manichaean heresy, 
from which he was converted by Ambrose and baptized in 387. He 
was ordained bishop of Hippo in 395, where he died in 430 when the 
city was besieged by Vandals. Of his numerous works the most 
interesting are his Confessions (ed. Gibb and Montgomery, 2nd ed. 
1927) and De Civitate Dei, one of the greatest of all patristic works 
(ed. J. . C. Welldon, 1924). The Confessions and Select Letters are 
contained in the Loeb Library. 

AUGUSTUS, the first Roman emperor, was born on the 23rd of 
September, 63 B.C., and was the son of C. Octayins by Atia, daughter 
of Julia, the sister of C. Julius Caesar. His original name was 
C. Octavius, and, after his adoption by his great-uncle, C. Julius 
Caesar Octavianus. Augustus was only a title given >^r" by the 
senate and the people in 27 B.C., to express their veneration for him. 
He was studying at Apollonia, when his uncle was murdered at 
Rome in March 44. He set out for Italy, and upon landing, was 
received with enthusiasm by the troops. He joined the republican 
party to crush Antony, against whom he fought at Mutina in con- 
j unction with the 2 consuls, C. Vibius Pansa and A. Hirtras. Antony 
was defeated and fled across the Alps ; and the death of the 2 consuls 
gave Augustus the command of all their troops. He returned to 
Rome, and compelled the senate to elect him consul, and shortly 
afterwards he became reconciled to Antony. It was agreed that the 
Roman world should be divided between Augustus, Antony, and 
Lepidus, under the title of Triumviri Reipublicae Constituendae* and 
that thi arrangement should last for the next 5 years. They 
published a proscriptio or list of aH their enemies: upwards of 2,000 
equitcs and 300 senators were put to death, among whom was 
Cicero. Augustus and Antony crossed over to Greece, frM defeated 
Brutus and Cassias at the decisive battle of Philippi in 42, by which . 
the republican party were ruined. Augustus returned to Italy, 
where a new war awaited him (41), excited by Fulvia, the wife of 
Antony. She was supported by L. Antonius, the consul and brother 
o tito triumvir, who threw himWf into the fortified town of Perusia, 
which Augustus captured in 40. Antony prepared far war, but the 
death of Fnlvia led to a reconciliation between the triumvirs, who 

** Triumvirs for the establishment of the commonwealth.' 


concluded a peace at Brnndusium. A new division of the provinces 
was again made: Augustus obtained all the parts of the empire W. 
of the town of Scodra in niyricum, Antony the E. provinces* and 
Lepidus, Africa. Antony married Octavia, the sister of "Augustus, 
in order to cement their alliance. In 36 Augustus conquered Sex. 
Pompey, who had held possession of Sicily for many years with a 
powerful fleet. Lepidus, who had landed in Sicily to support 
Augustus, was also subdued by Augustus, stripped of his power, and 
sent to Rome, where he resided for the remainder of his life, being 
allowed to retain the dignity of pontifex maxim us. Meantime, 
Antony had repudiated Octavia, on account of his love for Cleopatxa. 
The senate declared war against Cleopatra; and in September 31 
B.C. the fleet of Augustus defeated Antony's near Actium in Acar- 
nania. In the following year (30) Augustus sailed to Egypt. 
Antony and Cleopatra, who had escaped in safety from Actium/put 
an end to their lives* Augustus thus became the master of the 
Roman world, but he declined all honours calculated to remind the 
Romans of kingly power. On the death of Lepidus in 12 he became 
pontifex maximus. On state matters, which he did not choose to 
be discussed in public, he consulted his personal friends, Maecenas, 
M. Agrippa, M. Valerius Messalla Corvinns, and Asmius Pollio. The 
wars of Augustus were chiefly undertaken to protect the frontiers 
of the Roman dominions. Most of them were carried on by his 
relations and friends, but he conducted a few of them in person. 
He died at Nola, on the 2gth of August, A.D, 14, at the age of 76. 
His last wife was Livia, previously the wife of Tiberius Nero. He 
had no children by Livia, and only a daughter Julia by his former 
wife Scribonia. Julia was -married to Agrippa, and her 2 sons, Cains 
and Lucius Caesar, were destined by Augustus as his successors. 
On the death of these 2 youths, Augustus was persuaded to adopt 
TIBERIUS, the son of Livia by her former husband, and to make him 
his colleague and successor. See the Life of A ugustus, by Suetonius ; 
English translation by Philemon Holland (Tudor Series: 1893); and 
Shuckburgh's monograph. (See Fig. 14.) For the Monumentum 
Ancyr&num [ANCYKA], see E. G. Hardy, Res Gestae, 1923. 

AULERCI, Gallic people dwelling between the Sequana (Smu) and 
the Liger (Loire), and divided into 3 tribes, i. A. EBUROVICES, near 
the coast on the left bank of the Seine in the modern Normandy: 
their capital was Mediolanum, afterwards called Eburovices (vraa). 
2. A. CBKOMANI, S.W. of the preceding near the Liger: their capita} 
was Subdinnum (Le Mans) . At an early period some of the Cenomani 
crossed tiie Alps and settled in Upper Italy. 3. A. BRANNOVICSS, E. 
of the Cenomani near the Aedui. 

AULIS, harbour in Boeotia on the Euripua, where the Greek fleet 
assembled before sailing against Troy. 

AULON. i . District and town on the borders of Elis and Messenia, 
with a temple of Aesculapius, 2. Town in ChaZcictfcS in Macedonia, 
on the Strymonic Gulf. 3. Valley near Tarentum celebrated for 
its wine. 

AuRfiLttsus, Roman emperor, A.D. 270-5, born at Sirmiuin, was 


successor of Claudius II. He defeated the Goths and Vandals, who 
had crossed the Danube, and the Germans, who had invaded Italy. 
He next turned his arms against Zenobia, whom he defeated. 
[ZENOBIA.] He then recovered Gaol, Britain, and Spain, which 
were in the hands of the usurper Tetricus. On his return to Rome, 
he surrounded the city with a new 1 of walls. He abandoned 
Dacia, which had been first conquered by Trajan, and made the S. 
bank of the Danube, as in the time of Augustus, the boundary of the 
empire. He was killed by some of his officers, while preparing to 
march against the Persians. 

AuxfiLlus ANTONfcajs, MARCUS, usually called M. Auroras, Roman 
emperor, A.D. 161-80, commonly called 'the philosopher/ was born 
at Rome A.D. 121. He was adopted by Antoninus Pius, when the 
latter was adopted by Hadrian, and married Faustina, the daughter 
of Pius (138). On the death of Antoninus in 161, he succeeded to 
the throne, but he admitted to an equal share of the sovereign power 
L. Aurelius Verus, who had been adopted by Pius at the same tune 
as Marcus himself. Soon after their accession Verus was dispatched 
to the East, and for 4 years (A.D. 162-5) carried on war with great 
success against Vologeses III, king of Parthia. He subsequently 
prosecuted a war for many years with the Marcomannl, Quadi, and 
the other barbarians dwelling along the northern limits of the 
empire, from the sources of the Danube to the Illyrian border. 
Verus died in 169. In 174 Aurelins gained a decisive victory over 
the Quadi, mainly through a violent storm. This storm is said to 
have been owing to the prayers of a legion chiefly composed of 
Christians. It has given rise to a famous controversy among the 
historians of Christianity upon what is commonly termed the 
Miracle of the Thundering Legion. [See Gibbon, Decline and Fall, 
chap, xvi.] In 175 Aurelius set out for the East, where Avidius 
Cassias, urged on by Faustina, the unworthy wife of Aurelius, had 
proclaimed himself emperor. But before Amelias reached the East, 
Cassias h**** been slain by his own officers. During this expedition 
Faustina died, acording to some, by her own hands. Aurelius died 
in i So, in Pannonia, while prosecuting the war against the Marco- 
Hie Tfeariijg feature in the character of M. Aurelius was 

his devotion to the Stoic- philosophy. We still possess a work by 

entitled Medita 

him written in the Greek language, and entitled Meditations. No 
remains of antiquity present a nobler view of philosophical heathen- 
ism. The only stain upon the memory of Aurelius is his persecutions 
of the Christians [see Bigg, Origins of Christianity]. Aurelius was 
succeeded by his son Coxnmodas. [Best edition of the Meditations 
by Jackson (introduction by Bigg), Oxford, 1906.] See H. D. 
Sodgwick'3 Marcus Aurdius (1921). (See Fig. 15.) 

AURORA. [Eos.] 

AnsSNES, Aus6*xiA. [ITALIA] 

Ausftrtus, D&duus MAGNUS, Roman poet, born at*BurdigaIa 
(Bordeaux) about A.D. 310, taught grammar and rhetoric. He was 
appointed tutor of Gratian, son of the emperor Valentinian, and 
was raised to the highest honours of tin state. Many of his poems 


are extant. English translation by Evelyn-White in the Loeb 
Library (2 vols.). 

AUSTER, called Ndxus by the Greeks, the S. wind, or strictly the 
S.W. -wind. It frequently brought with it fogs and rain; but at 
certain seasons it was a drv sultry wind, the Sirocco of the modern 


AUTO"L*CUS, son of Hermes and ChionS, and father of AnticlSa, 
who was the mother of Ulysses. He lived on Mt. Parnassus, and 
was renowned as the master-thief of antiquity. 

Aurdv&DON, charioteer of Achilles, and, after the death of the 
latter, the companion of his son Pyrrhus. Hence Automedon is used 
as the name of any skilful charioteer. 

AuTfiNSB, daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia, wife of Aristaeus, 
and mother of Actaeon. With her sister Agave*, she tore Pentheus 
to pieces. 

AuxlMUM (Osimo), town of Picenum in Italy, and a Roman colony. 

AuxCMfi or AXM (Axum), capital of a powerful kingdom 
in Ethiopia, to the S.E. of Meroe 1 . 

AvENNlo (Avignon), town in Gallia Narbonensis, 

AvENrlctTM (Avenches), chief town of the Helvetii, and subse- 
quently a Roman colony, of which ruins are still to be seen. 


AVERNUS LIcus, a lake close to the promontory between Cuxnae 
and Puteoli, filling the crater of an extinct volcano. It is surrounded 
by high, banks, which were covered by a forest sacred to Hecate".,, 
From its waters vapours arose, which are said to have killed the 
birds that flew over it, from which circumstance its Greek name was 
supposed to be derived. (Aonos, from d priv. and Jprti, a bird.} 
The lake was supposed to lead to the lower world. Near it was the 
cave of Cumaean Sibyl, through which Aeneas descended to the 
lower world. Agrippa, in the time of Augustus, connected this 
lake with the Lucrine lake [LucRiNUs LACUS]; he also caused a 
tunnel to be made from the lake to Cumae, thus forming the cele- 
brated Julian Harbour. Part of the tunnel remains and is known 
under the name of Grotta di Sibilla. 

Avl&xus, FLAVIUS, the author of 42 fables in Latin elegiac verse, 
probably lived in the 4th century of the Christian era. For a fall 
discussion of the date and authorship of these fables, see the prole- 
gomena to the edition of R. "RUt* (Oxford, 1887). 

AvifiNus, RUFUS FBSTUS, TAtin poet towards the end of tfae 4th 
century A.B. His poems are chiefly descriptive. 

Avlxus, M. MABTTT.TUS, emperor of the West, was raised to tbe 
throne by Theodoric II, king of the Visigoths in AJX 455. He wad 
deposed by Riczmer in 456. 


AZOTUS (AskdoQ. city of Palestine, near the sea-coast* 


BABR!US, Greek poet, probably in the time of Augustus, turned 
the fables of Aesop into verse. The best edition is Rutherford's 
(1883). The fables were discovered in 1844, in a monastery on 
Mt. Athos. 

BABYL&N, city of the ancient world, built on both banks of the 
river Euphrates. Secular history ascribes its origin to Belus (i.e. 
the god Baal), and its enlargement and decoration to Ninus or his 
wife Semiramis, the Assyrian monarchs of Nineveh. Babylon was 
for a long time subject to the Assyrian empire. Its greatness as an 
independent empire begins with Nabopolassar, the father of Nebu- 
chadnezzar, who, with the aid of the Median king Cyaxares, over- 
threw the Assyrian monarchy, and destroyed Nineveh (606 B.C.). 
Under his son" and successor, Nebuchadnezzar (604-562 B.C.), the 
Babylonian empire reached its height, and extended from the 
Euphrates to Egypt, and from the mountains of Armenia to the 
deserts of Arabia. After his death it again declined, until it was 
overthrown by the capture of Babylon by the Medes and Persians 
under Cyrus (538 B.C.), who made the city one of the capitals of the 
Persian empire, the others being Susa and Ecbatana. Under his 
successors the city rapidly sank. Darius I dismantled its fortifica- 
tions, in consequence of a revolt of its inhabitants. After the death 
of Alexander, Babylon became a part of the Syrian kingdom of 
Seleucus Nicator, who contributed to its decline by the foundation 
of Seleucia on the Tigris, which soon eclipsed it The city of 
Babylon formed a square, each side of which was 120 stadia (12 
geog. miles) in length. The walls, of burnt brick, were 200 cubits 
high and 50 thick; and they were surrounded by a deep ditch. The 
Euphrates, which divided the city into 2 equal parts, was embanked 
with walls of brick, the openings of which at the ends of the trans- 
verse streets were closed by gates of bronze. Of the two public 
buildings of tie greatest celebrity, the one was the temple of Belus, 
consisting of 8 stories, gradually ritrmrnghmg in, width, and ascended 
by a flight of steps, which wound round the whole building on the 
outside. The other was the 'hanging gardens* of Nebuchadnezzar, 
laid out upon terraces which were raised above one another on 
arches. The streets of the city were straight, intersecting one 
another at right angles. The buildings were constructed of bricks. 
The ruling class at Babylon were the Chaldaeans, who probably 
descended at an ancient period from the mountains on the borders 
of Armenia, and conquered the Babylonians. The religion of the 
ChaMaeans was Sahaeism, or the worship of the heavenly bodies. 
The priests formed a caste, and cultivated science, especially 
astronomy. They were the authors of the systems of weights and 
measures used by the Greeks and Romans. The district around the 
city, bounded by the Tigris on the E., Mesopotamia on the N., the 
Arabian Desert on the W., and extending to the head of the Persian 
Gulf on the S. was known in later times by the name of Babylonia, 
sometimes also called Chaldaaa. [CHAXDAEA.] This district was a 
plain, subject to continual inundations from the Tigris and Euphrates, 
which were regulated ' by canals. The country was fertile, bet 


deficient in trees. See Herodotus, for valuable information on the 
subject of Babylon (bk. i). 

BACCHAE, also called Maenddis and Thfiddls. i. The female 
companions of Dionysus or Bacchus in his wanderings through the 
East, are represented as crowned with wine-leaves, clothed with 
fawn-skins, and carrying in their hands the thyrsus. (See Fig. 38,) 
2. Priestesses of Dionysus, who by wine and other exciting causes 
worked themselves up to frenzy at the Dionysiac festivals. See 


BACCHYL!DS, one of the 9 great lyric poets of Greece, born at 
lulls in Ceos. He was a nephew of Simonides. He flourished about 
470 B.C., and lived at the court of Hieron in Syracuse, together with 
Simonides and Pindar. Nothing was known of his poetry until the 
discovery of an Egyptian papyrus, containing the Odes, which were 
first edited (shortly after their discovery) by Kenyon (1897). See 
also Jebb's edition (1905) with commentary and English prose 
rendering. The Odes have now been supplemented by considerable 
fragments of 5 Scotia, or banqueting songs, inscribed on a papyrus 
discovered at Oxyrhynchus. See J. U. Powell, New Chapters in the 
History of Greek Literature, 1933; also a translation of Bacchylides 
by A. S. Way, 1929. 

BACTRA or ZARIASPA (Balkh), capital of Bactria. at the N. foot of 
the Mt. Paropamisus (Hindoo Koosh) on the river Bactrus. 

BACTRIA or -!AXA (Bokhara), Persian province. It was included 
in the conquests of Alexander, and formed a part of the kingdom of 
the Seleucidae, until 255 B.C. 

BAEC&LA, town in Hispania Taxraconensis. 

BABTfcA, modern Andalusia. (HISPANIA.] 

BABTIS (Guadalquivir) r a river in S. Spain. 

BAGAS, or BXc5us, a eunuch, trusted by Artaxerxes HI (Ochus), 
whom he poisoned, 338 B.C. He was put to death by Darius III 
Codomannus, whom he had attempted to poison, 336. The name 
Bagoas occurs in Persian history, and is nsed by Ta+jn writers as 
synonymous with a eunuch. 

BAGRADA, river of N. Africa, falling into the Gulf of Carthage 
near Utica. 

BAIAB, town in Campania, on a small bay W. of Naples, was 
situated in a beautiful country, which abounded in warm mineral 
springs. The baths of Baiae were the most celebrated in Italy, and 
the town was the favourite watering place of the Roman nobles and 

BALBINTTS, D. CaeHus, was elected emperor by the Senate along 
with M. Clodius Pnpienns Ma-riTrma [PuFXSNUS.] 

BAI^US, L. CoRNflLlus, of Gades, served under Pompey against 
Sertorius in Spain, and received from Pompey the Roman citizenship. 
He returned with Pompey to Rome, where he lived on intimate terms 
-mth Caesar as well as Pompey. In 56 B.C. he was accused of having 


illegally assumed the Roman citizenship ; he was defended by Cicero, 
whose speech has come down to us, and was acquitted. In the civil 
war, Balbns had the management of Caesar's afiairs at Rome. 
After the death of Caesar he gained the favour of Octavian, who raised 
him to the consulship in 40. 

B&LAKBS, also called GYMNSSIAE, by the Greeks, 2 islands in the 
Mediterranean, off the coast of Spam, distinguished by the epithets 
Major and Minor, whence their modern names Majorca and Minorca. 
Their inhabitants, also called Baleares, were celebrated as slingers. 

BXLfiAnIcuM MA^T, part of the Mediterranean Sea, between the 
shores of Hispania Tazraconensis and the Baleares. 

BAND&S!AB FONS (Sambuco], fountain in Apulia, 6 miles from 
Venusia. Celebrated by Horace, in the Odes (iii. 13). 

the name given by the Greeks to all foreigners whose 
language was not Greek. The Romans applied the name to all 
people who spoke neither Greek nor Latin. 


BARCA, second city of Cyrenaica, in N. Africa, 100 stadia from the 
sea, at first a settlement of a Libyan tribe, the Barcaei, but about 
560 B.C. it was colonized by the Greek seceders from Cyrene, and 
became so powerful as to make the W. part of Cyrenaica virtually 
independent of the mother city. In 510 B.C. it was taken by the 
Persians, who removed most of its inhabitants to Bactria, and under 
the Ptolemies its ruin was completed by the erection of its port into 
a new city, which was named Ptolemais. 

BARC&TO (Barcelona), town in Hispania Tarraconcnsis. 


BAKSINS. i. Daughter of Artabazus, married Alexander the 
Great, to whom she bore a son, Hercules. She and her son were put 
to death by Polysperchon in 309. 2. Also called Statira, elder 
daughter of Darius III, whom Alexander married at Susa, 324 B.C. 
Shortly after Alexander's death she was murdered by Roxana. 

BAS&ICA, a Roman haH of justice. After the time of Constantino 
many basilicas were converted into Christian churches. 

BAsn.fus, commonly called Basil the Great, was born A.D. 329 
at Caesarea. He studied at Athens were he was fellow-student 
of the emperor Julian and Gregory Nazianzen. He returned to 
Caesarea, but soon after he abandoned his profession of the law, 
devoting himself to a religious life. He became bishop of Caesarea 
in 370 and died in 379, See W. K. L. Clarke, St. Basil ike Great, 1913. 

BASSJ&BUS, a surname of Dionysus, probably derived from 
b*ss*ris, a fox-skin, worn by the god himself and the Mswna^q in 
Thrace. A Maenad was sometimes called Bassaris, 

BASTAXHAB or BASTBRNAB, warlike German people, partly settled 
between 1i*e Tyras (Dniester) and Borysthenes \Dnitper}, and partly 
at tiie month of the Danube, under the name of Pevcini, from their 
inhabiting the island of Fence, at the mouth of this river. 


BXTAVI or BXxXvi, Celtic people, inhabiting the island formed by 
the Rhine, the Waal, and the Maas, called after them Insula Bata"- 
vornm. They ' were allies of the Romans, but they revolted nnder 
Claudius Civiiis, in A.D. 69, and were subdued -with difficulty. Their 
chief town was Lugdunum (Ley den). 

BlTHYLius. i. Of Samos, a beautiful youth beloved by 
Anacreon. 2. Of Alexandria, the freedman and favourite of 
Maecenas, brought to perfection the imitative dance or ballet called 

BATT!XDAE, kings of Gyrene during 8 generations, z. BATTUS I f 
of Thera, led a colony to Africa at the command of the Delphic 
oracle, and founded Cyrene about 631 B.C. 2. ARCESILAUS I, son 
of No. i, reigned 599-583. 3- BATTUS II, surnamed 'the Happy/ 
son of No. 2, reigned 583-560? 4. ARCESILAUS II, son of No. "3, 
surnamed 'the Oppressive,' reigned about 560-550. His brothers 
withdrew from Cyrene, and founded Barca. 5. BATTUS III, or 
'the Lame,' son of No. 4, reigned about 550-530; gave a new con- 
stitution to the city, whereby the royal power was reduced within 
very narrow limits. 6. ARCESILAUS III, son of No. 5, reigned about 
530-514. 7. BATTUS IV, whose life we have no accounts. S. 
ARCESILAUS IV, at whose death, about 450, a popular government 
was established. 

BATTUS, a shepherd whom Hermes turned into a stone, because 
he broke a promise which he made to the god. 

BAULI, a collection of villas rather than a town, between Mlaenum 
and Baiae in Campania. 

Blvrus and MABVTUS, malevolent poetasters, who attacked the 
poetry of Virgil and Horace. 

BfiBRtfcBS and BBBR?CBS. z. Mythical people in Bithynia, of 
Thracian origin. [Aurcus.] 2. Ancient Iberian people on the 
coast of the Mediterranean, N. and S. of the Pyrenees. 

BfiDRUcuM, a small place in Cisalpine Gaul between Cremona and 
Verona, celebrated for the defeat both of Otho and of the Viteflian 
troops, A.D. 69. 

BELESIS or B&L&SYS, Chaldaean priest of Babylon, who aided 
Arbaces in the overthrow of the Assyrian, empire, Belesis after- 
wards received the satrapy of Babylon from Arbaces. 

BBLGAB, warlike people of German origin, inhabiting tie N.E. 
of Gaul, were bounded on the N. by the Rhine, on the S. by the 
Sequana (Seine) and Matrooa (Marne), and on the E. by the Treviri 
(Trier) . They were subdued by Caesar after a courageous resistance. 


BELGIUM, name applied to the leiiituiy of the BELLOVACI. 

BsLislRius, general of Justinian, overthrew the Vandal kingdom 
in Africa, and the Gothic kingdom in Italy. In A.D. 563 he was 
accused of a conspiracy against Justinian; according to frm/ti*^ be 


was blinded, and wandered as a beggar through Constantinople; 
but according to the more authentic account, he was imprisoned for 
a year in his own palace, and then restored to his honours. He died 
in 565'. See Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chaps, xli-xliii. 

BBLLfiR5pH5x, or BELLRSPHONTS, son of the Corinthian king 
Glaucus, and Eurymede, and grandson of Sisyphus, was originally 
called Hipppnous, and received the name Bellerophon from slaying 
the Corinthian Belerus. To be purified from the murder he fled to 
Proetus, king of Argos, whose wife Anta fell in love with him ; but as 
her offers were rejected, she accused him to her husband of having 
made improper proposals to her. Proetus sent H to his father- 
in-law, lobates, king of Lycia, with a letter, in which the latter was 
requested to put the young man to death. lobates sent him to kill the 
monster Chimaera, thinking that he was sure to perish in the contest. 
[CHIMAERA.] After obtaining possession of the winged horse, Pegasus, 
Bellerophon rose with * into the air, and slew the Cnimaera with 
his arrows. [PEGASUS.] lobates, thus disappointed, sent Bellero- 
phon against the Solymi and next against the Amazons. In these 
contests he was also victorious; and on his return to Lycia, being 
attacked by the bravest Lycians, whom lobates had placed in 
ambush for the purpose, Bellerophon slew them all. lobates, now 
seeing that it was hopeless to kill the hero, gave him his daughter 
in marriage, and made *"*n his successor on the throne. At last 
Bellerophon drew upon himself the hatred of the gods, and consumed 
by grief, wandered lonely through the Aldan field. This is all that 
Homer says respecting Bellerophon's later fate: some traditions 
related that he attempted to fly to heaven upon Pegasus, but that 
Zeus sent a gad-fly to sting the horse, which threw off the rider upon 
the earth, who became lame or blind in consequence. See the story 
as re-told by Morris in The Earthly Paradise. (See Fig. 16.) 

BELI&KA, Roman goddess of war, represented as the sister or 
wife of Mam, Her priests, called Bellonarii, wounded their own arms 
or legs when they offered sacrifices to her. 

BBLLO" vici, the most powerful of the Belgae, dwelt in the modern 

Bfims, son of Poseidon, and father of Aegyptus and Danaus. He 
was erroneously believed to be the founder of Babylon. Thepatro- 
nymic BeUdfe is given to Aegyptus and Danaus, to Lynceus, son of 
Aegyptus, and to Palamedes. The Danaides, daughters of Danaus. 
are called Besides. 

BELUS, river of Phoenicia celebrated for the tradition that its fine 
sand first led the Phoenicians to the invention of glass. 

EKKA (#M> a sort of pulpit or platform at Athens and elsewhere 
in Greece, from which orators addressed the crowd. In the N.T. the 
word is used for a judge's official seat (Romans xiv 10). 

BfiHlcus LACUS (Logo di Garda), lake in the N. of Italy. 

B&m>i3 the Tbracian moon-goddess. 

Bftiffivzirnni {Beveiwtto), town in Samnium on the Appia Via, 


formerly called Maluentum, on account, it is said, oi its bad air. 
It was one of the most ancient towns in Italy, traditionally founded 
by Diomedes. In the Samnite wars it was subdued by the Romans, 
who colonized it in 268 B.C., and changed its name Maluentum 
into Beneventum. 

BKCTOT!A, surname of Cybele, derived from Mt. Berecyntos in 
Phrygia, where she was worshipped. 

BfiRf Nlcfi, a Macedonia form of Pherenict, i.e. 'Bringing Victory.' 
i. Wife of Ptolemy I Soter, and the mother of Ptolemy II Fhik- 
delphus. 2. Daughter of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, and wife of 
Antiochus Theos, king of Syria,, who divorced Laodice in order to 
marry her, 249 B.C. On the death oi Ptolemy, 247, Antiochus 
recalled Laodice, who poisoned him and murdered Berenice and 
her son, 3. Daughter of Magas, king of Gyrene, and wife of Ptolemy 
III Euergetes. She was murdered by her son, Ptolemy IV Philo- 
pator on his accession to the throne, 221. The famous Tr of 
Berenice, which she dedicated for her husband's safe return from 
his Syrian expedition, was said to have become a constellation. 

4. Otherwise called Cleopatra, daughter of Ptolemy VICI Lathyrns, 
succeeded her father on the throne, 81 B.C.* and married Ptolemy X 
(Alexander II), who murdered her 19 days . after her marriage. 

5. Daughter of Ptolemy XI Auletes, and eldest sister of the famous 
Cleopatra, was enthroned by the Alexandrines when they drove out 
her father, 58. She married Archelaus, but was put to death with 
her husband, when Gabinius restored Auletes, 55. 6. Sister of 
Herod the Great, married Azistobulus, who was put to death 6 B.C. 
She was the mother of Agrippa I. 7. Daughter of Agrippa I, 
married her uncle Herod, king of Chaltis, by whom she had two 
sons. After the death oi Herod, AJX 48, Berenice, then 20 years 
old, lived with her brother, Agrippa if. not without suspicion of 
incest. She gained the love of Titus, who was only withheld from 
making her his wife by fear of offending the Romans. 

BfiRfiNlcfi, the nanw of several cities of the period of the Ptolemies. 
Of these the most important were: i. Formerly Eziongeber in 
Arabia, at the head of the Sinus Aelanites, or H. branch of the Red 
Sea. 2. In Upper Egypt, on the coast oi the Red Sea, on a gulf 
called Sinus Immundus (now Foul Boy), where its ruins are stffl 
visible. It was named after tie mother oi Ptolemy IE Phfladelphus, 
who built it, and made a road hence to Coptos, so that it became a 
chief emporium for the commerce oi Egypt with Arabia and India. 
3. (Ben Gkoxi) in Cyrenaica, formerly HESFBBIS, the flatted site of 
the Gardens oi the Hesperides. It took its later name from the 
wife of Ptolemy HI Euergetes. 

i .(Verrio), ancient town of Macedonia, S.W. of Pella, and 
about 20 miles from the sea. 2. (Aleppo QTHoteb)> town in Syria, near 
Antioch, enlarged by Seleucus Nicator, who gave it the Macedonian 
name oi Beroea. It is called Helbon or Chelbon in Ezekiel (zxvli 18} . 
BBROSUS, priest of Betas at Babylon, lived in the reign of 
Antiochus II (261-246 B.C.). and wrote in Greek a history of 


Babylonia. Some fragments of ibis valuable work are preserved 
by Josephus, Eusebius, and the Christian fathers. 

BfiRlhrus and B&R$TUS (Beyr&t), ancient seaport of Phoenicia, 
half-way between Byblus and Sidon. It was destroyed by the 
Syrian king Tryphon (140 B.C.), and restored by Agrippa under 
Augustas. It afterwards became a celebrated seat of learning. 

BBSSI, fierce and powerful Thxacian people, who dwelt along the 
whole of Mt, Haemus as far as the Euxine. 

BESSUS, satrap of Bactria under Darius III, seized Darius soon 
after the battle of Arbela, 331 B.C. Pursued by Alexander in the 
following year, Bessus murdered Darius, and fled to Bactria, where 
he assumed the title of king. He was betrayed by two of his 
followers to Alexander, who put him to death. 

BL&NOR, also called Ocnus or Aucnus, son of Tiberis and Hanto, is 
said to have built the town of Mantua, and to have called it after 
hjjs motiier. 

BIAS. i. Brother of the seer Melampus. 2. Of Priene in Ionia, 
one of the Seven Sages of Greece, flourished about 550 B.C. 

BlBlctSxus, M. FtfRlus, Roman poet, born at Cremona, wrote a 
poem on Caesar's Gallic wars, and another entitled Aethiopis. They 
are both ridiculed by Horace. 

BIBLICAL GREEK. The writers of the Greek Bible represent, in 
general, that part of the population of the Hellenized East which, 
while it employed Greek fluently as the language of everyday inter- 
course, had lost touch with the classical Attic idiom. The N.T. is 
In general the colloquial lingua franca of the early Roman Empire. 
The old notion that Biblical Greek was something of itself, apart, 
must be given up. Much that is non-Attic is not necessarily non- 
Greek, but merely the Greek of 'vulgar 1 parlance, the idiom of the 
man in the street (the Koarfj, as it is termed). Late Greek merely 
bears the stamp of its age, and asserts its own distinctive position 
in a process of linguistic development. Semitisms occur, but they 
are insufficient to isolate the language of the sacred texts; they do 
not place the Bible outside the scope of Greek philology. 

This change of standpoint in the study of N.T. Greek has been 
the result of the last Iweiity years of research. Comparative 
philology has stimulated the study of Greek in every epoch, with 
no preference for the 'classical/ There have been extensive dis- 
coveries of Hellenistic inscriptions, ostraka and papyri; the vernacu- 
lar dialects of modern Greece have been studied; lastly, thanks 
to Diessmann in Germany, and the late J. H. Moulton, and others, 
there has been a 'convergence of research* upon the mass of new 

We may no longer, therefore, examine ca^-f} Greek (as our 
ancestors did) from the purely classical side. It was an inter- 
national language, and on the whole the best possible for the Graeco- 
Roman world of the ist century A.D. See Robertson, Grammar of 
the Greek New Testament in ike Light of Critical Research (ed. 3, 1919). 
Thackeray, Grammar of Q.T. in Greek; Deissmann's Bible Studies. 


BIBRACTS (Auiun), chief town of the Aedni in Gallia Lngdunensis, 
afterwards Angustodunum. 

BIBCLUS, M. CALPURNlos, curnle aedile, 65 B.C., praetor 62, and 
consul 59. C. Julius Caesar was his colleague. He was unable in 
his consulship to resist the powerful combination of Caesar, Pompey, 
and Crassus. After an ineffectual attempt to oppose Caesar's 
agrarian law, he retired, and it was said in joke that it was the 
consulship of Julius and of Caesar. In the Civil war he commanded 
Pompey's fleet in the Adriatic, and died (48) while holding this com- 
mand off Corcyra. He married Porcia, the daughter of Cato Uticensis. 

BrLstLis (Calaiayud), town of the Celtiberi in Hxspania Tarraco- 
nensis, the birthplace of the poet Martial. 

BIdN. i. Of Smyrna, bucolic poet, flourished about 280 B.C., w* 
spent the last years of his life in Sicily, where he was poisoned. The 
style of Bion is refined, and his versification fluent and elegant. We 
still possess his epic poem, The Dirge of Adonis, 2. Of Borysthenes, 
near the mouth of the Dnieper, flourished about 250 B.C. " He was 
sold as a slave, when young, and received his liberty from his master, 
a rhetorician. He studied at Athens, and afterwards lived a con- 
siderable time at the court of Macedonia. Bion is a typical figure 
of his time, haH philosopher, half litterateur. He was noted for his 
sharp sayings, whence Horace speaks of persons delighting Bioneis 
sermonibus 1st sale nigro. 

BisrdNES, Thradan people. From the worship of Dionysus in 
Thrace the Bacchic women are called Bistonldes. 

BlTH-^uLk, district of Asia Minor, bounded on the W. by Mysia, on 
the N. by the Pontus Euxinus, on the E. by Paphiagonia, and on 
the S. by Phrygia Epictetus, was possessed at an early period by 
Thracian tribes from the neighbourhood of the Strymon, called 
Thyni and Bithyni. The country was subdued by the Lydians, and 
afterwards became a part of the Persian empire under Cyras. 
During the decline of the Persian empire, the N. part of the country 
became independent, under native princes, who resisted Alexander 
and his successors, and established a kingdom, which lasted till 
the death of Nicomedes III (74 B.C.). who bequeathed his kingdom 
to the Romans. Under Augustus, ft was made a proconsular 
province. It was a fertile country, intersected with wooded moon- 
tains, the highest of which was the Mysian Olympus, on its S. border. 

BlTdx and CLOBIS, sons of Cydippe, a priestess of Hera at Argos. 
They were celebrated for their affection to their mother, whose 
chariot they once dragged during a festival to the temple of Hera, 
a distance of 45 stadia. The priestess prayed to the goddess to 
grant them what was best for mortals; and during the night they 
both died while asleep in lie temple. 

Blr&RlGES, powerful Celtic people in Gaffia Aqtritanica, liati in 
early times the supremacy over the other Celts in Gaul. 

BLOsfus or BLGSS!US, lite name of a noble family in r^mpa^a 
One of *frfa family, C. Blosras, of Cumae, was a philosopher, a 
disciple of Afitzpater of Tarsus, and u friend of 3Kb. T 


BoADicfiA or BOUDICCA, queen of the Iceni in Britain, having 
been shamefully treated by the Romans, excited an insurrection of 
the Britons during the absence of Suetonius Paulinus, the Roman 
governor. She took the Roman colonies of Camalodunum, Londin- 
iuxn, and other places, and slew nearly 70,000 Romans and their allies. 
She was at length defeated with great loss by Suetonius Paulinus, 
and put an end to her own life, A.D. 61, 

BoccHns, king of Mauretania, and father-in-law of Jugurtha, 
with whom at nrst he made war against the Romans, but whom he 
afterwards delivered up to Sulla, the quaestor of Marius, 106 B.C. 

BosBfi, town in Thessaly (W. of Lake Boebeis). 

BOEDRO'MIA, an Athenian festival in honour of Apollo. 

BOE&TIA, district of Greece. The country contains several fertile 
plains, of which the most important were the valleys of the Asopus 
and of the Cephissus. The Boeotians were famed for their dull wit, 
which indeed passed into a proverb. The Boeotians were an Aeolian 
people, who originally occupied Arne in Thessaly, from which they 
were expelled by the Thessalians 60 years after the Trojan war. 
They then migrated into the country" called after them Boeotia. 
Boeotia was then divided into 14 independent states, which formed 
a league, with Thebes at its head. The chief magistrates of the 
confederacy were the Boeotarchs, elected annually. The govern- 
ment in most states was an aristocracy. 

BCfiTHlus, Roman statesman and author, born about A.D. 476, 
was famous for his knowledge of Greek philosophy. He was first 
highly favoured by Theodoric the Ostrogoth; but having awakened 
his suspicion, he was thrown into prison by him, and afterwards put 
to death. It was during his imprisonment that he wrote his cele- 
brated work, De Consolation* Phtfosophiac, one of the favourite 
books of the Middle Ages. II is -familiar to us in the translation of 
Chaucer. Best ed. by Adrian Fortescue (1925) ; English version bv 
H. R. James (1906). J 

one of the most powerful of the Celtic people, said to have 
dwelt originally in Gaul (Transalpina). At an eady time they 
migrated in two great swarms, one of which crossed the Alps and 
settled in the country between the Po and the Apennines; the other 
crossed the Rhine and settled in the part of Germany called Boihe- 
mum (Bohemia] after them, and between the Danube and the Tyrol. 
The Boii in Italy long carried on a fierce struggle with the Romans, 
but they were at length subdued by the consul P. Scipio in 191 B.C. 
The Boti in Germany maintained their power longer, but were at 
length subdued by the Marcomanni. 

BoLBfi, lake in Macedonia, emptying itself by a short river into 
the Strymonic Golf near Bromiscus and Aulon. 

BoLBlrlNS (Rosetta), city of Lower Egypt, near tiie mouth odE a 
branch of the Nile (the W.-most but one), which was called the 

fcg a Numidian, deep in the confidence of Jngurtiia. 


When Jngnrtha. was at Rome, 109, Bomilcar effected for him the 
assassination of Massiva. In 107 he plotted against Jugurtha. 

BQiilus MONS, the W. part of Mt, Oeta in Aetolia, inhabited by 
the Bomienses. 

B&NA DA, Roman divinity, is described as the sister, wife, or 
daughter of Faunas, and was'herself called Fauna, Fatua, or Oma. 
She was worshipped at Rome as a chaste and prophetic divinity; 
she revealed her oracles only to females, as Faunus did only to males. 
Her festival was celebrated every year on the ist of ilay, in the house 
of the consul or praetor, as the sacrifices on that occasion were offered 
on behalf of the whole Roman people. The solemnities were con- 
ducted by the Vestals, and no male person was allowed to be in 
the house at one of the festivals. P. Clodius profaned the sacred 
ceremonies, by entering the house of Caesar in the disguise of a 
woman, 62 B.C. 

B&NdxiA (Bologna), town in Gallia Cispadana, was in ancient 
times the capital of N. Etruria. It afterwards fell into the hands of 
the Boii, but it was colonized by the Romans on the conquest of the 
Boii, 191 B.C. Its name of Felslna was changed into Bononia. 

B6oxs. [ARCTOS.] 

BdR&AS, the N. wind, was, in mythology, a son of Astraeus and 
Eos, and brother of Eurus, Zephyrus, and Notus. He dwelt in a 
cave of Mt. Haemus in Thrace. He carried off Orithyia, a daughter 
of Erechtheus, king of Attica, by whom he begot Zetes, Calais, and 
Cleopatra, wife of Phineus. [ZETES.] In the Persian war Boreas 
aided the Athenians by destroying the ships of the barbarians. 
Boreas was worshipped at Athens, where a festival, Boreasmi, was 
celebrated in his honour. (See Fig. 17.) 

BdRYSTHfixEs (Dnieper), afterwards Danapris, a river of Euro- 
pean Sarmatia, flows into the Euxine. Near its mouth lay the town 
Borysthenes or Borysthenis (Kudak} t also called Olbia, Olbiopolis, 
and Miletopolis, a colony of Miletus, and the most important Greek 
city on the N. of the Euxine. 

BOSPORUS, the name given to various straits among the Greeks, 
but especially applied to the 2 following: i. THE THRACIAK 
BOSPORUS (Channel of Constantinople), unites the Propontis or Sea 
of Marmora with the Euxine or Black Sea, According to the legend 
it was called Bosporus from lo, who crossed it in the form of a. heifer. 
At the entrance of the Bosporus was the celebrated SYICPLEGADES. 
Darius constructed a bridge across the Bosporus, when he invaded 
Scythia. 2. THB CIMMERIAN BOSPORUS (Straits of Kerch), unites 
the Pahis Maeotis or Sea of Azov with the Engine or Black Sea. It 
formed, with the Tanais (Don), the boundary between Asia and 
Europe, and it derived its name from the Cnoresn, who were 
supposed to have dwelt in the neighbourhood. On the European 
side of the Bosporus, the modern Crimea, the Milesians founded the 
town of Panticapaeam, also called Bosporus, and the inhabitants of 
Panticapaeum subsequently founded the town of Phanagoria, on the 
Asiatic side of the straits. Panticapaeum became the residence 


of a race of kings, who are frequently mentioned in history under 
the name of kings of Bosporus. 

BOSTRA (O.T. Bozrah; BuSrah), city of Arabia, in an oasis of the 
Syrian Desert, S. of Damascus. 

BorrfA or BOTTLABA, district in Macedonia, on the river Axius, 
extended in the time of Thucydides to Pieria on the W. The 
Bottiaei were a Thracian people, who settled in that part of the 
Macedonian Chalcidice N. of Olynthus, which was called BottlcS. 

BOTTlcfi. [BOTTIA.] 

BouLfi (Boi/Xfl, the council or senate at Athens. Its institution 
is attributed to Solon. The Boule consisted of 500 members, 
divided into 10 sections of 50 each, the members of which were called 
Prytanes (rpirrdvcts), and were all of the same tribe; they acted as 
presidents of the council and assemblies during 35 or 36 days so as to 
complete the lunar year of 354 days. Each tribe exercised these 
functions in turn, and the period 'of office was called a Prytany. 
The Prytanes had the right to convene the Boule and the Assembly. 
[ECCLESIA.] The business of the Boule was to discuss and prepare 
measures to be laid before the Ecclesia. Besides this, they had 
considerable executive (as opposed to legislative) powers. 

BfivlANUM (Bojano), town of the Pentri in 3* 

B5V1LLAE, an ancient town in Latium at the foot of the Alban 
mountain, on the Appian Way about 10 miles from Rome. Near 
it Clodius was killed by Milo (52 B.C.). 

BRACHMANAB or BRACHMANBS, a name used by the ancient 
geographers, either for a caste of priests an India (the Brahmins), 
or for all the people whose religion was Brahminism, or for a 
particular tribe. 

BRANCH!DAE (Jeronda), afterwards Didyma, or -, a place on the 
sea-coast of Ionia, a little S. of Miletus, celebrated for its temple 
and oracle of Apollo, suraamed Didymeus. This oracle was said 
to have been found by Branchus, son of Apollo, and a Milesian 
woman. The reputed descendants of this Branchus, the Brancnidae, 
were the hereditary ministers of this oracle. The names of the 
priests thus came to be used for that of the place. 

BRAS!DAS, the most distinguished Spartan in the first part of the 
Peloppnnesian war. In 424 B.C., at the head of a small force, 
he gained possession of many of the cities in Macedonia subject to 
Athens; his greatest acquisition was AmphipoKs. In 422 he gamed 
a brilliant victory over Qeon, who had been sent, with an Athenian 
force, to recover Atophipolis, but he was slain in the battle. He was 
buried within the city, and the inhabitants honoured him as a hero. 

BRAUR&N, a demus (or 'parish') in Attica, on the E. coast on 
the river Erasmus, with a celebrated temple of Artemis, who was 
hence called Brauronia. 

BKEHOTS. i. The leader of the Gauls, who in 390 B.C. defeated 
the Romans at the Affia, and took Rome. After besieging the 
Capitol for 6 moatbs, he quitted the city upon receiving 1,600 pounds 


oi gold as a ransom for the Capitol, and returned home safe with his 
booty. But it was subsequently related that Camillas and a Roman 
army appeared at the moment that the gold was being weighed, 
that Brennus was defeated and killed by Camillas. 2. The leader 
of the Ganls who invaded Macedonia and Greece, 280, 279 B.C. In 
the year 279 he penetrated into the S. of Greece, but was defeated 
near Delphi. 

powerful British tribe, inhabited nearly the whole of 
the X. of the island from the Abus (Humber) to the Roman wall, 
with the exception of the S.E. corner of Yorkshire, which was 
inhabited by the Parisii. Their capital was EBORACCM. They 
were conquered by Petilius Cerealis, in the reign of Vespasian. 
There was also a tribe of Brigantes in the S. of Ireland, between the 
rivers Birgus (Barrow) and Dabrona (Blacku'ater). 

BRlsEis, daughter of Briseus, fell into the hands of Achilles, but 
was seized by Agamemnon. Hence arose the dire feud between the 
2 heroes, which is the subject of the Iliad of Homer. 

BRITANNIA, the island of England and Scotland, which was also 
called ALBION. HIBERNIA, or Ireland, is usually spoken of as a 
separate island, but is sometimes included under the general name 
of the Insulae Britannicae, which also comprehended the smaller 
islands around the coast of Great Britain. The Britons were Celts, 
belonging to that branch of the race called Cymry. Their manners 
and customs were in general the same as the Gauls; but separated 
more *hap the Gauls from intercourse with civilized nations, they 
preserved the Celtic religion in a purer state than in Gaul; and hence 
Druidism, according to Caesar, was transplanted from Gaul to 
Britain. The Britons also retained many of the barbarous Celtic 
customs, which the more civilized Gauls had laid aside. They 
painted their bodies with a blue colour, extracted from woad, in 
order to appear more terrible in battle; and they had wives in com- 
mon. At a later time the Belgae crossed over from Gaul, and 
settled on the S. and E. coasts, driving the Britons into the interior 
of the island. It was not till a late period that the Greeks and 
Romans obtained any knowledge of Britain. In eariv times the 
Phoenicians visited the Scilly Islands and the coast of Cornwall for 
the purpose of obtaining tin ; but whatever knowledge they acquired 
of the country they jealously kept secret; and it only transpired 
that there were CASSITERTDES, or Tin Islands, in the N. parts of the 
ocean. The first certain knowledge which the Greeks obtained of 
Britain was from the merchants of MngmMa. about the -Km* of 
Alexander the Great, and especially from lie voyages of PYTHBAS, 
who sailed round a great part of Britain. From this time it was 
generally believed that the island was in the form of a triangle. 
Ano&er important mistake, which likewise prevailed for a long time, 
was the position of Britain in relation to Gaul and Spain. As the 
NYW. coast of Spain was supposed to extend too far to the N., and 
lie W. coast of Gaul to run N.E., the lower part of Britain was 
believed to lie between Spain and Gaol. The Romans first became 


personalty acquainted with the island by Caesar's invasion. He 
twice landed in Britain (55, 54 B.C.), and though on the second 
occasion he conquered the greater part of the S.E. of the island, 
yet he did not take permanent possession of any portion of the coun- 
try. After his departure the Romans made no further attempts to 
conquer the island for nearly zoo years. In the reign of Claudius 
(A.D. 43) they again landed "in Britain, and permanently subdued 
the country S. of the Thames. They now began to extend their 
conquests over the other parts of the island; and the great victor}' 
(61) of Suetonius Paulinas over the Britons, who +**d revolted under 
BOADICEA, still further consolidated the Roman dominions. In the 
reign of Vespasian, the Romans made several successful expeditions 
against the SILTOES and the BRIG ANTES; ?md the conquest of S. 
Britain was at length finally completed by Agricola, who in 7 
campaigns (78-84) subdued the whole of the island as far N. as the 
Frith of Forth and the Clyde, between which he erected a series of 
forts to protect the Roman dominions from the incursions of the 
barbarians in the N. of Scotland. The Roman part of Britain was 
now called Britannia Romana, and the N. part inhabited by the 
Caledonians Britannia Barbara or Caledonia. The Romans, 'how- 
ever, gave up the N. conquests of Agricola in the reign of Hadrian, 
and made a rampart of turf from the Aestuarium Ituna (Soiway 
Frith) to the German Ocean, which formed the N. boundary of their 
dominions. In the reign of Antoninus Pius the Romans again 
extended their boundary as far as the conquests of Agricola, and 
erected a rampart connecting the Forth and the Clyde, the remains 
of which are now called Grimes Dyke, Grime in the Celtic language 
signifying great or powerful. The Caledonians afterwards broke 
through this wall; and in consequence of their repeated devastations 
of the Roman dominions, the emperor Severus went to Britain in 
208, in order to conduct the war against them in person. He died 
in the island at Eboracum (York) in 211, after erecting a solid stone 
wall from the Soiway to the mouth of the Tyne, a little N. of the 
rampart of Hadrian. After the death of Severus, the Romans 
relinquished for ever all their conquests N. of this wall. Upon the 
resignation of the empire by Diocletian and Ma.-riTma.-n (305), Britain 
fell to the share of Constantras, who died at Eboracum in 306, and 
his son Constantine a-ggnm^H in tbft island th title of Caesar. 
Shortly afterwards the Caledonians, who now appear under the 
names of Picts and Scots, broke through the wall of Severus, and 
the Saxons ravaged the coasts of Britain; and the declining power of 
the Roman empire was unable to afford the province any effectual 
assistance. In the reign of Honoring, Constantine, who had been 
proclaimed emperor in Britain (407), withdrew all the Roman troops 
from the island, in order to make ninwl-f master of Gaul. The 
Britons were thus left exposed to the ravages of the Picts and Scots, 
and at length, in 447, tfcey called in the assistance of the Saxons, 
who became the masters of Britain, The Roman dominions of 
Britain formed a single province till the time of Severus, and were 
governed by a legate of the emperor. Severus divided the country 
into a provinces, and Diocletian into 4. 


us, son of the emperor Claudius and Messalina, was 
born A.D. 42. Agrippina, the second wife of Claudius, induced the 
emperor to adopt her own son, and give him precedence over 
Britannicus. This son, the emperor Xero, ascended the throne in 
54, and caused Britannicus to be poisoned in the following year. 

BRlidMARTis, a Cretan nymph, daughter of Zeus and beloved by 
Minos, who pursued her 9 months, till at length she leaped into the 
sea and was changed by Artemis into a goddess. 

BRIXELLUM (Brescello), town on the Po in Gallia Cisalpina, 
where the emperor Otho killed himself, A.D. 69. 

BRixU (Brescia], town in Gallia Cisalpina on the road from 
Comum to Aquileia, through which the river Meila flowed. 

BRdidus, a surname of Dionysus (Bacchus). 

BRUCT&RI, a people of Germany. 

BRCXD!S!UM or BRUNDtfsIuM (Brindisi), town in Calabria, on a 
small bay of the Adriatic, forming an excellent harbour. The 
Appia Via terminated at Brundisium, and it was the usual place of 
embarkation for Greece and the East. It was colonized by the 
Romans, 245 B.C. The poet Pacuvius was born at tM- town* and 
Virgil died here on his return from Greece, 19 B.C. 

BRUTT!UM, BRUTrfus, and BRUTTISRUM ACER, more usually called 
Bruttii after the inhabitants, the S. extremity of Italy, separated 
from Lucania by a line drawn from the mouth of the Laus to Thurii, 
and surrounded on the other three sides by the sea. It was the 
country called in ancient times Oenotria and Italia. The country 
is mountainous, as the Apennines run through it; it contained 
pasturage for cattle, and the valleys produced corn, olives, and fruit. 
The earliest inhabitants of the country were Oenotrians. Subse- 
quently some Lncanians took possession of the country, and were 
hence called Bruttii or Brettii, which word is said to mean 'rebels' 
in the Lucanian language. Thi* people, however, inhabited onlv 
the interior; the coast was in the possession of the Greek colonies. 
At the close of the second Punic war, in which the Bruttii had 
been the allies of Hannibal, they lost their independence. They 
were declared by the Romans to be public slaves, "d were employed 
as lictors and servants of the magistrates. 

BRUTUS, a family of the Junia gens. i. L. JUNTOS BRUTUS, son 
of M. Junius and of Tarquinia, the sister of Tarquinius Superbus. 
His elder brother was murdered by Tarquinius. and Lucius escaped 
his brother's fate only by feigning idiocy, whence he received the 
surname of Brutus. After Lucretia had stabbed herself, Brutus 
roused the Romans to expel the Tarquins; and upon the banishment 
of the latter he was elected first consul with Tarquinius Collatinns. 
He loved his country better than his children, and put to death his 2 
sons, who had attempted to restore the Tarquins. He fell in battle 
the same year, fighting against Anns, the son of Tarquinius. 2. D. 
JUNTOS BRUTUS, suxnamed Gallaecus or CaSafcus, consul 138, con- 
quered a great part of Lusitania, From his victory over the GaUaeti 
he obtained his surname. He was a patron of the poet L. Aeons, 


and well versed in Greek and Roman literature. 3. D. JUNTOS 
BRUTUS, consul 77, and husband of Sempronia, who carried on an 
intrigue with Catiline. 4. D. JUNIUS BRUTUS. He served under 
Caesar in Gaul and in the civil war; but he nevertheless joined the 
conspiracy against Caesar's life. After the death of the latter (44) 
he went into Cisalpine Gaul, which had been promised him by Caesar, 
and which he refused to surrender to Antony, who h^ obtained this 
province from the people. Antony made war against him, and kept 
him besieged in Mutina, tin the siege was raised in April 43 by the 
consuls Hirtius and Pansa, and by Octavianus. But Brutus only 
obtained a short respite. Antony was preparing to march against 
him from the N. with a large army, and Octavianus, who had 
deserted the senate, was marching against him from the S. His 
only resource was flight, but he was betrayed by Camillus, a Gaulish 
chief, and was put to death by Antony, 43. 5. M. JUNTUS BRUTUS, 
married Servilia, the half-sister of Cato of Utica. In 77 he espoused 
the cause of Lepidus, and was slain in Cisalpine Gaul by command 
of Pompey. 6. M. JUNIUS BRUTUS, the so-called tyrannicide. He 
lost his father when he was only 8 years old, and was trained by his 
uncle Cato in the principles of the aristocratical party. Accordingly, 
on the breaking out of the civil war, 49, he joined Pompey, although 
he was the murderer of his father. After the battle of Pharsalia, 48, 
he was not only pardoned by Caesar, but received from him the 
greatest marks of confidence and favour. Caesar made him governor 
of Cisalpine Gaul in 46, and praetor in 44. But notwithstanding all 
the obligations he was under to Caesar, he was persuaded by Cassius 
to murder his benefactor under the delusive idea of again establishing 
the republic. After the murder of Caesar, Brutus spent a short time 
in Italy, and then took possession of the province of Macedonia. He 
was joined by Cassius, who commanded in Syria, *"* their united 
forces were opposed to those of Octavian and Antony. Two battles 
were fought in the neighbourhood of Philippi (42), in the former of 
which Brutus was victorious, though Cassius was defeated, but in 
the latter Brutus also was defeated and put an end to his own life. 
Brutus's wife was PORCIA, the daughter of Cato. Brutus wrote 
several works, all of which have perished. He was a literary friend 
of Cicero, who dedicated to him several of his works, and who has 
given the name of Brutus to his dialogue on illustrious orators. 

BRYAXIS, Athenian statuary in stone and metal, lived 372-312 
B.C. He was one of the school of Scopas, who worked on the 
Mausoleum. [HALICARNASSUS.] A base with horsemen sculptured 
in relief, discovered at Athens, has been attributed to him. 

BUBASTXS, city of Lower Egypt, was the seat of the worship of the 
cat-goddess Bast (or Bubastis), identified with Artemis. 

BtJcttFHAUL (Jhelvm), dty on the Hydaspes in N. India, built by 
Alexander, after his battle with Porus, in memory of his horse 
Bocephahzs, who died there, after carrying him through, all his 
campaigns. This horse was purchased by Philip for 13 talents, and 
no one was able to break it in except the youthful Alexander. 



BUULA, a heart-shaped case, containing an amulet, worn round 
the neck of free-born Roman children. Boys ceased to wear it 
on attaining manhood- 


BCsfRis. i . King of Egypt, who sacrificed strangers to Zeus, but 
was slain by Hercnles. 2." City in Lower Egypt, in the middle of 
the Delta; had a great temple of Isis. 

BCrfis, Thracian, son of Boreas, punished by the god Dionysus, 
who drove him mad for a rape. 

BCTHSdTUM (Buirintd], town of Epirus, a nourishing seaport on 
a small peninsula, opposite Corcyra. 

BCr&, Egyptian divinity, the nurse of Horns and Bubastis, the 
children of Osiris and Isis. 

BtJr&, city in Lower Egypt, stood near the Sebennytic branch of 
the Nile, on'the lake of Buto. It was celebrated for its oracle of the 
goddess Buto. 

BUXENTUM (PoUcastro), originally Pvxus, a town on the W. coast 
of Lucania and on the river Buxentins, was founded by Micythus, 
tyrant of Messana, 471 B.C., and was afterwards a Roman colony. 

BYBLIS, daughter of Miletus and Idothea, was in love with her 
brother Caunns, whom she pursued through various lands, tin at 
length, wozn out with sorrow, she was changed into a fountain. 

BYBLUS, ancient city on the coast of Phoenicia. It was the chief 
seat of the worship of Adonis. 

BYBSA, the citadel of Carthage. 

B^ZANiiuu, a town on the Thracian Bosporus, founded by 
the Megaxians, 658 B.C. Its position, commanding as it did the 
entrance to the Euxine, rendered it a place of commercial im- 
portance. A new city was built on its site (330) by Constantine. 


G&BlRX, mystic divinities ( ? of Phoenician origin) . Their worship, 
of which little is known, was a profound secret, even in antiquity. 
Divine honours were paid to them at Samothrace, Lemnos, and 
Imbros, They were also worshipped at Thebes, Antnedon, Per- 
gamuB, and elsewhere. The Cabin were much invoked in dangers 
at sea. Cl Orphic Hymn, 37, 1. 4. 

Clcus, son of Vulcan, was a giant, who inhabited a cave on Mt. 
Aventine. When Hercules came to Italy with the oxen which he 
had taken from Geryon in Spain, Cacus stole part of the cattle, 
and, as he dragged the animate into the cave by their tails, it was 
impossible to discover their traces. But when the remaining oxen 
passed by the cave, those within began to bellow, and were thus 
discovered, whereupon Cacus was slain by Hercules. In honour of 
his victory Hercules dedicated the Ara MaTima, which existed ages 
afterwards in Rome. 


CADMUS, son of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, and of Telephassa, and 
brother of Enropa. Another legend makes him a native of Thebes 
in Egypt. "When Enropa was carried off by Zens to Crete, Agenor 
sent Cadmus in search of his sister. Unable to find her, Cadmus 
settled in Thrace, bnt having consulted the oracle at Delphi, he 
was commanded by the god to follow a cow of a certain kind, and 
to build a town on the spot where the cow should sink down with 
fatigue. Cadmus found the cow in Phocis and followed her into 
Boeotia, where she sank down on the spot on which Cadmus built 
Cadmea, afterwards the citadel of Thebes. Intending to sacrifice 
the cow to Athena, he sent some persons to the neighbouring well of 
Ares to fetch water. This well was guarded by a dragon, a son of 
Ares, who killed the men sent by Cadmus. Thereupon Cadmus slew 
the dragon, and, on the advice of Athena, sowed the teeth of the 
monster, out of which armed men grew up, called Sparti (or the Sown) , 
who killed each other, with the exception of 5, who were the ancestors 
of the Thebans. Athena assigned to Cadmus the government of 
Thebes, and Zens gave *i Harmonia for his wife. The marriage 
solemnity was honoured by the presence of all the Olympian gods in 
the Cadmea. Cadmus gave to Harmonia the famous peplus and 
necklace which he had received from Hephaestus or from Europa, 
and he became by her the father of Autonoe*, Ino, Semele, Agave, 
Polydonzs, and at a subsequent period, IQyrius. In the end, 
Cadmus and Harmonia were changed into serpents, and were 
removed by Zeus to Elysium. Cadmus is said to have introduced 
into Greece from Phoenicia or Egypt an alphabet of 16 letters. 

CADfJcfics, the wand, or staff, carried by Hermes the herald-god. 

CADURCI, a people in Gallia Aquitanica. 

CADtteXi or GSLAB, powerful Scythian tribe, S.W. of the Caspian. 

CAD^TIS, according to Herodotus, a great city of tiie Syrians of 
Palestine, not much smaller *ft.n Sardis, was taken by Necho, **" 
of Egypt, after his defeat of the ' Syrians ' at Magdolus. 

z. Caia, the Roman name of Tanaquil, wife of TAR- 
QUINTUS PRISCUS. 2. Metella, first married to M. Aemilius Scaurus, 
consul in 115, and afterwards to the dictator Sulla, 3. Daughter 
of T. Pomponius Atticus. She was married to M. Vipsanius Agrippa. 

CAZC&IUS. z. Q., Roman eques, who adopted his nephew 
Atticus in his win, and left hi a fortune of zo millions of 
sesterces. 2. CAECILIUS CALACTINUS, Greek rhetorician at Rome 
in the time of Augustus. 3. CAECILIUS STATIUS, Roman comic 
poet, the immediate predecessor of Terence, was by birth an In- 
subrian Gaul, and a native of Milan. Being a slave, he bore the 
servile appellation of Statins, which was afterwards, probably 
when he received his freedom, converted into a cognomen. Hie 
died z6S B.C. Only the titles of some 40 of his plays now survive. 

CABCTNA, the name of a family of the Etruscan city of Volatenae. 
z. A. CABCINA, whom Cicero defended in a law-soft, 69 B.C. 2. A. 
CABCINA, son of the preceding, published a libellous work against 


Caesar, and was exiled after the battle of Pharsalia, 48 B.C. 3. A. 
CAECIXA ALIEN-US was quaestor, in Spain, at Nero's death, and 
joined the party of Galba. He served first under Galba, and 
afterwards joined Vitellius; but proving a traitor, he joined Ves- 
pasian, against whom, also, he conspired ; and was slain by order of 

CAECC-BUS ACER, marshy district in Lathim, bordering on the 
Gulf of Amyclae, close to Fundi, celebrated for its wine (Caecvbum) 
in the age of Horace. 

CAELIUS. MARCUS C. RUFUS, Roman orator. Several of his letters 
to Cicero are preserved. 


CAENEUS, one of the Lapithae, son of Hiatus or Coronas, was 
originally a maiden named Caenis, who was beloved by Poseidon, 
and was by this god changed into a man, and rendered invulnerable. 
In the battle between the Lapithae and the Centaurs at the marriage 
of Pirithous, he was buried by the Centaurs under a ms^s. of trees, 
as they were unable to kill him; but he was changed into a bird. 
He took part in the expedition of the Argonauts, and the Calydonian 
boar-hunt. In the lower world Caeneus recovered his female form. 

CAENI or CAEN*CI, a Thracian people, between the Black Sea 
and the Panysus. 

CAENINA, town of the Sabines, in Latium, whose king Acron is 
said to have carried on the first war against Rome. 

CAEP!O, CN. SERV!L!US, consul 106 B.C., was sent into Gallia 
Narbonensis to oppose the Cimbri. In 105 he was defeated by the 
Cimbri. 80,000 soldiers and 40,000 camp-followers are said to 'have 
perished. Caepio survived the battle, but 10 years afterwards (95) 
he was brought to trial by the tribune C. Norbanus, on account of 
his misconduct in *hf war. He was condemned, and cast into 

CAERE (Cervctri), called by the Greeks Agylla (AgyUina urbs, 
Virg.), city in Etruria. In early times Caere was closely allied with. 
Rome; and when the latter city was taken by the Gauls, 390 B.C., 
Caere gave refuge to the Vestal virgins. The Romans out of grati- 
tude, are said to have conferred upon the Caerites the Roman 
franchise without the suffragiuxn. When a Roman citizen was struck 
out of his tribe by the censor, and made an aerarian, he was said to 
become one of the Caerites, since he had lost the suffrage : hence we 
find the expressions in tdbvJas Caeriium referre, and aerarium facers, 
used as synonymous. 

CAESAR, the name of a patrician family, of the Julia gens, which, 
traced its legendary origin to lulus, the son of Aeneas. The name 
was assumed by Augustus as the adopted son of the dictator C. 
Julius Caesar, and was by Augustus handed down to his adopted son 
Tiberius. It continued to be used by CaTlgnte, Claudius, and Nero, 
as members either by adoption or female descent of Caesar's family; 
but though the family became extinct with Nero, succeeding emperors 


still retained the name as part of their titles. When Hadrian adopted 
Aelius Verus, he allowed the latter to take the title of Caesar; and 
from this time, though the title of Augustus continued to be confined 
to the reigning prince, that of Caesar was also granted to the heir 
presumptive to the throne, i. L. JULIUS CAESAR, consul, $o B.C., 
fought against the Socii, and afterwards proposed the Lex Julia d* 
Civitate, which granted the citizenship to the T^-Hna and the Socii 
who had remained faithful to Home. Caesar was censor in 89 ; he 
belonged to the aristocratical party, and was put to death by Marius 
in 87. 2. C. JULIUS CAESAR STRABO VOPISCUS, brother of No. i, 
was curule aedile go, was a candidate for the consulship in 88, and 
was slain along with his brother by Marius in 87. He was one of 
the chief orators and poets of his age, and is one of the speakers in 
Cicero's dialogue De Oratore. 3. L. JULIUS CAESAR, son of No. 2, 
and uncle by his sister Julia of M. Antony the triumvir. He was 
consul 64, and belonged, like his father, to the aristocratical party. 
He appears to have deserted this party afterwards; we find him in 
Gaul in 52 as one of the legates of C. Caesar, and he continued in 
Italy during the civil war. After Caesar's death (44) he sided with 
the senate in opposition to his uncle Antony, and was in consequence 
proscribed by the latter in 43, but obtained his pardon through the 
influence of his sister Julia. 4. L. JULIUS CAESAR, son of No. 3, 
usually distinguished from his father by the addition to his name of 
filius or adolescsns. He joined Pompey on the breaking out of the 
civil war in 49, and was sent by Pompey to Caesar with proposals of 
peace. 5. C. JULIUS CAESAR, the dictator, was born on the i2tii 
of July loo, in the consulship of C. Marius (VI) and L. Valerias 
Flaccus, and was consequently 6 years younger than Pompey and 
Cicero. Caesar was closely connected with the popular party by 
the marriage of his aunt Julia with the great Manus; and in 83, 
though only 17 years of age, he married Cornelia, the daughter of L. 
Cinna, the chief leader of the Marian party. Sulla commanded "hi 
to put away his wife, but he refused to obey him, and was conse- 
quently proscribed. He concealed *mg*if for some time in the 
country of the Sabines, tin his friend obtained his pardon from SuHa. 
Seeing, however, that he was not safe at Rome, he went to Asia, 
where he served his first campaign under M. Minucius Thermus, 
and, at the capture of Mytflene (So), was rewarded with a civic 
crown for saving the life of a fellow-soldier. On the death of Sulla, 
in 78, he returned to Rome, and in the following year gained renown 
as an orator by his prosecution of Cn. DolabeHa on account of 
in his 

extortion in his province of Macedonia. To perfect "hfrmgAif in 
oratory, he resolved to study in Rhodes under Apollonius Molo, 
but on his voyage thither he was captured by pirates, and only 
obtained his liberty by a ransom of 50 talents. At Miletus he 
maimed some vessels, overpowered the pirates, and conducted them 
as prisoEters to Pergamns, where he crucified them a punishment 
mm which he had frequently threatened them in sport when he was 
their prisoner. On his return to Home be devoted an his energies 
to acquire the favour of the people. His liberality was unbounded; 
and as bis private fortune TOS not large, he soon contracted enonnons 


debts. But he gained his object, and became the favourite of the 
people, and was raised by them in succession to the high offices of 
the state. He was quaestor in 68, aedile in 65, when he spent 
enormous sums upon the public games and buildings, and was elected 
pontifex maximus in 63. In the debate in the senate on the punish- 
ment of the Catilinarian conspirators, he opposed their execution in 
a very able speech, which made such an impression that their lives 
would have been spared but for the speech of Cato in reply. In 
62 he was praetor, and in the following year he went as propraetor 
into Further Spain, where he gained great victories over the Lusi- 
tanians. On his return to Rome he was elected consul along witk 
BIBULUS, a warm supporter of the aristocracy. After his election, 
but before he entered upon the consulship, he formed that coalition 
with Pompey and M. Crassus, usually known by the name of the 
first triumvirate. Pompey had become estranged from the aristo- 
cracy, since the senate had opposed the ratification of his ads in 
Asia, and of an assignment of lands which he had promised to his 
veterans. Crassus, in consequence of his immense wealth, was one of 
the most powerful men at Rome, but was a personal enemy of 
Pompey. They were reconciled by means of Caesar, and the 3 
entered' into an agreement to support one another, and to divide the 
power in the state between them. In 59 Caesar was consul, and 
being supported by Pompey and Crassus, he was able to carry all 
his measures. Caesar brought forward such measures as secured 
for him the affections of the poorest citizens, of the Equites, and of 
the powerful Pompey; having done this, he was easily able to obtain 
for himself the provinces which he wished. By a vote of the people, 
proposed by the tribune Vatinius, the provinces of Cisalpine Gaul and 
Illyricum were granted to Caesar, with 3 legions, for 5 years ; and tiie 
senate added to his government the province of Transalpine Gaul, 
with another legion, for 5 years also, as they saw that a bill would 
be proposed to the people for that purpose, if they did not grant 
the province themselves. Caesar foresaw that tie struggle between 
the different parties at Rome must eventually be terminated by the 
sword, and he had therefore resolved to obtain an army, which he 
might attach to himself by victories and rewards. In the course of 
the same year he united himself more closely to Pompey by giving 
him his daughter Julia in marriage. During the next 9 years Caesar 
was occupied with the subjugation of Gaul. He conquered the whole 
of Transalpine Gaul, which had hitherto been independent of the 
Romans, with the exception of the S.E. part called Provincia; he 
twice crossed the Rhine, and twice landed in Britain, which had been 
previously vnknown to the Romans. TTfe first invasion of Britain 
was made late in the summer of 55, but more with the view of 
obtaining knowledge of the island, than with, the intention of perma- 
nent conquest. He sailed from the port Itins (probably Wissani, 
between Calais and Boulogne), and effected a landing somewhere 
near the South Foreland, after a severe struggle with the natives. 
The late period of the year compelled him to return to Gaul after 
remaining only for a short time in th* island. In *hfa year, accent- 
ing' to his arrangement with Pompey and Crassus, who were now 


consuls, his government of the Gauls and Illyricum was prolonged 
for 5 years, namely, from the ist of January 53, to the end of Decem- 
ber 49. During the following year (54) he invaded Britain a second 
time. He landed in Britain at the same place as in the former year, 
defeated the Britons in a series of engagements, and crossed the 
Tamesis (Thames). The Britons submitted, and promised to pay an 
annual tribute; but their subjection was only nominal. Caesar's 
success in Gaul excited Pompey *s jealousy; and the death of Julia in 
childbirth, in 54, broke one of the few links which kept them together. 
Pompey was thus led to join again the aristocratica! party, by whose 
assistance he hoped to retain his position as the chief man in the 
Roman state. The object of this party was to deprive Caesar of his 
command, and to compel him to come to Rome as a private man 
to sue for the consulship. Caesar offered to resign his command if 
Pompey would do the same; but the senate would not listen to any 
compromise. Accordingly, on the ist of January 49, the senate 
passed a resolution that Caesar should disband his army by a certain 
day, and that if he did not do so, he should be regarded as an enemy 
of the state. Two of the tribunes, M. Antonius and Q. Cassius, put 
their veto upon this resolution, but their opposition was se*t at 
naught, and they fled for refuge to Caesar's camp. Under the 
plea of protecting the tribunes, Caesar crossed the Rubicon, which 
separated his province from Italy, and marched towards Rome. 
Pompey, who had been entrusted by the senate with the conduct of 
the war, soon discovered how greatly he had overrated his own 
popularity and influence. He own troops deserted to his rival in 
crowds; town after town in Italy opened its gates to Caesar, whose 
march was like a triumphal progress. Meantime, Pompey, with the 
ites and senators, had fled from Rome to the S. of Italv, 

and on the lyth of March embarked for Greece. Caesar pursued 
Pompey to Brundusium, but he was unable to follow him to Greece 
for want of ships. Shortly afterwards he set out for Spain, where 
Pompey's legates, Afranius, Petreius, and Varro, commanded power- 
ful armies. After defeating Afranius and Petreius, and receiving 
the submission of Varro, Caesar returned to Rome, where he fr4 in 
the meantime been appointed dictator by the praetor M. Lepidus. 
He resigned the dictatorship at the end of n days, after holding the 
consular comitia, in which he himself and P. Servilius Vatia Isauricus 
were elected consuls for the next year. At the beginning of January 
48, Caesar crossed over to Greece, where Pompeyhad collected a 
formidable army. At first the campaign was in Pompey's fevour; 
Caesar was repulsed before Dyrrhachium with considerable loss, 
and was obliged to retreat towards Thessaly. In this country on 
the plains of Pharsalus, or Pharsalia, a decisive battle was fought 
between the two armies on the 9th of August 48. Pompey was 
completely defeated. Pompey fled to Egypt, pursued by Caesar, but 
he was murdered before Caesar arrived! n the country. [PojTPEius.] 
On his arrival in Egypt, Caesar became involved in a war, usually 
called tfae Alexandrine war. It arose from the determination of 
Caesar that Qeopatra, whose fascinations had won his heart, should 
reign in commoa witii her brother Ptolemy; but this decision was 


opposed by the guardians of the young king, and the war which thus 
broke out was not brought to a close till the latter end of March 47. 
It was soon after this that Cleopatra had a son by Caesar. CaesarioEU 
Caesar returned to Rome through Syria and Asia Minor, and on his 
march through Pontus, attacked Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates 
the Great, who had assisted Pompey. He defeated Pharnaces near 
Zela with such ease, that he informed the senate of his victory by 
the words, Veni, vidi, vici. He reached Rome in September '(47), 
and before the end of the month set sail for Africa, where Sdpio and 
Cato had collected a large army. The war was terminated by the 
defeat of the Pompeian army at the battle of Thapsus, on the 6th 
of April 46. Cato, unable to defend Utica, put an end to his own 
life. Caesar returned to Rome in the latter end of July. He was 
now the undisputed master of the Roman world, but he used his 
victory with the greatest moderation. Unlike other conquerors in 
civil wars, he freely forgave all who had borne arms against him, and 
declared that he would make no difference between Fompeians 
and Caesarians. One of the most important of his measures this 
year (46) was the reformation of the calendar. As the Roman year 
was now 3 months in advance of the real time, Caesar added 90 days 
to this year, and thus made the whole year consist of 445 days; 
and he guarded against a repetition of similar errors for the future 
by adapting the year to the sun's course. Meantime the two sons 
of Pompey, Sextos and Cneius, had collected a new army in Spain. 
Caesar set out for Spain towards the end of the year, and brought 
the war to a close by the battle of Munda, on the ijth of March 45. 
Cn. Pompey was killed shortly afterwards, but Sextus made good his 
escape. Caesar reached Rome in September, and entered the city 
in triumph. Possessing royal power, he now wished to obtain the 
title of king, and Antony "accordingly offered him the diadem in 
public on the festival of the Lupercalia (the I5th of February) ; but, 
seeing that the proposition was not favourably received by the people, 
he declined it for the present. But Caesar's power was not witnessed 
without envy. The Roman aristocracy resolved to remove h*m by 
assassination. The conspiracy against Caesar's life had been set 
afoot by Cassius, a personal enemy of Caesar's, and there were more 
than 60 persons privy to it. Many of these persons had been raised 
by Caesar to wealth and honour; and some of them, such as M. 
Brutus, lived with him on terms of the most intimate friendship. It 
has been the practice of rhetoricians to speak of the murder of Caesar 
as a glorious deed, and to represent Brutus and Cassius as patriots; 
but they cared not for tiie republic, but only for themselves; and 
their object in murdering Caesar was to gain power for themselves 
and their party. Caesar had many warnings of his approaching 
fate, but he disregarded them aH, and fell by the daggers of his 
a-ganarinft on the Ides or lyth of March 44. At an appointed signal 
the conspirators surrounded him; Casca dealt the first blow, and the 
others quickly drew their swords and attacked him; Caesar at first 
defended himself, but presently sank pierced -with wounds at the foot 
of Poxnpey's statue. Jnlhxs Caesar was one of tie greatest men of 
antiquity. He was gifted by nature with the most varied talents, 


and was distinguished by extraordinary attainments in the most 
diversified pursuits. During the whole of his busy life he found 
time for the prosecution of literature, and was the author of many 
works, the majority of which have been lost. The purity of his 
Latin and the clearness of his style were celebrated by the ancients 
themselves, and are conspicuous in his Comment arii, which are his 
only works that have come down to us. They relate the history of 
the* first 7 years of the Gallic war in 7 books, and the history of the 
Civil war, down to the commencement of the Alexandrine in 3 books. 
Neither of these works completed the history of the Gallic and Civil 
wars. The history of the former was completed in an 8th book, 
which is usually ascribed to Hirtius, and the history of the Alexan- 
drine, African, and Spanish wars was written in 3 separate books, 
which are also ascribed to Hirtius, but their authorship is uncertain. 
See Fronde's brilliant historical sketch Caesar (1879); Oman, Seven 
Roman Statesmen (1892). The commentaries have recently been 
Englished by Rice Holmes, whose Conquest of Gaul and annotated 
edition of the Gallic War (19x4) are indispensable. Translations 
both of the Gallic War and Civil War have appeared in the Oxford 
Translation series, and Loeb Library. (See Fig. 18.) 

(Saragossa), the ancient SALD&BA, a town in 
Hispania Tarraconensis by the river Iberns. It was rebuilt by 
Julius Caesar and renamed after him. 

Caiy$AgflA, a name given to several cities of the Roman empire in 
honour of one or other of the Caesars, i. C. AD ARGAEUH, formerly 
MAZACA, also EUSEBIA (Kaisarieh), one of the oldest cities of 
Asia Minor, stood upon Mt. Argaeus, about the centre of Cappadocia. 
When the country was made a Roman province by Tiberius (A.D. 18), 
it received the name of Caesarea. It was ultimately destroyed by 
an earthquake. 2. C. PHILIPPI, or PAXEAS (Banias), a city of 
Palestine at the S. foot of Mt. Hermon, on the Jordan, just below 
its source, built by Philip the tetrarch, 3 B.C.; King Agrippa called 
it Keronias, but it soon lost this narnft 3. C. PALAESTINAE, formerly 
Stratonis Turris, an important city of Palestine, on the sea-coast, 
just above the boundary line between Samaria and Galilee. It was 
surrounded with a wall, and decorated with splendid buildings by 
Herod the Great (13 B.C.), who called it Caesarea, in honour of 
Augustas. He also made a splendid harbour for the city. Under 
the Romans it was the capital of Palestine and the residence of the 
procurator. 4. C. MAURETANIAB, formerly lol (Zerskefy, a Phoe- 
necian city on the N. coast of Africa, with a harbour, the 
residence of ^"g juba, who named it Caesarea, in honour of 

CAXSJtaiojt, son of C. Julius Caesar and of Cleopatra, called 
Ptotemaens as an Egyptian prince, was born 47 B.C. After -die 
death of his mother in 30 he was executed by order of Augustus. 

(Tours), chief town of the Turones or Ttuttni, 
subsequently called Toroni, on the Liger (Loire) in Gallia Lug- 


CABSTUS, the Roman boxing-glove, a strap of bulTs-hide loaded 
with metal, and wound round the hands of the pugilists. 

CXlcus, river of Mysia, rising in M. Tetanus and flowing past 
Pergamus into the Cumaean Gulf. 

ClifiTA (Gaeta), town in Latinm on the borders of Campania, 

CAIUS, the jurist. [GAIUS.] 



CALABRIA, the pensinsnla in the S.E. of Italy. 

CALACT, originally the name of part of the coast, and afterwards 
of a town on the K. coast of Sicily, founded by Ducetrus, a chief of 
the Sicels, about B.C. 447* 

CALAGURRIS (Calahorra], town in Spain. Birthplace of Quintiliaa. 

CALAIS, brother of Zetes. [ZETES.J 

CALAMIS, Athenian statuary and embosser, was a contemporary 
of Phidias, and flourished 467-429 B.C. 

CALAXUS, an Indian gymnosophist, who burnt himself alive in 
the presence of the Macedonians, 3 months before the death of 
Alexander (323 B.C.), to whom he had predicted his approaching end. 

CiLATlNUS, A. ATILTUS, consul 258 B.C., and dictator 249, when 
he carried on the war in Sicily. He was the first dictator that 
commanded an army out of Italy. 

CALAUREA or -!A (Poro), small island in the Saronic Gulf off the 
coast of Argolis and opposite Troezen, possessed a temple of Posei- 
don, which was regarded as an inviolable asyhnn. Hither De- 
mosthenes fled to escape Antipater, and here he took poison, 322 B.C. 

CALCHAS, son of Thestor, the wisest soothsayer among the Greeks 
at Troy. An oracle had declared that he should die if he met with a 
soothsayer superior to himself; and this came to pass at Claros, near 
Colophon, for here he met the soothsayer Mopsus, who predicted 
things which Calchas could not. Thereupon Calchas died of grief. 
After his death he had an oracle in Daunia. 

CALfi (Oporto), a port-town of the Gallaeci in Hispania Xana- 
conensis at the mouth of the Durius. From Porto Cole the name of 
the country Portugal is supposed to have come. 

ClLfiDdxiA, the N. portion of Britain. 

CALENDS, the Roman name for the zst of the month. 

CXLfcrcs, Q. FCrfus, a tribune of the plebs, 61 B.C.. when he 
succeeded in saving P. Clodius from condemnation for his violation 
of the mysteries of the Bona Dea. In 59 he was praetor, and was 
an active partisan of Caesar, in whose service he remained until 
Caesar's death (44). After this event Calemzs joined M. Antony, 
and commanded Antony's legions in the N. of Italy. 

CALES, chief town in Campania, on the Via Latina. It was 
celebrated for its excellent wine. 


, Roman emperor, A.D. 37-41, son of Germanicus and 
Agrippina, -was born A.D. 12, and was brought up among the legions 
in Germany. His real name was Cains Caesar, and he was always 
called Cains by his contemporaries; Caligula was a surname given 
him by the soldiers from his wearing in his boyhood small cdllgae, or 
soldiers' boots. He gained the favour of Tiberius, who raised hJTti 
to offices of honour, and held out to him hopes of the succession. 
On the death of Tiberius (37), which was either caused or accelerated 
by Caligula, the latter succeeded to the throne. He was saluted 
by the people with the greatest enthusiasm as the son of Ger- 
manicus. His first acts gave promise of a just and beneficent reign. 
But at the end of 8 months his conduct became suddenly changed. 
After a serious illness, which probably weakened his mental powers, 
he appears as a sanguinary and licentious, mgrimap, In his madness 
he built a temple to himself as Jupiter Latiaris, and appointed 
priests to attend to his worship. His extravagance was monstrous. 
To replenish the treasury he exhausted Italy and Rome by his ex- 
tortions, and then, in 40, marched into Gaul, which he plundered. 
With his troops he advanced to the ocean, as if intending to cross 
over into Britain; he drew them up in battle array, and then gave 
them the signal to collect shells, which he called the spoils of 
conquered Ocean. The Roman world at length grew tired of such a 
mad tyrant. Four months after his return to the city, on the 24th 
of January 41, he was murdered by Cassius Chaerea, tribune of 
a praetorian cohort, Cornelius Sabinus, and others. His wife 
Caesonia and his daughter were likewise put to death. 

CAXIATIS, town of Moesia, on the Black Sea, originally a colony 
of Miletus, and afterwards of Heraclea, 

C ft T.T.Us and HiPPOirtcus, a noble Athenian family, celebrated 
for their wealth. They enjoyed the hereditary dignity of torch- 
bearer at the Elensiman mysteries. The first member of this family 
of any note was Ca,1?fa.s, who fought at the battle of Marathon, 490. 
He was ambassador from Athens to Artaxerxes, and negotiated a 
peace with Persia, 449, on terms most humiliating to the latter. 
On his return to Athens, he was accused of having taken bribes, 
and was condemned to a fine of 50 talents. His son Hipponicus 
was killed at the battle of Delium in 424. It was his divorced wife, 
and not his widow, whom Pericles married. His daughter Hipparete 
was married to Aicibiades. Callias, son of this Hipponicus by the 
lady who married Pericles, dissipated all his ancestral wealth on 
sophists, flatterers, and women. The scene of Xenophon's Banquet, 
and also that of Plato's Protagoras, is laid at the house of this 
Callias, the spendthrift 

CAT.T.TCR&TBS, one of the architects of the Parthenon. 

CALxtiticHUS, Alexandrine grammarian and poet, was a native 
of Gyrene in Africa, lived at Alexandria in the reigns of Ptolemy 
Philaddphus and Euergetes, and was chief librarian of the famous 
library of Alexandria, from about B.C. 260 until his death about 
240. Among his prcpils were Eratosthenes, Aristophanes of Byzan- 
tium, and Apollonius Rhodius. He wrote numerous works on an 


infinite variety of subjects, but of these we possess only some of his 
poems, which* are characterized by labour and learning. Among 
fragments which have come to light on Egyptian papyri, the chief 
is part of a poem in 4 books on the Origins' of various "local rituals. 
His writings had very great influence, especially on the tendencies 
of the Alexandrian school of poets. The poems of Callimachus 
have been translated in the Loeb Library; also by G. M. Young, 1934. 

CALZINUS, of Ephesus, the earliest Greek elegiac poet, probably 
flourished about 700 B.C. Only one of his elegies survives. 

CALLl6Pfi. [MUSAE.] 

CALLiRRHdfi. i. Daughter of Achelous and wife of Alcmaeon. 
[ALCMAEON.] 2. Daughter of Scamander, wife of Tros, and mother 
of Hus and Ganymedes. 

CALLiRRBdS, afterwards called ENXEACROUNOS or the 'Nine 
Springs/ because its water was distributed by 9 pipes, was the most 
celebrated well in Athens, situated in the S.E. part of the city. It 
still retains its ancient name Callirhoe. 

CAIXISTHKS, of Olynthus, a relation and a pupil of Aristotle, 
accompanied Alexander the Great to Asia. lie was accused of 
being privy to the plot of Hermolaus to assassinate Alexander; and 
after being kept in chains for 7 months, was either put to death or 
died of disease. Only fragments of his works survive. 

CALX.IST&, Arcadian nymph, hence called Sonacrina virgo, from 
Nonacris. a mountain in Arcadia, was a companion of Artemis in the 
chase. She was beloved by Zeus, who metamorphosed her into a 
she-bear. But Hera caused Artemis to slay Callisto during the 
chase. Zens placed CaQisto among the stars under the name of 
Arctos, or the Bear. Another legend was that Callisto, changed by 
Zeus into a she-bear, was hunted and killed by her son, ARCAS. " 

CAixisTRXxlA, town in Paphlagonia, on the Emdne. 

CALLISTRATUS, Greek rhetorician (3rd cent. B.C.), author of 
descriptions of fourteen statues of famous artists. 

GALLIUM, called CALL!PO > LIS by Livy, town in Aetolia in the valley 
of the Spercheus. 

G&LOR, river in Samnium flowing past Beneventum and falling 
into the Vulturous. 

CALPS (Gibraltar), i. Mountain in the S. of Spain on the straits 
between the Atlantic and Mediterranean. This and M. Abyla, 
opposite to it on the African coast, were called the Columns of 
Hercules. 2. River, promontory, and town on the coast of Bithynia. 

CALPURN!A daughter of L. Calpurains Hso, consul 58 B.C., and 
last wife of the dictator Caesar, to whom, she was married in 59. She 
survived her husband. 

CALPURNL& GENS, plebeian, pretended to be descended from 
Calpus, a son of Numa. [Piso J 

CALPURNIUS (T. CALP. SicOfus), Roman poet (fl 'or. ist cent A.D.). 
Wrote 7 eclogues in imitation of Theocritus. [Best edition : Keene's.] 


CALVtsus, CN. DOMITIUS, tribune of the plebs, 59 B.C., when he 
supported Bibulus against Caesar, praetor 56, and consul 53, through 
the influence of Pompey. He took an active part in the Civil war as 
one of Caesar's generals. 

CX LYCADNUS, river of Cilicia Tracheia, navigable as far as Seleucia. 

ClLYDXAE. I. Two islands off the coast of Troas. 2. Group of 
islands oft the coast of Caria, belonging to the Sporades. The largest 
of them was called Calydna, afterwards Calymna. 

CXLYD6N, ancient town of Aetolia W. of the Evenus in the land 
of the Curetes, said to have been founded by Aetolus or his son 
Calydon. In the neighbourhood took place the hunt of the Caly- 
donian boar. (MELEAGER, i.] The inhabitants were removed by 
Augustus to Xicopolis. In the Roman poets we find Calydonis, a 
woman of Aetolia, i.e. Delanlra, daughter of Oeneus, king of Calydon : 
Caiydonius heros, i.e. Meleager: Calydonius amnis, i.e. the Achelous 
separating Acarnania and Aetolia, because Calydon was the chief town 
of Aetolia : Calydoma regna, i.e. Apulia, because Diomedes, grandson, 
of Oeneus, king of Calydon, afterwards obtained Apulia as his kingdom. 

CALYPSO, a nymph inhabiting the island of Ogygia, on which 
Ulysses was shipwrecked. [ULYSSES.] 

CAMALODCXUM (Colchester), the capital of the Trinobantes in 
Britain, and the first Roman colony in the island, founded by the 
emperor Claudius, A.D. 43. 

G&M&B&A, town on the S. coast of Sicily, at the mouth of the 
Hipparis, founded by Syracuse, 599 B.C. It was several times 
destroyed by Syracuse; and in the first Punic war it was taken by 
the Romans. 

CAttBtftti MONTES, the mountains which separate Macedonia and 

CAMBYSS. i. Father of CYRUS the Great. 2. Second king of 
Persia, succeeded his father Cyrus, and reigned 529-522 B.C. In 525 
he conquered Egypt; bet was unsuccessful in expeditions against 
the Ammonians and against the Ethiopians. On his return to 
Memphis he treated the Egyptians with great cruelty, and slew 
their god Apis with his own hands. He also acted tyrannically 
towards his own family and the Persians in general. He caused his 
own brother Smerdis to be murdered; but a Magfon personated the 
deceased prince, and set up a claim to the throne. Cambyses forth- 
with set out from Egypt against this pretender, but died in Syria, 
at a place named Ecbatana, of an accidental wound, 522. 

ClMfiNAE, fountain nymphs, belonging to the religion of ancient 
Italy, although some accounts identify them with the Muses. The 
most important of these goddesses was Cannenta or Carmentis, who 
had a temple at the foot of the Capitolirie hiH, and altars near the 
Porta Cannentalis. She was the protector of women in childbirth. 
The traditions which assigned a Greek origin to her worship, state 
that her original name was Nicostrate, and that she was the mother 
of Evander, with whom she came to Italy. 


C&MH!NUH or G&IC&RZKUM, more anciently CAKERS (Canterinc], 
town in Umbria, on the borders of Ficenum, and subsequently a 
Roman colony. 

CiMfiRlxus, Roman poet, contemporary with Ovid, wrote a poem 
on the capture of Troy by Hercules. 

CAMICUS, an ancient town of the Sicani on the S. coast of Sicily, 
occupied the site of the citadel of AGRIGEXTUM. 

CAMILLA, daughter of king Metabus of the Volscian town of 
Privernum, was one of the swift-footed servants of Diana. She 
assisted Turnus against Aeneas, and after slaying numbers of the 
Trojans was at length killed by Aruns (Virgil, Aen., xi). 

ClMiLLUS, M. FCRlus, one of the great heroes of the Roman 
republic. He was censor 403 B.C., in which year Livy erroneously 
places his first consular tribunate. He was consular tribune six 
different years and dictator five times during his life. In his first 
dictatorship (396) he gained a glorious victory over the Falisjcans and 
Fidenates, took Veii, and entered Rome in triumph. Five years 
afterwards (391) he was accused of having made an unfair distribu- 
tion of the booty of Veii, and went voluntarily into exile at Ardea. 
Next year (390) the Gauls under Brennus took* Rome, and laid siege 
to Ardea. The Romans in the Capitol recalled CamiDus, and 
appointed him dictator in his absence. Camillus hastily collected 
an army, attacked the Gauls, and defeated them completely. His 
fellow-citizen^ saluted * as the Second Romulus. In 367 he was 
dictator a fifth time, and though So years of age, he completely 
defeated the Gauls. He died of the pestilence, 365. 

, Dorian town on the W. coast of Rhodes. 

CAMPANIA, district of Italy, separated from Latium by the river 
Liris, and from Lucania at a" later time by the river Silarus, though 
in the time of Augustus it did not extend further S. than the 
promontory of Minerva. In still earlier times the Ager Campanus 
included only the country round Capua. Campania is a volcanic 
country, to which circumstance it was mainly indebted for its extra- 
ordinary fertility. The scenery and, the climate procured for 
Campania the epithet Felix. It was the favourite retreat in grimmer 
of the Roman nobles. [BAIAE.] 

CAHPZ RAUD&, plain in the N. of Italy, near VerceUae, where 
Marina and Catolus defeated the Cimbri, zox B.C. 

CJLMPUS MjJtxfus, the 'Plain of Mars/ frequently called Campus 
simply, was the N.W, portion of the plain lying in the bend of the 
Tiber, outside the walls of Rome. The Circus Flaininius in the S. 
gave its name to a portion of the plain. The Campus Martins 
belonged to the Tarqnins, and was consecrated to Mars upon the 
expulsion of the kings. Here the Roman youths performed their 
gvmnastic and warlike exercises, and here the coxnitia of the centuries 
were held. At a later time it was surrounded by porticoes, temples, 
and other public buildings. It was included within the city walls 
by Amelias. 


CANDAC, queen of the Ethiopians of Meroe, invaded Egypt 22 
B.C., but was driven back and defeated by Petronius, the Roman 
governor of Egypt. Her name was common to all the queens of 

CANDAtTLfis, also called Myrsttns, last Heraclid king of Lydia. 
He exposed his wife to Gyges, whereupon she compelled Gyges to 
put him to death. [GYGES.] 

CANPHSRI, the title given to certain high-born maidens at 
Athens, who carried the sacred baskets at the Panathenaic festival. 

CAN-ID!*, whose real name was Gratidia, was a Neapolitan 
courtesan, beloved by Horace; but when she deserted him, he 
revenged himself by holding her up to contempt as an old sorceress. 

CANTS, the constellation of the Great Dog. The most important 
star in this constellation was named Cam's or Canicula, and also 
Siring, The Dies Caniculares were as proverbial for the heat of the 
weather among the Romans as are the dog-days among ourselves. 
The constellation of the Little Dog was called Procyon, literally 
translated Antecanis, because in Greece *>* constellation rises 
hefiacally before the Great Dog. When Bodtes -was regarded as 
Icarius [ARCTOS], Procyon became Maera, the dog of Icarius. 

CANNAE, village in Apulia, situated in an extensive plain, memor- 
able for the defeat of the Romans by Hannibal 216 B.C. 

C&NdPUS, city on the Egyptian coast, 2 miles E. of Alexandria. 
It was celebrated for a temple of Serapis, for commerce and luxury. 

CANTABRI, warlike people in the N. of Spain, bounded on the E. 
by the Astures, and on the W. by the Autrigones. They were 
subdued by Augustus after several years (25-19 B.C.). 

CANTHIRUS (Gk. KdvB&pas), a large, wide-bellied drinking vessel, 
with handles; a tankard. 

CANTIUM, district of Britain, nearly the same as the modern Kent 
(but included LONDINIUM). 

Ciir&sIuM (Canes a], town in Apulia, on the Aundus, founded by 
Diomedes. It was a Greek colony, and both Greek and Oscan were 
spoken there in the time of Horace. It was celebrated for mules 
and woollen manufactures, but its water-supply was deficient. 

son of Hipponous, and one of the 7 heroes who 
marched against Thebes. He was struck by Zeus with lightning, as 
he was scaling the walls of Thebes, because he had dared to defy the 
god. While his body was burning, his wife Evadne leaped into the 
lames and destroyed herself. 


C&P&NA, ancient Etruscan town founded by Veil; it subsequently 
Vtf*-fltw a Roman munitiLpraxn. In its territory was the celebrated 
grove and temple of FB&ONIA on the small river CapenasI 

CiPHJLREXJS (Capo d'Oro) t promontory on the S.E. of Enboea, 
where the Greek fleet was wrecked on its return from Troy. 


CApIxo, C. AxEIus, an eminent Roman jurist, who gained the 
favour of both Augustus and Tiberius by flattery. Capito and his 
contemporary Labeo were reckoned the highest legal authorities 
of their day /and were the founders of 2 legal schools. 

CApiro, C, FoNTfilus, a friend of U. Antony, accompanied 
Maecenas to Bnindisium, 37 B.C., when the latter was sent to effect 
a reconciliation between Octavianus and Antony. 


CAPixSLlUM, the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus at Rome, 
was situated on the S.\V . summit of the Mons Capitolinus, so called 
on account of the temple. The site of the temple is now covered 
in part by the Palazzo Caffarelli, while the N. summit, which was 
formerly the Arx, is occupied by the church of A ra Coeli. The build- 
ing of it was commenced by the Tarquins, but it was not dedicated 
till the 3rd year of the republic, 507 B.C., by the consul M. Horatius. 
It was burnt down in the civil wars, 83, and twice afterwards in the 
time of the emperors. After its 3rd destruction in the reign of Titus 
it was again rebuilt by Doxnitian with greater splendour than before. 
The Capitol contained 3 cells under the same roof: the middle cell 
was the temple of Jupiter, hence described as media qui sedet aede 
Deus, and on either side were the cells of his attendant deities, Juno 
and Minerva. The Capitol was one of the most imposing buildings 
at Home, and was adorned as befitted the majesty of the king of the 
gods. It was in the form of a square, namely 200 feet on each side, 
and was approached by a flight of 100 steps. The gates were of 
bronze, and the ceilings and tiles gilt. In the Capitol were kept the 
Sibylline books. Here the consuls upon entering on their office 
offered sacrifices and took their vows; and hither the victorious 
general, who entered the city in triumph, was carried in his triumphal 
car to return thanks to the father of the gods. The Capitoline hill 
(which, like the other hffl- of Rome, had its contour much altered by 
cutting away and levelling) consisted of a central part, flanked by 
two nearly equal heights. Between the Arx and the Capitolmm 
(S.W. summit) lay the Asylum founded by Romulus. The Capi- 
tolium was in early times known also as the Mons Tarpfius; but in 
later times the name Rupes Tarpeia was applied to one portion of 
the clfff only. In one part of **" cliff are many rock-chambers 
excavated ; these extended under the great temple of Jupiter. They 
were used as secret treasuries. For an account of the temples on 
the Capitoline MQ see Middleton, Remains of Ancient Rome, vol. z, 
chap. viii. 

CAPPiodcU, a district of Asia Minor to which different boundaries 
were assigned at different times. Under the Persian empire it 
included the whole country inhabited by a people of Syrian origin, 
who were called (from their complexion) White Syrians (Leucosyri), 
and also Cappadoces. Their country embraced the whole NJL. part 
of Asia Minor, E. of the river Halys, and N. of Mt. Taurus, which 
was afterwards divided into Pontus and Cappadocia Proper. [Pow- 
TUS.] When this division took place is uncertain; bat we find that 
under the Persian empire tie whole country -was governed by a line 


of hereditary satraps, who eventually became independent kings. 
At a later period Cappadocia Proper was governed by a line of 
independent monarchs. In A.D. 17 Archelaus, the last king, died at 
Rome, and Tiberius made Cappadocia a Roman province. 

CXPRA, CAPRA or CX.PBLLA, the brightest star in the constellation 
of title Auriga, or Charioteer, is said to have been originally the nymph 
or goat who nursed the infant Zeus in Crete. [AMALTHEA.] 

GAPRAE (Capri), a small island off Campania, at the entrance of 
the Gulf of Puteoli. The scenery is beautiful, and the climate genial. 
Here Tiberius lived the last 10 years of his reign. 

ClPRlcoRXus, the Goat, a sign of the Zodiac, is said to have 
fought with Jupiter against the Titans. 

CAPSA, a strong and ancient city in the S.W. of Byzacena, in N. 
Africa, in a fertile oasis. In the war with Jugurtha it was destroyed 
by Marius but afterwards rebuilt. 

CAPCA, the chief city of Campania, either founded or colonized 
by the Etruscans. It became at an early period the most luxurious 
city in the S. of Italy. Its warlike neighbours, the Samnites, made 
frequent attempts upon it, sometimes with success. Capua, in 
343 B.C., placed itself under the protection of Rome. It revolted 
to Hannibal after the battle of Cannae, 216, but was taken by the 
Romans in 211, and never recovered its former prosperity. 

CAFS. i. Son of Assaracus, and father of Anchises. 2. A 
companion of Aeneas, from whom Capua was said to have derived 
its name. 

rypXr.Afjr.A^ emperor of Rome, A.D. 211-17, was son of Septimius 
Severus, and was bora at Lyons, A.D. 188. His proper name was 
iL Aurelras Antoninus. Caracalla was a nickname derived from a 
long tonic worn by the Gauls, which he adopted as his favourite 
dress after he became emperor. He accompanied his father to 
Britain in 208; and on the death of Severus, at York, 211, Caracalla 
and his brother Geta succeeded to the throne, according to their 
father's arrangements. He assassinated his brother Geta, and, 
with him, many of the most distinguished men in the state. He 
added extravagance to cruelty; and he visited the eastern and 
western provinces of the empire, for the purposes of extortion and 
plunder. He was about to set out on further expeditions across the 
Tigris, but was murdered at Edessa by Macrinus, the praetorian 
prefect. Caracalla gave to all free inhabitants of the empire the 
name and privileges of Roman citizens. 

CARAcrlcys, iring O f the Silures in Britain, bravely defended his 
country against the Romans in the reign of Claudius. He was 
at length defeated, and fled for protection to Cartismandua, queen of 
the Brigantes; but she betrayed him to the Romans, who carried 
him to Rome, A.D. 51 . When brought before Claudius, he addressed 
the emperor in so noble a manner that the latter pardoned him. 

G&K&XJS or CIsi& (Cagiiari}, the chief town of Sardini^. 

ClRXxus, a descendant of Hercules, is said to have settled at 


Edessa, in Macedonia, with an Argive colony, about 750 B.C.. and 
to have become the founder of the dynasty of Macedonian kings. 

CARBO, the name of a family of the Papiria gens, i . C. PAP!RTCS 
CARBO, orator, and a man of great talents, but of no principle. He 
was one of the 3 commissioners or triumvirs for earning into effect 
the agrarian law of Tib. Gracchus. After the death 'of C. Gracchus 
(121 B.C.), he deserted the popular part}-, and in his consulship (120) 
undertook the defence of Opimius, who had murdered C. Gracchus. 
In z 19 Carbo was accused by L. Licinxus Crassus; and he put an end 
to his life. 2. Cx. PAPIRUS CARBO, one of the leaders of the Marian 
party. He was thrice consul. In 82 he carried on war against 
Sulla, but he was obliged to fly to Sicily, where he was put to death 
by Pompey. 

CARC!SO (Carcassonne) , town in Gallia Narbonensis. 

CARDA, a Roman divinity, presiding over the hinges of doors, that 
is, over family life. 

CARD!A, town on the Thzacian Chersonese, on the Gulf of Melas, 
was the birthplace of Eumenes. It was destroyed by Lysimachus, 
who built the town of LYSIMACHIA. 

CARDCCHI, warlike people, probably the Kurds of modern times, 
dwelt in the mountains between Assvria and Armenia (Mis. of 

CAR!A, a district of Asia Minor, in its S.\V. corner. It is inter- 
sected by low mountain chains, running out far into the sea in long 
promontories, forming gulfs along the coast and inland valleys that 
were fertile and well watered. The chief products of the country 
were corn, wine, oil, and figs. The coast was inhabited chiefly by 
Greek colonists. The native inhabitants were Carians, a people 
allied to the Lydians and Mysians. The Greeks considered the 

tople mean and stupid, even for slaves. The country was governed 

r a race of native princes, who firrd their abode at Halicarnassus- 

lese princes were subject allies of Lydia and Persia, and some of 
them rose to great distinction in war and peace. [ARTEMISIA, 
MAUSOLUS.] Under the Romans, Caria formed a part of the province 
of ASIA. 

CARlNUS, M. AuRBiXus, Roman emperor, A.D. 284-5, the elder of 
the 2 sons of Cams. He was slain in a battle against Diocletian 
by some of his own officers. 

CARMAXIA, province of the ancient Persian empire. 

CARU&LUS (Carmd), a range of mountains in Palestine. 


CARNA, Roman divinity, regarded as the protector of the physical 
well-being of man, Her festival was celebrated June xst, and was 
believed to nave been instituted by Brutus in the first year of the 
republic. Ovid confounds this goddess with CAVDRA. 

CARN&A (dor. from copfe, 'a ram 1 }, a festival held at Sparta in 
the month Carafes (August), in honour of the Ram-god, Apollo 
Carneios. The old ram-god was probably worshipped in 


before the Dorian invasion, and the Dorians, taking over his worship 
from the conquered people, identified him with their Apollo under 
the title of Carnean Apollo. C/. Frazer, Pausanias, vol. iii, p. 332. 

CARNEADES, sceptic philosopher, born at Cyrene about 213 B.C., 
was the founder of the Third or New Academy at Athens, and a 
strenuous opponent of the Stoics. In 155 he was sent to Rome, with 
Diogenes and Critolaus, by the Athenians, to deprecate the fine of 
500 talents which had been imposed on the Athenians for the de- 
struction of Oropus. At Home he was famed for his philosophical 
declamations. He died in 129, at the age of 85. 

GARNI, Celtic people, X. of the Veneti, in the Alpes Carnicae. 

CARNUNTUM, Celtic town in Upper Pannonia, on the Danube, 
E. of Vindobona (Vienna), subsequently a Roman colony. 

CARNCTES or -i, a powerful people in the centre of Gaul, between 
the Liger and Sequana: their capital was GENABUM (Orleans). 

CARPXTES, also called Alpes Bastarnicae (Carpathian Mountains), 
the mountains separating Dacia from Sarmatia. 

CARPXTHUS (Scarpanto), island between Crete and Rhodes. 

CARPETANI, powerful people in Hispania Tarraconensis, with a 
fertile territory on the rivers Anas and Tagus. 

CARPI or CARP&NI, German people between the Carpathian 
mountains anrj the Danube. 

CARRAE or CARRHAK, the Haran or Charran of the Scriptures, 
a city of Osroene, in Mesopotamia, where Crassus met his death after 
his defeat by the Parthians, 53 B.C. 

CARsfidLi (Car soli), town of the Aequi, in Latiuxn, colonized by 
the Romans. 

CARTEIA (also Carthaea, Carpia, Carpessus). [TARTESSTJS.] 

CARTHAGO, MAGXA CARTHAGO (N.E. of Tunis), celebrated city of 
the ancient world, stood in the recess of a large bay, in the middle of 
the N.-most part of the N. coast of Africa. The coast of this part of 
Africa has been much altered by the deposits of the river Bagradas, 
and the sand which is driven seawards by the N.W. winds. The 
old peninsula upon which Carthage stood was about 30 miles in 
circumference, and the city itself, in the height of its glory, measured 
about 15 miles round. Carthage was founded by the Phoenicians 
of Tyre, according to tradition, about zoo years before the building 
of Rome. The mythical account of its foundation is given under 
DIDO. The part of the city first built was called, in the Phoenician 
language, Bosra, i.e. a castle, which was corrupted by the Greeks into 
Byrsa, i.e. a hide, and hence probably arose the story of the way in 
which the natives were cheated out of the ground. As the city grew, 
the Byrsa formed the citadel. Cothon was the inner harbour, and 
was used for ships of war: the outer harbour, divided from it by a 
tongue of land 300 feet wide, was the station for the merchant ships. 
Beyond the fortifications was a large suburb, called Mgri*r The 
population of Carthage at the time of the third Punic war is stated at 
700.000. The constitution of Carthage was an oligarchy. The two 


chief magistrates, called Sufletes, appear to have been elected for 
life. The generals and foreign governors were distinct from the 
suffetes; but the 2 offices were sometimes nnited in the same person. 
The governing body was a Senate, partly hereditary and partly 
elective, within which there was a select body of 100 or 104, called 
Gerusia, whose chief office was to control the magistrates and generals. 
Important questions, especially those on which the senate and the 
suffetes disagreed, were referred to a general assembly, of the citizens. 
The chief occupations of the people were commerce and agriculture, 
The Carthaginians became the rivals of the Romans, and the three 
Punic wars resulted. The first lasted from 265 to 242 B.C., and resulted 
in the loss to Carthage of Sicily and the Lipari islands. The second, 
which was the decisive contest, began with the siege of Saguntum 
(218), and terminated (201) with the peace, by which Carthage was 
stripped of all her power. [HANNIBAL.] The third began and 
terminated in 146, by the capture and destruction of Carthage. It 
remained in ruins for 30 years. At the end of that time a colony 
was established on the old site by the Gracchi, which continued till 
the times of Julius and Augustus, under whom a new city was built, 
with the name of Colonia Carthago. It became the first city of 
Africa, and occupied an important place in ecclesiastical as weu as 
in civil history. It was taken by the Vandals in A.D. 439, retaken 
by Belisarius in 533, and destroyed by the Arab conquerors in 698. 
The Carthaginians are frequently called Poeni by the T^t writers 
on account of their Phoenician origin. The reader is referred to 
Bosworth Smith's Carthage and the Carthaginians for full details as to 
the city and its history. 

CARTHAGO N5vA (Carthagena), town on the E. coast of Hispania 
Tarraconensis, founded by the Carthaginians under Hasdrubal, 243 
B.C., and subsequently colonized by the Romans. It is situated on 
a promontory and possesses a fine harbour. 

CARUS, M. AuRftT.Tus, Roman emperor, A.D. 282-3, succeeded 
Probus. He was engaged in a successful military expedition in 
Persia, when he was struck dead by lightning. 

CAR-^AE, town in Laconia near the borders of Arcadia. Female 
figures employed in architecture instead of pillars were called 
Carjfitides. These figures were possibly so called in commemoration 
of the dance of the Lacedaemonian virgins in honour of Artemis at 
the ancient festival at the temple of Artemis Carvatis at Caryae. No 
credit can be given to the theory of Vitruvius that the figures com- 
memorated the slavery to which the women of Caryae were subjected 
by the Greeks, as a punishment for joining the Persians at the 
invasion of Greece. 

CASCA, P. SEKVlLlus, tribune of the plebs, 44 B.C., and one of 

, town in Campania, and on the arpq site as the modern 
Capua, celebrated for its defence against Hannibal, 216 B.C. 

CAslNUM (Son Gtrmaxo), town in Latium on the Casinus. Its 
citadel occupied the same site as the celebrated Abbey of ilonte- 


CXsIus. i. (El Katieh), mountain on the coast of Egypt, . 
of Pelusinm, with a temple of Jupiter on its summit. Here also was 
the grave of Pompey. 2. (Jebel Akra), mountain on the coast of 
Syria, S. of Antioch and the Orontes. 

CASMENA, town in Sicily, founded by Syracuse about 643 B.C. 

CASFtAZ PORTAB or PviAE, the Caspian Gates, the name given to 
several passes through the mountains round the Caspian. The 
principal of these were near the ancient Rhagae or Arsatia. Being 
a noted and central point, distances were reckoned from it. 

CASP&, certain Scythian tribes around the Caspian Sea, 

CASP!I MOKTES (EJburz Mis.}, a name applied generally to the 
whole range of mountains which surround the Caspian Sea. 

CAsrfuM M*F (Caspian Sea), also called Hyrcanium, Albanum, 
and Scytfcicum, all names derived from the people who lived on its 
shores, a great salt-water lake in Asia. 

CASSANDER, son of Antipater. His father, on his deathbed (319 
B.C.), appointed Polysperchon regent, and conferred upon Cassander 
only the secondary dignity of Chiliarch. Being dissatisfied with this 
arrangement, Cassander determined to carry on war with Poly- 
sperchon. First he formed an alliance with Ptolemy and Antigomis, 
and next defeated Olympias and put her to death.' Afterwards he 
joined Seleucus, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus in their war against 
Anttgonus. This war was on the whole unfavourable to Cassander. 
In 306 Cassander took the title of king. But it was not until the year 
301 that the battle of Ipsus put Cassaader in possession of Macedonia 
and Greece. Cassander died of dropsy in 297, and was succeeded by 
his son Philip. 

CASSANDRA, daughter of Priam and Hecuba, and twin-sister of 
Helenus. "When she grew up her beauty persuaded Apollo to confer 
upon her the gift of prophecy, upon her promising to comply with 
his desires; but when she had become possessed of the prophetic art, 
she refused to fulfil her promise. Thereupon the god ordained that 
no one should believe her prophecies. On the capture of Troy she 
fled into the sanctuary of Athena, but was torn away from the statue 
of the goddess by Ajax, son of Ofleus. On the division of the booty, 
Cassandra fell to the lot of Agamemnon, who took her with him to 
Mycenae. Here she was killed by Qytemnestra. She was subse- 
quently deified, 

CASsldDdRUS, MARCUS AuRfiilus, a distinguished statesman, and 
one of the few men of learning at the downfall of the Western 
Empire, was born about A.D. 468. He enjoyed the confidence of 
Theodoric the Great and his successors, and conducted for a long 
aeries of years the government of the Ostrogothic kingdom. Cassio- 
dorus wrote a history of the Goths (De Rebus Geticis) which is now 
unfortunately lost; we possess it only in the form of an epitome by 
Jornaodes. His collection of letters, though they possess no literary 
merit, is fall of historical interest. The last 30 years of a long life 
he spent in monastic retirement: died 568. See Hodgfrin's transla- 
tion of the Letters (1886), and Dean Church's illuminating essay; 


G. A. Simcox's Hist, of Lot. Literature, vol.ii; and a valuable note by 
J. B. Bury in vol. iv (p. 522) of his edition of Gibbon. 

CASS!$PA, or CASSI$P, mother of Andromeda, She was after- 
wards placed among the stars. 

CASSITERIDES, or Tin Islands; used loosely in antiquity for 
(as is probable) Britain and the adjacent islands, including, 
perhaps, Ireland. See Tozer, History of Ancient Geography, 
pp. 37-8- 

CASSIUS, the name of one of the most distinguished of the Roman 
gentes. The most famous holders of the name were: i. C. CASS. 
LONGINUS, the murderer of Julius Caesar. In 53 B.C. he was 
quaestor of Crassus, in his campaign against the Parthians, in which 
he greatly distinguished himself, gaining an important victory over 
them in 52, and again in 51. In 49 he was tribune of the'plebs, 
joined the aristocratical party in the Civil war, fled with Pompey 
from Rome, and after the battle of Pharsalia surrendered to Caesar. 
He was not only pardoned by Caesar, but in 44 was made praetor, 
and the province of Syria was promised him for the next year. But 
Cassius had never ceased to be Caesar's enemy; it was he who 
formed the conspiracy against the dictator's life, and gained over 
M. Brutus to the plot. After the death of Caesar, on the I5th of 
March, 44, Cassias went to Syria, which he claimed as his province, 
although the senate had given it to Dolabella, and had conferred 
upon Cassius Cyrene in its stead. He defeated Dolabella, who put 
an end to his own life; and after plundering Syria and Asia, he 
crossed over to Greece with Brutus in 42, in order to oppose Octaviaa 
and Antony. At the battle of Philippi, Cassius was defeated by 
Antony, while Brutus, who commanded the other wing of the army, 
drove Octavian off the field; but Cassius, ignorant of the success of 
Brutus, commanded his freedman to put an end to his life. fXsgms 
was married to Junia Tertia or Tertufla, half-sister of M. Brutus. 
Cassius was well acquainted with Greek and Roman literature; he 
was a follower of the Epicurean philosophy. 2. C. CASS. LONGINCS, 
the celebrated jurist, governor of Syria, A.D. 50, in the reign of 
Claudius. He was banished by Nero in A.D. 66, because he had, 
among his ancestral images, a statue of Cassias, the murderer of 
Caesar. He was recalled from banishment by Vespasian, Cassius 
wrote 10 books on the civil law, and some other works; was a 
follower of the school of Ateius Capita 3. CASS. PARMESSIS, so 
called from Parma, his birthplace, was one of the murderers of 
Caesar, 43 B.C. ; took an active part in the civil wars that followed 
his death; and after the battle of Actram, was put to death by the 
command of Octavian, 30 B.C. Cassius was a poet, and his produc- 
tions were prized by Horace. 4. L. CASS. LONGINUS, tribune 137 
B.C. ; author of the celebrated legal maxim cui bono ? { who pioftls 
by this [crime] ?). 5. CASS. Avmrus, an able general of M. Aurelius, 
was a native of Syria. In the Parthian war (A.D. 162-5) b com- 
manded the Roman army as the general of Verus; was afterwards 
appointed governor of an the Eastern provinces, **** discharged hJs 
trust for several years with fidelity; bat in A.D. 175 he proclaimed 


himself emperor. He was gift-fa by his own officers. [AuRELirs. 

CASSIVELAUNUS, a British chief, ruled over the country N. of the 
Tamesis (Thames), and was entrusted by the Britons with the 
supreme command on Caesar's 2nd invasion of Britain, 54 B.C. He 
was defeated by Caesar. Cf . Caesar's Gallic War, books iv, v. 

CASTXilA, a celebrated fountain on Mt. Parnassus, sacred to 
Apollo and the Muses, who were hence called Castalides. 

CASTOR, brother of Pollux. [DIOSCURI.] 

CASTRA, a Roman camp, square-shaped, surrounded by a ditch 
(fossa), and a wall (vallum). It had 2 main roads through it, and 
4 chief gates. It contained the praetorium or headquarters, the 
general's tent (tabemaculum), as well as an altar and the tribunal (or 
platform) where the general harangued the troops. (See Fig. 19.) 

CASTRUH. i. Inui, town of the Rutuli, on the coast of Latium, 
confounded by some writers with No. 2. 2. NOVUM (Torre di 
Chiaruccia), town in Etraria, and a Roman colony on the coast. 
3. NOVUM (Giulia Xuova), town in Picenum, probably at the mouth 
of the Batinus (Tordino). 

CASTULO (Ceulona) , town of the Oretani in Hispania Carthaginensis, 
on the Baetis, and under the Romans an important place. In the 
mountains in the neighbourhood were silver and lead mines. 

G&TABATHMUS MAGNUS (Le, great descent), mountain and seaport 
on the N. coast of Africa, considered the boundary between Egypt 
and Cyrenaica. 

CATALAUNI (CMlons-svr-Marne), town in Gaul, near which Attila 
was defeated by Ae"tius and Theodoric, A.D. 451. 

GATANA, or CAT!NA, town in Sicily, at the foot of Mt. Aetna, 
founded 730 B.C. In 476 B.C. it was taken by Hiero I, who removed 
its inhabitants to Leontini, and settled 5,000 Syracusans and 5,000 
Peloponnesians in the town, the name of which he changed into 
Aetna. The former inhabitants again obtained possession of the 
town soon after the death of Hiero, and restored the old name. In 
the first Punic war Catana fell under the dominion of Rome. 

CXrXBNtA, fertile district in the S.E. part of Cappadocia, to which 
it was first added under the Romans. 

CAXARRHACTES. i. River of Pamphylia, which descends from the 
mountains of Taurus, in a great broken waterfall (whence its name). 
2. The term is also applied, first by Strabo, to the cataracts of the 
Nile, which are distinguished as C. Major and C. Minor. 

CXxtiJNA, L. SBRG!US, the descendant of an ancient patrician 
family which had sunk into poverty. He first appears in history as 
a zealous partisan of Sulla, taking an active part in the horrors of 
the proscription. His private life presents a compound of cruelty 
and intrigue, but he obtained the dignity of praetor in 68 B.C., and 
sued for the consulship in 66. For this office, however, he had been 
disqualified for becoming a candidate, in consequence of an impeach- 
ment for oppression in his province, preferred by P. Clodius Pulcher. 


His sirst plot was to murder the two consuls that had been elected, a 
design which was frustrated only by his own impatience. He now 
organized a more extensive conspiracy. The time was propitious to 
his schemes. The younger nobility and the veterans of Sulla were 
desirous of some change, to relieve them from their wants; while 
the populace were discontented. The conspiracy came to a head 
in the consulship of Cicero, 63 B.C. But the vigilance of Cicero 
baffled all the plans of Catiline. He compelled Catiline to leave 
Rome (Xov. 8-9); and shortly afterwards, by the interception of 
correspondence between the other leaders of the conspiracy and the 
ambassadors of the AUobroges, he obtained legal evidence against 
Catiline's companions. This done. Cicero instantly summoned the 
leaders, conducted them to the senate, where they were condemned, 
and executed them the same night in prison. (5th Dec. 63.1 The 
consul Antonius was then sent against Catiline, and the decisive 
battle was fought early in 62. Antonius, however, unwilling to 
fight against his former associate, gave the command on the day of 
battle to his legate, M. Petreius. Catiline fell in the engagement, 
after fighting with the most daring valour. The history of Catiline's 
conspiracy has been written by Sallust. No figure in history has 
been painted in darker colours than Catiline^. For a resolute 
attempt to reverse the verdict of history, see Prof. E. S. Beesly, 
Catiline, Cloditts, and Tiberius (1878). 

Clio, the name of a celebrated family of the Portia gens. i. M. 
PoRcrus CATO, frequently surnamed the Censor, also Cato Major, to 
distinguish him from his great-grandson Cato Uticensis [No. 2]. 
Cato was born at Tusculum, 234 B.C., and was brought up at his 
father's farm, situated in the Sabine territory. In 217 he served 
his first campaign in his i/th year. During the first 26 years of 
his public life (217-191) he gave his energies to military pursuits, 

and distinguished himself on many occasions in the second Punic 
war, in Spain, and in the campaign against Antiochus in Greece. 
With the victory over Antiochus at Thermopylae in 191 his military 
career came to a close. He now took an active part in civil affairs, 
and distinguished himself by his vehement opposition to the luxury 
of the Roman nobles. It was especially against the Scipios that his 
most violent attacks were directed, fn 184 he was elected censor 
with L. Valerius Flaccus. He applied himself strenuously to the 
duties of his office, regardless of the enemies he was making; but 
all his efforts to stem the tide of luxury proved unavailing. He 
retained his bodily and mental vigour in his old age. In the year 
before his death he was one of the chief instigators of the third 
Punic war. He had been one of the Roman deputies sent to Africa 
to arbitrate between Ttfsnigft and the Carthaginians, and on his 
return home he maintained that Rome would never be safe as long 
as Carthage was in existence. From this time forth, whenever he was 
called upon for his vote in the senate, though the subject of debate 
bore no relation to Carthage, his words were Qetend& est Carthago. 
He died in 149, at the age of 85. Cato wrote several works, of which 
only the De Re Rusiica has come down to us. 2. M. POROUS Curo, 


great-grandson of Cato the Censor, and surnamed UTICENSIS from 
Utica, the place of his death, was bom 95. In early childhood he 
lost both his parents, and was brought up in the house of his mother's 
brother, M. Livius Drusus. In early years he applied himself -with 
great zeal to the study of oratory and philosophy, ^"4 became an 
adherent of the Stoic school; and among the profligate nobles of the 
age he soon became conspicuous for his rigid morality. In 63 he 
was tribune of the plebs, and supported Cicero in proposing that the 
Catilinarian conspirators should suffer death. He now became one 
of the chief leaders of the aristocratical party. He joined Pompey 
on the breaking out of the civil war (49). After the battle of 
Pharsalia he went first to Corcyra, and thence to Africa, where he 
joined Metellus Sdpio. When Scipio was defeated at Thapsus, and 
all Africa with the exception of Utica submitted to Caesar, he 
resolved to die rather than fall into his hands. Cato soon became 
the subject of biography and panegyric. Shortly after his death 
appeared Cicero's Cato, which provoked Caesar's Anticato. In 
Lucan the character of Cato is a personification of godlike virtue. 
See Oman's Seven Roman Statesmen (1902). 

CATREUS, in Greek mythology a king of Crete, son of Minos. 

CATTI or CHATTI, important nation of Germany. They are first 
mentioned by Caesar under the erroneous name of Suevi. They 
were never completely subjugated by the Romans. 

CixuiJ-us, VlLfiRhis, Roman poet, born at Verona or in its im- 
mediate vicinity, 87 B.C. Catullus inherited property from his 
father, who was the friend of Julius Caesar; but he squandered it. 
In order to better his fortunes, he went to Bithynia in the train of 
the praetor Memmius, but it appears that the speculation was 
attended with little success. He probably died about 47 B.C. The 
extant works of Catullus consist of 116 poems, on a variety of 
topics, and composed in different styles and metres. Catullus 
adorned all he touched, and his shorter poems are characterized by 
original invention and felicity of expression. The best edition of 
his poems is that by Prof. Robinson Ellis; but a very usefol edition 
has been prepared by Wane Cornish, with a prose version, published 
in the Loeb Library. 

CATUI*US, the n^Tna of a distfTigrmsTiftfi family of the L&ta'tia gens, 
i. C. LUTATTDS CATOXUS, consul 242 B.C., defeated as proconsul the 
Carthaginian fleet oS the Aegates islands, and thus brought the first 
Punic war to a dose, 241. 2. Q. LUTATXUS CATULUS, consul 102 
with C. Maxius IV, and as proconsul next year gained along with 
Matins a decisive victory over the Cimbri near Verceliae (VcrceUfy 
in the N. of Italy. Catulus belonged to the aristocratical party ; he 
espoused the cause of Sulla; was included by Marius in the proscrip- 
tion of 87 ; and put an end to his life by the vapours of a charcoal 
fire. Catulus was the author of several works, all of which are lost. 
3. Q. LUTATIUS CATULUS, son of No. 2, a distinguished leader of the 
aristocracy, also won the respect and confidence of the people by 
his upright character and conduct. He was consul in 78 and censor 
in 65. 


CAUCASUS, CAUCASII MONIES (Caucasus), chain of mountains in 
Asia, from the . shore of the Pontus Euxinus (Black Sea] to the \V. 
shore of the Caspian. There are two chief passes over the chain: 
one, near Derbend, was called Albaniae and sometimes CASPIAE 
PYLAE; the other, nearly in the centre of the range, was called 
Cancasiae Pylae (Pass of Dam/). That the Greeks had knowledge 
of the Caucasus in very early times, is proved by the myths respect- 
ing Prometheus and the Argonauts, from which it seems that the 
Caucasus was regarded as at the extremity of the earth, on the 
border of the river Oceanus. When the soldiers of Alexander 
advanced to that great range of mountains which formed the X. 
boundary of Ariana, the Paropamistis, they applied to it the name 
of Caucasus; afterwards, for the sake of distinction, it was called 
Caucasus Indicus. 

CAUCSNES, the name of peoples both in Greece and Asia, who 
had disappeared at later times. The Caucones in Asia Minor are 
mentioned bv Homer as allies of the Trojans, and are placed in 
Bithynia and Paphlagonia by the geographers. 

CAUDIUM, town in Samnium on the road from Capua to Bene- 
ventom. In the neighbourhood were the celebrated Furculae 
Caudinae, or Caudine Forks, narrow passes, where the Roman 
army surrendered to the Samnites, and was sent under the yoke, 
321 B.C, 

CLYSTER, and CXYSTRUS, river of Lydia and Ionia, flowing between 
the ranges of Tmolus and Messogis into the Aegaean, a little N.W. 
of Ephesus. The valley of the Caystrus is called in Homer 'the 
Asian meadow/ 

Cfisfts, of Thebes, a disciple of Socrates, was present at the death 
of his teacher. He wrote a philosophical work, entitled Pinax or 
Table, giving an allegorical picture of human life. [English trans- 
lation by R. T. Clark (1909).] 

CfiCROPS, traditionally the first king of Attica. In his reign 
Poseidon and Athena contended for the possession of Attica. 
[ATHENA.] Cecrpps founded Athens, the citadel of which was called 
Cecropia after him, and divided Attica into 12 communities; he 
instituted marriage, abolished bloody sacrifices, and taught his 
subjects how to worship the gods, notably Zens and Athena. 

CELAENAE, a great city in S. Phrygia, situated at the sources of 
the rivers Maeander and "Maisyas. In the midst of it was a citadel 
built by Xerxes, on a precipitous rock, at the foot of which the 
Marsyas took its rise, and near the river's source was a grotto cele- 
brated by tradition as the scene of the punishment of MARSYAS 
by Apollo. Its inhabitants were removed by Selencns Nkator to 

CfiLABNS, one of the Harpies. [HARPYIAE.] 

CELBJJS, king of Eleusis, and fattier of Demophon and Triptolemns. 
He received Demeter with hospitality at Eleusis, when she -was 
wandering in search of her daughter. The goddess, in return, wished 


to Tnafce his son Demophon immortal, and placed hii-g in the fire 
in order to destroy his mortal parts ; but the child's mother Metanira 
screamed aloud at the sight, and Demophon was destroyed by the 
flames. Demeter then bestowed great favours upon Triptolemus. 
[TRIPTOLEMUS.] Celeus is described as the first priest and his 
daughters as the first priestesses of Demeter at Elensis. 

CELSUS, A. CORNELIUS, Roman writer on scientific subjects, 
probably lived under the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius. His 
treatise De Medicina, in 8 books, has come down to us. [Text and 
translation in the Loeb Library.] 

CELTAE, a race, which occupied the greater part of W. Europe in 
ancient times. The Greek and Roman writers call them by 3 names, 
which are probably variations of one name, namely Celtae, Galatae, 
and Gafli. The most powerful part of the nation inhabited the 
centre of the country called after them GALLIA, between the Garumna 
in the S. and the Sequana and Matrona in the N. Besides the Celts 
in Gallia, there were 8 other different settlements of the nation: 
(i) Iberian Celts, who crossed the Pyrenees and settled in Spain. 
[CELTIBBRI.] (2) British Celts, the most ancient inhabitants of 
Britain. [BRITANNIA.] (3) Belgic Celts, the earliest inhabitants of 
Gallia Belgica, at a later time much mingled with Germans, (4) 
Italian Celts, who crossed the Alps at different periods, and even- 
tually occupied the greater part of the N. of Italy, which was called 
after them Gallia Cisalpina. [GALLIA, .] (5) Celts in the Alps 
and on the Danube, namely the Helvetii, Gothini, Osi, Vindelici, 
Rhaeti, Norici, and Carni. (6) Ulyrian Celts, who, under the name 
of Scordisci, settled on Mt. Scordus. (7) Macedonian and Thracian 
Celts, who ***** remained behind in Macedonia when the Celts invaded 
Greece, and who are rarely mentioned. (8) Asiatic Celts, the Tolisto- 
bogi, Trocmi, and Tectosages, who founded the kingdom of GALATIA. 
Some ancient writers divided the Celts into two great races, one 
consisting of the Celts in the S. and centre of Gaul, in Spain, arid in 
the N. of Italy, who were the proper Celts, and the other consisting 
of the Celtic tribes on the shores of the Ocean and in the . as far as 
Scythia, who were called Gauls: to the latter race the Cixnbri be- 
longed, and they are considered by some to be identical with the 
Cimmerii of the Greeks. The Celts are described by the ancient 
writers as men of large stature, of fair complexion, and with flaxen or 
red hair. They were long the terror of the Romans; once they took 
Rome, and laid it in ashes (390 B.C.). 

CELTLBERI, powerful people in Spain, consisting of Celts, who 
.crossed the Pyrenees at an early period, and became mingled with 
the Iberians, the original inhabitants of the country. Their country 
in the central part of Spain, called Celtiberia, was mountainous and 
unproductive. They proved formidable enemies to the Romans. 
They submitted to Scipio Africanus in the second Punic war, but the 
oppressions of the Roman governors led them to rebel, and for many 
years they successfully defied the power of Rome. They were 
reduced to submission on the capture of Nnmantia by Scipio 
Africanus the yoonger (134 B.C.), but they again took up arms 


under Sertorius, and it was not till his death (72) that they began to 
adopt the Roman customs and language. 

CENAEUM, the X.W. promontory of Euboea, opposite Ther- 
mopylae, with a temple of Zens Cenaeus. 

CENCHRAE, the E. harbour of Corinth on the Saronic Gulf, 
hn 3ortant for the trade and commerce with the East. 

CENOMANI, powerful Gallic people, crossed the Alps at an early 
period, and settled in the NAV. of Italy, in the country of Breda, 
Verona, and Mantua. 

CENSOR, Roman magistrate of high rank, whose duty it was to 
exercise vigilance over the morals and conduct of citizens, and to 
superintend the 5-yearly census, or register of persons and property. 
The censorship continued in existence from 443 to 22 B.C. The 
censors, two in number, were originally elected for a whole lustrum 
(five years), but in 433 B.C. their period of office was limited to 18 

CEN-sSRlNUS, Roman scholar of the yd cent. A.D., author of an 
extant treatise, entitled De Die Natali, which treats of the influence 
of the stars, and discusses the various methods employed for the 
division and calculation of time. 

CENTAURX, are represented in mythology as inhabiting Mt. Pelion 
in Thessaly. They led a wild and savage life. Homer represents 
them as wild beasts, but in later accounts they were represented 
as half horses and half men, and are said to have been the off- 
spring of Ixion and a cloud. The Centaurs are celebrated in 
ancient story for their fight with the Lapithae. [LAPITHAE.] 
It ended by the Centaurs being expelled from their country, and 
taking refuge on Mt. Pindus, on the frontiers of Epirus. CHIRON, 
the wise, is the most celebrated. We know that hunting the 
bull on horseback was a national custom in Thessaly, and that 
the Thessalians were celebrated riders. Hence may have arisen the 
fable that the Centaurs were half men and half horses. [For an 
account of the Centaurs see Lawson, Modern Greek Folklore and 
Ancient Greek Religion (1910).] (See Fig. 20.) 

CENTUM CELLAE (Civita Vecchia), seaport in Etruria first 
became important under Trajan, who constructed an excellent 

CENTUICVTRI (* hundred men'), jury for trying civil cases in Rome. 

CBNT&BIPAE, ancient town of the Siculi, in Sicily, at the loot of 
Mt. Aetna. It flourished under the Romans. 

Cos, island in the Aegaean Sea, one of the Cyclades, between the 
Attic promontory Snninm and the island Cythnus, celebrated for 
its fertile soil. Its chief town was the birthplace of Simonides, 
whence we read of the Ceae mumera neniaA, 

CfipHAiifiNlA (Cepkalonta), Hie largest island in the Ionian Sea, 
separated from Ithaca by a narrow channel. husband of Procris or Procne. He was beloved by 
Eos, but as he rejected her advances from love to hfe wife, she 


advised him to try the fidelity of Frocris. The goddess then meta- 
morphosed him into a stranger, and sent him with rich presents to 
his house. Procris was tempted by the brilliant presents to yield to 
the stranger, who then discovered himself to be her husband, where- 
upon she fled in shame to Crete. Artemis made her a present of a 
dog and a spear, which were never to miss their object, and sent her 
back to Cephalus in the disguise of a youth. In order to obtain this 
dog and spear, Cephalus promised to love the youth, who thereupon 
made herself known to h"n as his wife Procris. This led to a recon- 
ciliation between them. Procris, however, still feared the love of 
Eos, and therefore jealously watched Cephalus when he went out 
hunting, bat on one occasion he killed her by accident with the 
never-erring spear. 

CEPKEts. i. King of Ethiopia, son of Belus, husband of 
Cassiopea, and father of Andromeda, was placed among the 
stars after his death. 2. Son of Aleus, one of the Argonauts, was 
king of Tegea in Arcadia, and perished in an expedition against 

CfiFHlsus, or CfiFHissus. i. River flowing through a fertile 
valley, in Phocis and Boeotia, and falling into the lake COPAIS, 
which is hence called Cephisis in the Iliad. 2. Largest stream in 
Attica, rising in the W. slope of Mt, Pentelicus, and flowing past 
Athens on the W. into the Saronic Gulf near Phalerum. 

CSR (Greek *%>), Greek death-goddess. In late times the Ceres 
were associated with the Furies, the deities of retribution. 

s, Dorian seaport, N. of the Cnidian Chersonesus on the 
coast of Caria, from which the Ceramic Gulf took its name. 

C&RSUS, colony of Sinope, on the coast of Pontus, at the mouth 
of a river of the same name; chiefly celebrated as the place from 
which Europe obtained both the cherry and its name. Lucullus is 
said to have brought back plants of the cherry with him to Rome, 
but *frfa refers probably only to some particular sorts, as the Romans 
seem to have had the tree much earlier. 

CRAUN!I MONTBS, range of mountains extending along the coast 
of Epirus, derived their name from the frequent thunderstorms which 
occurred among them (Ke/xtvi'rf;). These mountains made the coast 
of Epirus dangerous to ships. They were also called Acrpceraunia, 
though fhia name was properly applied to the promontory separating 
the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. 

CERBRUS, the dog that guarded the entrance of Hades. Some 
poets represent M* with 50 or zoo heads; but later wrlteis describe 
him, as a monster with only 3 heads, with the tail of a serpent and 
with serpents round his neck. His den is usually placed on the 
farther side of the Styx, at tfr^ spot \vhene Charon landed the shades 
of tie departed. Hercules dragged him to the upper world (sea the 
Hercules Furens of Euripides). 

CERCASORUM, city of Lower Egypt, on the W. bank of the Nile, 
where the rrrer divided into its 3 principal branches. 


CERCINA and CERCIN!TIS, two low islands in the mouth of the 
Lesser SYRTIS, united by a bridge, and possessing a fine harbour. 

CERCOPES, gnomes, who robbed Hercules in his sleep. They were 
afterwards transformed into apes. 

CERC#5jf, son of Poseidon, or Hephaestus, tvrant at Eleusis, put 
to death his daughter Alope, and killed all" strangers whom he 
overcame in wrestling; he was in the end slain by Theseus. 


CERRETNI, Iberian people in Hispania Tarraconensis, inhabited 
the modem Cerdagns in the Pyrenees; they were celebrated for 


CETHEGUS, the name of an ancient patrician family of the Cornelia 
gens. i. M. CORNELIUS CBTHEGUS, censor 209 B.C., and consul 204, 
distinguished for his eloquence, and is quoted by Ennius and Horace 
with approbation; died 196. 2. C. CORNELIUS CETHEGUS, one of 
Catiline's crew, was a profligate from his early youth. When Catiline 
left Rome, 63, after Cicero's first speech, Cethegus stayed behind 
under the orders of Lentulus. Cethegns was arrested and condemned 
to death with the other conspirators. 

CfiYx. [ALCYONE, 2.] 

CHABR!AS, Athenian general. In 378 B.C. he was one of the 
commanders of the forces sent to the aid of Thebes against Agesilans, 
when he adopted that manoeuvre for which he became celebrated 
ordering his men to await the attack with their spears pointed 
against the enemy and their shields resting on one knee. A statue 
was afterwards erected at Athens to Chabrias in this posture. At 
the siege of Chios (357) he feU a sacrifice to his valour. 

CHABREX C. CASS!US, tribune of the praetorian cohorts, formed 
the conspiracy by which the emperor r^ignfe was -gfafr^ A.r>. 41. 
Chaerea was pat to death by Claudius upon his accession, 

CHAER&N&A, town in Boeotia, memorable for the defeat of the 
Athenians and the Boeotians by Philip, 338 B.C., and for Sulla's 
victory over Mithridates, 86. Chaeronea was the birthplace of 
Plutarch. The remains of the city include a theatre excavated in 
the rock, an aqueduct, and the marble lion (broken in pieces), which 
adorned the sepulchre of the Boeotians who fell at the battle of 

CHALAEUJC , seaport of the Locri Ozolae on the Crisaean Gulf, on 
the frontiers of Phocis. 

, Greek city of Bithynia, on the coast of the Propontis, 
nearly opposite to Byzantium, was founded by a colony from Megara 
in 685 B.C. After a long period of independence, it became subject 
to the kings of Bithynia, and most of its inhabitants were transferred 
to the new city of Nicomedia. (140 B.C.). 

CBALclDlcs, peninsula in Macedonia, between the Thermaic and 
Strymonic Gulfa, projects Hfce a 3-pronged fork, terminating in 3 


smaller peninsulas, Pallene (the most westerly), Sithonia, and 
ATHOS. It derived its name from Chalcidian colonists. 

CHALCIS (Egripo or Ncgroponte). i. Principal town of Euboea, 
situated on the narrowest part of the Euripus, *i united with the 
mainland by a bridge. It was colonized by Attic lonians. Its 
flourishing condition at an early period is attested by the numerous 
colonies which it planted in various parts of the Mediterranean, 
[CHALCIDICB.] In Italy it founded Cumae, and in Sicily Naxos. 
Chalcis was usually subject to Athens during the greatness of the 
latter city. The orator Isaeus and the poet Lycophron were born 
at Chalcis, and Aristotle died here. 2. Town in Aetolia, at the mouth 
of the Evenus, situated at the foot of the mountain Chalcis, and 
hence also called Hypochalcis. 3. City of Syria, in a fruitful plain, 
near the termination of the river Chalus. 

CHAUDAEA, in the narrower sense, was a province of Babylonia, 
about the lower course of the Euphrates, the border of the Arabian 
Desert, and the head of the Persian Gulf. It was intersected by 
numerous canals, and was extremely fertile. In a wider sense, the 
term is applied to the whole of Babylonia, on account of the supre- 
macy which the Chaldaeans acquired at Babylon. [BABYLON.] 
Xenophon mentions Chaldaeans in the mountains N. of Mesopotamia. 

CH&L-&BES, Asiatic people, dwelling on the S. shore of the Black 
Sea, and occupying themselves in the working of iron. Xenophon 
mentions Chalybes in the mountains on the borders of Armenia and 
Mesopotamia, who seem to be the same people that he elsewhere 
f3*T?? Chaldaeans. 

CHAMA* vx, people in Germany, who first appear in the neighbour- 
hood of the Rhine, but afterwards migrated E., defeated the Bruc- 
teri, and settled between the Weser and the Harz. 

CHINES, Pelasgian people, one of the three peoples which in- 
habited Erraus, were at an earlier period in possession of the whole 
of the country, but subsequently dwelt along the coast from the river 
Thyamis to the Acroceraunian promontory, which district was there- 
fore called Chaonia, By the poets Chaonius is used as equivalent 
to Epirot. 

CHA* 3s, the vacant and infinite space which existed, according to 
the ancient cosmogonies, previous to the creation of the world, and 
out of which the gods, men, and an things arose. [EREBUS.] 

CHARADRA, town in Phocis, on the river Charadrus. 

CHXttATT (i.e. a palisaded camp), the name of several cities, which 
took their origin from military stations. 

CH!RS. i. Athenian general, who for many years contrived, by 
corruption, to maintain his influence with the people, in spite of his 
disreputable character. In the Social war, 356 B.C., he accused his 
colleagues, Iphicrates and TSmotheus, to lie people, and obtained 
the sole command; after which he entered into the service of 
Artabaeus, the revolted satrap of Western Asia, but was recalled 
by the Athenians on the complaint of Artaxezxes III. He was one 


of the Athenian commanders at the battle of Chaeronea, 338. 2. Of 
Lindas, in Rhodes, a statnary in bronze, the favourite pupil of 
Lysippus, flourished 290 B.C. 'His chief work was the statue of the 
Sun (280 feet high), which, under the name of "The Colossus of 
Rhodes/ was celebrated as one of the 7 wonders of the world. 

Ca&RliJirs, or CHARILLUS, king of Sparta, son of Polydectes, was 
placed on the throne by his uncle, Lycurgus. [LYCCRGUS.] 

CnXRlTES, called Grataae by the Romans, and by us the Graces, 
were the personification of grace and beauty. In the Iliad, Chazis 
is described as the wife of Hephaestus; but in the Odyssey Aphrodite 
appears as the wife of Hephaestus; from which we may infer at least 
a close connection in the notions entertained about the 2 divinities. 
The idea of personified grace and beauty was at an early period 
divided into a plurality of beings; and even in the Homeric poems 
the plural Charites occurs several times. The Charites are usually 
described as the daughters of Zeus, and as 3 in number, namely, 
Euphrtfeyne, Aglala, and Thalia. They are mostly described as in 
the service of other divinities, and they lend their grace and beauty 
to everything that delights and elevates gods and men. Poetry, 
however, is the art which is especially favoured by them; and hence 
they are the friends of the Muses, with whom they live together in 

CHARMANDS (nr. Hi/), city of Mesopotamia, on the Euphrates. 

CnlR6N, son of Erebus, conveyed in his boat the shades of the 
dead across the rivers of the lower world. For this sen-ice he was 
paid with an obolus, which coin was placed in the mouth of every 
corpse previous to its burial. He is represented as an aged man, 
with a dirty beard and a mean dress. 

CH&ROXDAS, a lawgiver of Catana, who legislated for his own 
and the other cities of Chaltidian origin in Sicily and Italy. He 
lived about 500 B.C. Charondas one day forgot to lay aside his 
sword before he appeared in the assembly, thereby violating one of 
his own laws; and, on being reminded by this by a citizen, he 
exclaimed, 'By Zeus, I will establish it,* and stabbed himself. 


CHAS&&RI, or CHAS^AKIZ, or CHARRU&R&, people of Germany, 
allies or dependants of the Cherusci. They dwelt K. of the Catti; 
and in later times they appear between the Rhine and the **">, as 
a part of the Franks. 


CHAUCI or CAUCX, powerful people in the N.E. of Germany, 
divided by the Visurgis ( Weser), which flowed through their territory, 
into Majores and Minores, the former W., and the latter E. of the 
river. They are described by Tacitus as the noblest of the German 
tribes. They are mentioned for the last time in the 3rd century, 
when they devastated Gaul; but their name subsequently became 
merged in the general name of Saxons. 

INSULAS (Le. Sma&ov Islands). & group of small 


islands, surrounded by dangerous shallows, off the promontory 
called Hiera or Chelidonia, on the S. coast of Lycia. 

CHBMMIS, city of the Thebais, or Upper Egypt, on the E. bank of 
the Nile, celebrated for its manufacture of linen, its stone-quarries, 
and its temples. Later called PanSpSiis. 

CH&OPS, or KHUFU, early king of Egypt, flourished about the 
middle of the 4th millennium B.C.; he built the first and largest 
pyramid by the compulsory labour of his subjects. 

CHPHRN, king of Egypt, brother and successor of Cheops; 
reigned 56 years, and built the second pyramid. 

CHERsdNfisns, 'a land-island/ that is, 'a peninsula* (from xl/xror, 
'land/ and rfyros, 'island'), i. Chersonesus Thracica (Peninsula 
of the Dardanelles or of GaHipoli}, usually called at Athens 'The 
Chersonesus.' 2. Chersonesus Taurica, or Scythica (Crimea). 

CHB*RUSCI, most celebrated of all the tribes of ancient Germany. 
The Cherusci proper dwelt on both sides of the Visurgis (Weser), 
and their territories extended to the Harz and the Elbe. Under 
their chief Arminius they destroyed the army of Varus, and drove 
the Romans beyond the Rhine, A.D. 9. In consequence of internal 
dissensions, the Cherusci lost their influence. Their neighbours, 
the CATTI, succeeded to their power. 

CHHJARCH, the leader of a 'regiment* of 1,000 men, 

CH&.O'N, of Lacedaemon, son of Damagetus, and one of the 
Seven Sages, flourished 590 B.C. 

CH!MABRA, a fire-breathing monster, the fore part of whose body 
was that of a lion, the hind part that of a dragon, and the middle 
that of a goat. She made great havoc in Lycia and the surrounding 
countries, and was at length killed by Beflerophon. The origin 
of this fire-breathing monster must probably be sought for in the 
volcano of the name of Chimaera, near Phaselis, in Lycia. 

CnlSNfi. i. Daughter of Boreas and Orithyia, and mother of 
EUMOLPUS, who is hence called Chionides. 2. Daughter of Dae- 
dalion, mother of Autolycus, by Hermes, and of Fhilammon, by 
Apollo. She was killed by A Hernia for having compared her beauty 
to that of the goddess. 

Cnfos and Cnlus (Scio), one of the largest islands of the Aegean, 
lay opposite to the peninsula of Qazomenae, on the coast of Ionia. 
It was colonized by the lomans, and remained an independent and 
powerful maritime state, till the defeat of the Ionian Greeks by the 
Persians, 494 B.C., after which the rhia-na were subjected to the 
Persians. The battle of Mycale, 479, freed Chios, and it became a 
member of the Athenian league, in which it was for a long time the 
most favoured ally of Athens; but an unsuccessful attempt to 
revolt, in 412, led to its devastation. Chios was celebrated for its 
wine and marble. Of all the states which aspired to the honour of 
being the birthplace of Homer, Chios was considered by the ancients 
to have the best claim. 

CH!R!SO>HTJS, a Lacedaemonian, was sent by the Spartans to 


aid Cyras in his expedition against his brother Artaxerxes, 401 B.C. 
After" the battle of Cunaxa and the arrest of the Greek generals, 
Chirisophus was appointed one of the new generals, and, in con- 
junction with Xenophon, had the chief conduct of the retreat. 

CHIRKS, the wisest and jnstest of all the Centaurs, son of Cronos 
and Philyra (hence called Philyndes^ lived on Mt. Pelion. He was 
instructed by Apollo and Artemis, and was renowned for his skill 
in hunting, medicine, music, gymnastics, and the art of prophecy. 
All the most distinguished heroes of Grecian story, as Jason, Castor 
and Pollux, Achilles, etc., are described as the pupils of Chiron in 
these arts. He saved Peleus from the other Centaurs. Hercules, 
too, was his friend; but while fighting with the other Centaurs, 
one of the poisoned arrows of Hercules struck Chiron, who, 
although immortal, would not live any longer, and gave his 
immortality to Prometheus. Zens placed Chiron among the stars 
as Sagittarius. 

CHITON fami*), Greek nndershirt Over *hj was worn the 
'himation' (tjudnor) and 'chlamys* (x\a/ttfe}. (See Figs. 22 and 23.) 

CHL&RIS. i. The personification of spring. Cf. the Latin 
FLORA. 2. Daughter of Theban Amphion and Niobe: she and her 
brother Amyclas were the only children of Niobe not killed by Apollo 
and Artemis. She is often confounded with No. 3. 3. Daughter of 
Amphion of Orchomenus, wife of Neleus, king of Pylus, and mother 
of Nestor. 

CnfiASPfis (Kerkhah), river of Susiana, falling into the Tigris. 
Its water was so pure that the Persian kings used to cany it with 
them in silver vessels, when on foreign expeditions. 

CEQBRILUS, of lasos, a worthless epic poet in the train of Alex- 
ander the Great. 

the name in early times of a district in the S. of Italy, 
inhabited by the Chones, an Oenotrian people. 

CHORASM!I, people of Sogdiana, who inhabited the lower course 
of the Oxus. They were a branch of the Sacae or Massagetae. 

CHOSROES, Tring of Parthia. [ASSACES, 25.] 

CHRONOLOGY. The Greeks reckoned their day from sunset to 
sunset, marking off the day-period, as well as the night-period, into 
3 divisions. Tears were distinguished in various ways at Athens 
by the name of the Chief Archon, at Sparta by that of the Chief 
Ephor. For a fi^d date by which aH reckonings might be adjusted, 
they chose the year when the record of Olympian victors began 
(776 B.C.). 

The Romans reckoned their day from midnight to midnight, 
marking off the day-period, as well as the night-period, into 12 
hour divisions (the hours varying according to the season). A 
particular year was usually designated by the names of that year's 
consols (cf. Horace's Address to a Wiiu-jar, 'O nata mecnm console 
Manlio'65 B.C.) Later Roman writers reckon from the Founda- 
tion of the City (viz, 753 B.C.). 


A table of Greek months may usefully be added here: 
Jan.Gamelion. Jnly=Hecatombaion. 

Feb.*=Anthesterion. Aug.=Metageitnion. 

March = Elaphebolion. Sept. Boedromion. 

April = Munychion. Oct. Pyanepsion, 

MayaThargelion. Nov.=-ilaimacterion. 

June = Stirophorion. Dec. = Poseideon. 

For the Roman year, see JULIAN CALENDAR. 

CHRYSA or -S, a city on the coast of the Troad, -with a temple of 
Apollo Smintheus; celebrated by Homer, in the Iliad. 

CHR?SIS, daughter of Chryses, priest of Apollo at Chryse, was 
taken prisoner by Achilles. In the distribution of the booty she was 
given to Agamemnon. Chryses came to the camp of the Greeks to 
solicit her ransom, but was repulsed by Agamemnon. Thereupon 
Apollo sent a plague into the camp of the Greeks, and Agamemnon 
was obliged to restore her to her father to appease the anger of the 
god. See the first book of Homer's Iliad. 

CHRYSIPPUS, Stoic philosopher, born at Soli in Cilicia, 280 B.C.; 
studied at Athens under the Stoic Qeanthes. Disliking the Aca- 
demic scepticism, he supported the principle that knowledge is 
attainable and may be established on certain foundations. He was 
one of the most prolific writers of antiquity. He died 207, aged 73. 

at Antioch, A.D. 347. He became archbishop of Constantinople in 
397. His sternness against immorality earned him many enemies, 
who procured his banishment on the charge of Origenism (403). 
But he was recalled through fear of an insurrection of the people, 
by whom he was beloved. He was again banished and died at 
Comana in Pontus, 407. He wrote in Greek, and his works are 
voluminous. See De Sacerdotio (ed. Nairn, 1906) and the Life by 
Palladius (ed* Colemaji-Norton, 1928). 

QB'&RA. i. Magna, a great city of Phrygia Magna, on the borders 
of Caria, said to have been founded by the Lydians, but afterwards 
peopled by the Pisidians. Under its native princes, the city ruled 
over a district called Cibyratis. In 83 B.C. it was added to the 
Roman empire. It was celebrated for its manufactures, especially 
in iron. 2. Parva, city of Pamphylia, on the borders of Cilicia. 

CIcfiRO, a family name of the Tullia gens. i. M. TULLTCS CICERO, 
tha famous orator, was born on the 3rd of January, 106 B.C., at the 
family residence, in the vicinity of Arpinuxn. He and his brother 
Qnintus displayed such aptitude for learning that his father removed 
with them to Rome, where they received instruction from the best 
teachers in the capital. One of their most celebrated teachers was 
the poet Arrhift*, of Antioch. After receiving the manly gown (91), 
the young Marcus studied under Q. Mncius Scaevola, and in later 
years* during the Civil war* under Phaedrus the Epicurean, Philo, 
chief of the New Academy, Diodotus the Stoic, and Molo the 
Rhodian. Having carefully cultivated his powers, Cicero came 


forward as a pleader in the forum, as soon as tranqoillitv was 
restored by the final overthrow of the Marian party. His first 
extant speech was delivered in 81, when he was 26 years of age, on 
behalf of P. Quintius. Next year, So, he defended 'Sex. Roschis of 
Ameria, charged with parricide by Chrysogorms. In 79 he went to 
Greece, partly that he might avoid Sulla, whom he had offended, 
but partly also that he might improve his health and complete his 
course of study. At Athens he formed the friendship with Pom- 
ponius Atticus which lasted to his death, and at Rhodes he once 
more placed himself under the care of Molo. After an absence of 
2 years, Cicero returned to Rome (77). He again came forward as 
an orator in the forum and was successful. In 75 he was quaestor 
in Sicily, returned to Rome in 74, and for the next 4 years was 
engaged in pleading causes. In 70 he distinguished himself by the 
impeachment of VERRZS, and in 69 he was curule aedile. In 66 he 
was praetor, and while holding this office he defended Quentius in 
the speech still extant, and delivered his celebrated oration in favour 
of the Manilian law, which appointed Pompey to the command of 
the Mithridatic war. Two years afterwards" he gained the great 
object of his ambition, and" although a nows homo was elected 
consul, with C. Antonius as a colleague. He entered upon the office 
on the ist of January 63. Not having any real sympathy with the 
popular party, he now deserted his former friends, and connected 
himself closely with the aristocracy. The consulship of Cicero was 
distinguished by the outbreak of the conspiracy of Catiline, which 
was suppressed by Cicero's prudence and energy. [CATILJMA.] For 
this service Cicero received the highest honours. But as soon as he 
had laid down the consulship, he had to contend with the popular 
party, and especially with the friends of the conspirators. He also 
mortafly offended Claudius or Clodius Pulcher, who, in order to have 
his revenge, brought forward a bill banishing any one who should 
be found to have put a Roman citizen to death untried. [CLAUDIUS, 
5.] The triumvirs, Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, left Cicero to his 
fate; Cicero's courage failed him; he voluntarily retired from Rome 
before the measure of Clodius was put to the vote, and crossed over 
to Greece. Meanwhile his friends at Rome were exerting themselves 
on his behalf, ^TVJ obtained his recall from banishment in the course 
pi next year (55). Taught by experience, Cicero would no longer 
join the senate in opposition to the triumvirs, **"! retired to a great 
extent from public life. In 52 he was compelled to go to the East 
as governor of Cilicia. He returned to Italy towards the end of 50, 
and arrived in the neighbourhood of Rome on the 4th of Januarv 49, 
just as the civil war between Caesar and Pompey broke out. After 
long hesitating which side to join, he finally determined to throw in 
his lot with Pompey, and crossed over to Greece in June. After the 
battle of Pharsalia (48), Cicero was not only pardoned by Caesar, but, 
when the latter landed at Brundisiuna in September 47, ho greeted 
Cicero with the greatest kindness and respect, and allowed him to 
return to Rome. Cicero now retired into privacy, and during the 
next 3 or 4 years composed the greater port of his philosophical and 
rhetorical works. The murder of Caesar on the isth of March 44, 


again brought Cicero into public life. He put himself at the head of 
the republican party and in his Philippic orations attacked M. 
Antony with unmeasured vehemence. Bat this proved his ruiru 
On the formation of the triumvirate between Octavian, Antony, and 
Lepidus (27th of November 43), Cicero's name was in the list of the 
proscribed. He endeavoured to escape, but was overtaken by the 
soldiers near Formiae. His slaves were ready to defend their master 
with their lives, but Cicero commanded them to desist, and offered 
his neck to the executioners. They instantly cut off his head and 
hands, which were conveyed to Rome, and, by the orders of Antony, 
nailed to the rostra, Cicero perished on the 7th of December 43, 
when he had nearly completed his 64th year. By his first wife 
Terentia, Cicero had 2 children, a daughter TUIXIA, whose death in 
45 caused him the greatest sorrow, and a son Marcus (No. 3). His 
wife Terentia, to whom he had been united for 30 years, he divorced 
in 46, and soon afterwards he married a young and wealthy maiden, 
PUBLIL.IA, his ward, but **"' new alliance was speedily dissolved. As 
a statesman and a citizen, Cicero was weak, changeful, and exces- 
sively vain. His only great work was the suppression of Catiline's 
conspiracy. It is as an author that he deserves the highest praise. 
In his works the Tatin language appears in the greatest perfection. 
They may be divided into the following subjects: I. Rhetorical 
Works. Of these there were seven, which have come down to us 
more or less complete. The best known of these is the De Oratory 
written at the request of his brother Quintus; it is the most perfect 
of his rhetorical works. II. Philosophical Works, (i) Political 
Philosophy. Under this head we have the Do Republic* and De 
Legibus, both of which are written in the form of a dialogue. A 
large portion of both works is preserved. (2) Philosophy of Morals. 
In his work De Offitiis, which was written for the use of his son 
Marcus, at that time residing at Athens, the tone of his teaching is 
pure and elevated. He also wrote De Senectute and De Arnicitia, 
which are preserved. (3} Speculative Philosophy. Under this head 
the most noted of his works are the De Finibus, or inquiry into 'the 
chief good,' and the Tusculan Disputations. (4) Theology. In the 
Dg Natura Deorum he gives an account of the speculations of the 
ancients concerning a Divine Being, which is continued in the De 
Divinatione. III. Orations. Of these 56 have come down to us. 
IV. Epistles. Cicero during the most important period of his life 
maintained a close correspondence with Atticus, fr-n^ with a wide 
circle of literary and political friends and connections. We now 
have upwards of 800 letters, undoubtedly genuine, extending over 
a space of 26 years, and commonly arranged under Epistolae ad 
Familiares s. ad Diver sos, Ad Atticum, and Ad Quintum Fratrem. 
(Sae Fig. 21.) [For recent works on Cicero, see Mayor's De Natura 
Deorum, Tyrrell and Purser's Letters of Cicero (in 7 vols.), and 
Strachan Davidson's monograph on Cicero, These will supply most 
of the information the student will require. The Letters have been 
translated by Shuckburgh (4 vols.), the Dg Finibus by Reid, and the 
De Natura Deorum by Brooke. Many speeches and philosophical 
works are contained in the Loeb Library, 24 vols.] 2. Q. Tuzxrus 


CICERO, brother of the orator, was born about 102, and educated with 
his brother. In 67 he was aedile, in 62 praetor, and for the next 3 
years governed Asia as propraetor. In 55 he went to Gaul as legate 
to Caesar, whose approbation he gained by his military abilities and 
gallantry; in 51 he accompanied his brother as legate to Ciiicia; and 
on the breaking out of the civil war in 49 he joined Pompey. After 
the battle of Pharsalia, he was pardoned by Caesar. He was pro- 
scribed by the triumvirs, and was put to death in 43. 3. M. TULLIUS 
CICERO, only son- of the orator and his wife Terentia, was born 65. 
On the death of Caesar (44) he joined the republican party, served 
as military tribune under Brutus in Macedonia, and after the battle 
of Philippi (42) fled to Sex. Pompey in Sicily. "When peace was 
concluded between the triumvirs and Sex. Pompey in 39, Cicero 
returned to Rome, and was favourably received by" Octavian, who 
at length assumed him as his colleague in the consulship (30 B.C., 
from 1 3th Sept.). By a singular coincidence, the dispatch announc- 
ing the capture of the fleet of Antony, which was immediately 
followed by his death, was addressed to the new consul in his official 
capacity, 4. Q. TULLITS CICERO, son of No. 2, and of Pomponia, 
sister of Atticus. was born 66 or 67, and perished with his father 
in the prescription, 43. 

CIL!C!A, a district in the S.E. of Asia Minor, bounded by the 
Mediterranean on the S., Mt. Amanus on the E., and Mt. Taurus 
on the N. The \V. part of Ciiicia is intersected by the ofishoots of 
the Taurus, while in its E. part the mountain chains enclose much 
larger tracts of level country; and hence arose the division of the 
country into C. Aspera or Trachea, and C. Campestris; the latter 
was also called Ciiicia Propria. The first inhabitants of the country 
are supposed to have been of the Syrian race. The mythical story 
derived their name from Cilix, the son of Agenor, who "started with 
his brothers, Cadmus and Phoenix, for Europe, but stopped short on 
the coast of Asia Minor, and peopled with his followers the plain of 
Ciiicia. The country remained independent till the time of the 
Persian empire, under which it formed a satrapy, but it appears to 
have been still governed by its native princes. Alexander subdued 
it on his march into Upper Asia; and, after the division of his 
empire, it formed a part of the kingdom of the Selencidae : its plains 
were settled by Greeks, and the old inhabitants were driven, back 
into the mountains of C. Aspera, where they remained virtually 
independent, practising robbery by land and piracy by sea, till 
Pompey drove them from the sea in his war against the pirates; 
and having rescued the level country from the power of Tigranes, 
who had overrun it, he erected it into a Roman province, 67-66 B.C. 
The mountain country was not made a province till the reign of 

ClLlclAE PYLAB or PORTAE, the pass between Cappadocia 
and Ciiicia, through the Taurus, on the road from Tyana to 

CfrJfciuM MARE, the NJE. portion of the Mediterranean, between 
CUiciA and Cyprus, as far as the Gulf of Issus. 


CIIXA, a small town in the Troad, celebrated for its temple of 
Apollo surnamed CiUaeus. 

CiLNli, a powerful Etruscan family in Arretram, driven ont of 
their native town in 301 B.C., but restored by the Romans. The 
Cilnii were nobles or Lucumones in their state. The name has been 
tendered chiefly memorable by C. Cilnins Maecenas. 

CXMBBR, L. Tiixlus (not Tullius), a friend of Caesar, who gave him 
the province of Bithynia; subsequently one of Caesar's murderers, 

CTMBRI, a Celtic people, probably of the same race as the Cymry 
[CELTAB]. They appear to have inhabited the peninsula which was 
called after them Chersonesus Cimbrica (Jutland). In conjunction 
with the Teutoni and Ambrones, they migrated S., with their wives 
and children, towards the close of the 2nd century B.C. They de- 
feated several Roman armies. In 113 B.C. they defeated the consul 
Papirius Carbo, near Noreia, and then crossed over into Gaul, which 
they ravaged. In 109 they defeated the consul Junius Silanus; in 
107 the consul Cassius Longinus, who fell in the battle; and in 105 
they were victorious over the united armies of the consul Cn. Mallius 
and the proconsul Servilius Caepio. Instead of crossing- the Alps, 
the Cimbri, fortunately for Rome, marched into Spain, where they 
remained two or three years. The Romans, meantime, hg/j been 
making preparations to resist their formidable foes, and had placed 
their troops under the command of Marina. The barbarians returned 
to Gaul in 102. In that year the Teutoni were defeated and cut to 
pieces by Marias, near Aquae Sextiae (Aix) in Gaul. In 101 the 
Cimbri and their allies were finally destroyed by Marius and Catulus, 
in the decisive battle of the Campi Raudii, near Verona, in the 
N. of Italy. 

CXMMR?I. The mythical Cimmerii, mentioned by Homer, dwelt 
in the furthest W. on the ocean, enveloped in constant darkness, 
Later writers sought to localize them, and. placed them, either in 
Italy near the lake Avernus, or in Spain, or in the Tauric Chersonesus. 
The historical Cimmerii dwelt on the Palus Maeotis (Sea of Azov), in 
the Tauric Chersonesus, and in Asiatic Sarmatia. Driven out by the 
Scythians, they passed into Asia Minor on the N.E., and penetrated 
W. as far as Aeolia and Ionia. They took Sardis, 635 B.C., in the 
reign of Ardys, king of Lydia; but they were expelled from Asia by 
Alyattes, the grandson of Ardys. 

QH&LUS, island in the Aegaean Sea, one of the Cyclades, celebrated 
for its fine white earth, used by fullers for cleaning cloths. 

ClMON. z. Father of Miltiades, was secretly murdered by order 
of the sons of Pisistratns. 2. Grandson of the preceding, and son of 
Mrltiades. On the death of his father (489 B.C.), he was imprisoned 
because he was unable to pay his fine of 50 talents, which was 
eventually paid by Callias on his marriage with Elpinice, Cimon's 
sister. Cimon commanded the Athenian fleet in their war against 
the Persians. His most brilliant success was in 466, when he 
defeated a large Persian fleet, and on the same day landed and routed 


their land forces also on the river Enrymedon in Pamphyha. The 
death of Aristides and the banishment of Themistocles left Cimoi: 
without a rival at Athens for some yeaxs. But his influence gradu- 
ally declined as that of Pericles increased. In 461 he was ostracized 
through the influence of the popular party in Athens. He was 
subsequently recalled, and through his intervention a 5 years' truce 
was made between Athens and Sparta, 450. In 449 the war was 
renewed with Persia. Cimon received the command, and with 
200 ships sailed to Cyprus; here, while besieging Citium, he died. 
3. CIMON of Cleonae, Greek painter, flourished about 460 B.C., and 
appears to have been the first painter of perspective. 

CINARA, island in the Aegaean, celebrated for artichokes (*xpa). 

CTNCINNATUS, L. QuiKrfus, hero of the old Roman republic, and 
a model of old Roman frugality and integrity. He lived on his 
farm, cultivating the land with his own hand. In 458 B.C. he was 
called from the plough to the dictatorship, in order to deliver the 
Roman consul and army from the perilous position in which they 
had been placed by the Aequians. He saved the Roman armv, 
defeated the enemy, and, after holding the dictatorship only 16 days, 
returned to his farm. In 439, at the age of So, he was* a second 
time appointed dictator to oppose the alleged machinations of Sp. 


CINS AS, a Thessalian, the friend and minister of Pyrrhus, king of 
Epiros. He was the most eloquent man of his day. The most 
famous passage in his life is his embassy to Rome, with proposals for 
peace from Pyrrhus, after the battle of Heraclea (280 B.C.). Cineas 
spared no arts to gain favour. The senate, however, rejected his 
- -- als mainly throngfc the dying eloquence of old App. Claudius 

, a Gaul, one of the first men in the city of the Treviri 
(Tr&ves), attached himself to the Romans, though son-in-law to 
Indutiomarus, the head of the independent party. 

CINNA. i. L. CORNELIUS CINNA, leader of the popular party 
during the absence of Sulla in the East (87^84 B.C.). In 87 Sulla 
allowed Cinna to be elected consul with Cn. Octavius, on condition 
of his taking an oath not to alter the constitution as then mafiT, g 
But as soon as Sulla had left Italy, he began his endeavour to over- 
power the senate, and to recall Marius and his party. He was 
however, defeated by his colleague Octavius in the forum, was 
obliged to fly the city, and was deposed. But he soon returned, and 
with the aid of Marius took possession of ROHM, massacred Sulla's 
friends, and for three successive years, 86, 85, 84, was elected consul. 
In 84 Sulla prepared to return from Greece; and Cinna was glafn by 
his own troops, 2. L. CORNELIUS CINNA, son of No. i, joined 
M. Lepidus in his attempt to overthrow the constitution of Sulla, 78. 
Caesar made him praetor, yet he approved of Caesar's assassination. 
3. C. HBLVTUS CINNA, Roman poet, the friend of Catullus. In 44 
B.C. he was tribune of the plebs, when he was murdered by ttte mob, 
who mistook him for his namesake Cornelius Cinna, 


CINYPS (Wady Khdkhan or Kinifo), river on the N. coast of Africa, 
between the Syrtes. The district was called by the same name, and 
was famous for its fine-haired goats. The Roman poets use the 
adjective Cinyphius in. the sense of Libyan or African. 

ClNihtAS, son of Apollo, (from whom he received the gift of song), 
king of Cyprus, and priest of the Paphian Aphrodite. By Ms 
daughter Myrrha he became the fattier of Adonis. Hence we find 
in the poets Myrrha called Cinyreia virgo and Adonis dnyrtius 

CIRC, daughter of Helios (the Sun) by Perse, and sister of AeStes, 
distinguished for her magic art. She dwelt in the island of Aeaea, 
upon which Ulysses was cast. His companions tasted of the magic 
cup which Circe offered them, and were forthwith changed into 
swine, with the exception of Eurylochus, who brought the sad news 
to Ulysses. The latter, having received from Hermes the root 
moly, which fortified him against enchantment, drank the magic 
cup without injury, and then compelled Circe to restore his compan- 
ions to their former shape. After *hi> he tarried a whole year with 
her, and she became by him the mother of Telegonus, the reputed 
founder of Tusculum. 45ee the Odyssey of Homer. 

CiRCfin, ancient town of Latium on the promontory Circeium, 
said by the Roman poets to have been the abode of Circe. 

CiRcSsiUM, city of Mesopotamia, on the E. bank of the Euphrates, 
at the mouth of the Aborrhas. 

CIRCUS, in Rome the Circus Maximus, the great recreation ground 
where the games and races were held. It was sometimes used for 
military reviews. 

CIRTA, later called Constantina, city of the Massylu in Numidia, 
50 Roman miles from the sea ; the capital of Syphax, and of Masinissa 
and his successors. Its position on a height, surrounded by the 
river Ampsagas, made it almost impregnable. It was restored by 
Constantino the Great, in honour of whom it was re-named. 

CISSEUS, king in Thrace, and father of Theano, or, according to 
others, of Hecuba, who is hence called Cisseis. 

CISSIA, a very fertile district of Susiana, on the Choaspes. The 
inhabitants, Cissii, were a wild free people. 

CITHABR6X a lofty range of mountains, separating Boeotia from 
Megaris and Attica. It was sacred to Dionysus and the Muses. 

ClTfuM. i. Town in Cyprus, 200 stadia from Salamis, near the 
mouth of the Tetius: here- Cimon died, and Zeno was born. 2. 
Town in Macedonia, N.W. of Beroea, 

QCus, ancient city in Bithynia, on a bay of the Propontis called 
Claims Sinus, was colonized by the Milesians. It was destroyed by 
Philip III, king of Macedonia; but was rebuilt by Prusias, king of 
Bithynia. from whom it was called Prusias. 

CLANIS. i. River of Etruria, forming 2 small lakes near Clusium, 
and flowing into the Tiber E. of Vulsinii. 2. 


CLASUS or CLAROS, town on the Ionian coast, near Colophon, with 
a celebrated temple and oracle of ApoJlo, snrnamed Clarius. 

, fortified town of the Ananes, in Gallia Cispadana. 

CLAUDIA, QUINTA, a Roman matron. \Vhen a vessel convex-ing 
the image of Cybele to Rome had stuck fast in a shallow at the mouth 
of the Tiber, the soothsayers announced that only a chaste woman 
could move it. Claudia, who had been accused of incontinency, 
seized the rope, and the vessel forthwith followed her, 204 B.C. 

CLAUDIA GENS, patrician and plebeian. The patrician Claudii 
were of Sabine origin, and came to Rome in 504 B.C., when they were 
received among the patricians. They bore various surnames. 
[CLAUDIUS; NERO.] The plebeian Claudii were divided into several 
families. [MARCELLUS.] 

CLAUDIINUS, CLAUDIUS, the last of the Latin classic poets, 
flourished under Theodosius and his sons Arcadius and Honorius. 
He was a native of Alexandria, and removed to Rome, where he 
enjoyed the patronage of the all-powerful Stilicho. He wrote a 
large number of poems, many of which (notably the Rape of Proses 
pins) are extant, and are distinguished by purity of language and 
poetical genius. He died about A.D. 408. See" Glover, Life and 
Letters in Fourth Century, Platnauer's Claudian (Loeb Library}. 

LBNSIS, a Sabine, of the town of Regillum or Regilli, who in his own 
country bore the name of Attus Clansus, being the advocate of peace 
with the Romans, when hostilities broke out between the two nations, 
withdrew to Rome, 504 B.C. He was received into the ranks of the 
patricians, and lands beyond the Anio were assigned to his followers, 
who were formed into a new tribe, called the Claudian. He exhibited 
the characteristic which marked his descendants, and showed the 
most bitter hatred towards the plebeians. He was consul 495 ; and 
his conduct towards the plebeians led to their secession to the 
Mons Sacer, 494. 2. AFP. CLAUDIUS REGILL. SAB., the decemvir, 
451 and 450. In the latter year his conduct was tyrannous towards 
the plebeians, till his attempt against Virginia led to the overthrow of 
the decemvirate. [VIRGINIA.] Appins was impeached by Virginias. 
but he either killed himself, or was put to death, in prison, by order 
of the tribunes. 3. APP. CLAUDIUS CAUCUS became blind before 
his old age. In his censorship (312), to which he was elected without 
having been consul previously, he built the Appian aqueduct, and 
commenced the Appian road, which was continued to Capua. He 
retained the censorship 4 years, in opposition to the law, which 
limited the length of the office to 18 months. In his old age, Appius 
induced .the senate to reject the terms of peace offered by Pyrrhus. 
[CiNEAS.] Appius was the earliest Roman writer in prose and verse 
whose name has come down to us. 4. APP, CL. PULCHBR, brother of 
the celebrated tribune, whom he joined in opposing the recall of 
Cicero from banishment. He preceded Cicero as proconsul in Cilicia 
(53), fled with Pompey from Italy, and died before the battle of 
Fharsalia. 5. P. CLAUDIUS (or usually CLODIUS) PULCHBR, brother 


of the preceding [see, however. Prof. E. S. Beesly's Catiline, Clodius, 
and Tiberius (1878), for a new reading of the Qodius story]. The 
notorious enemy of Cicero, and a most profligate character. In 62 
he profaned the mysteries of the Bona Dea, which were celebrated 
by the Roman matrons in the house of Caesar; was discovered; and 
next year, 6i t when quaestor, was brought to trial, but obtained an 
acquittal by bribing the judges. He had attempted to prove an 
alibi; but Cicero's evidence showed that Clodius was with Trim in 
Rome only 3 hours before he pretended to have been at Interamna. 
In order to revenge himself upon Cicero, Qodius was adopted into 
a plebeian family, that he might obtain the formidable power of a 
tribune of the plebs. He was tribune 58, and, supported by the 
triumvirs Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, drove Cicero into exile; 
but he was unable to prevent the recall of Cicero in the following 
year. In 56 Clodius was aedile, and attempted to bring his enemy 
Milo to trial. For an account of his enmity with Milo and eventual 
murder, see MILO. 

CLAUD!TJS I, Roman emperor, A.D. 41-54. His full name was 
Tib. Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus. He was the younger son 
of Drusus, the brother of the emperor Tiberius, and of Antonia, 
and was born on August ist, 10 B.C. at Lyons in GauL "When he 
grew up he devoted himself to literary pursuits, but was not allowed 
to take part in public affairs. He had reached the age of 50, when 
he was raised by the soldiers to the imperial throne after the murder 
of Caligula. Claudius was not cruel, but the weakness of his 
character made him the slave of his wives and freedmen, and thus 
led him to consent to acts of tyranny. He was married 4 times. 
At the time of his accession he was married to his -3rd wife, the 
notorious Valeria Messalina, who governed him for some years, 
together with the freedmen Narcissus, Pallas, and others. After 
the execution of Messalina, A.D. 48, a fate which she richly merited, 
Claudius was still more unfortunate in choosing for his wife his 
niece Agrippina. She prevailed upon him set aside his own son, 
Brttannicus, and to adopt her son, Nero, that she might secure 
the succession for the latter. Claudius soon regretted this and was 
poisoned by Agrippina, 54. In his reign the southern part of 
Britain was made a Roman province, and Claudius himself went to 
Britain in 43. 

268-70, was descended from an obscure family, and succeeded to 
the empire on the death of GaEienus (268). He defeated the Ale- 
rpjmm jmd Goths, and received in consequence the surname Gothicvs. 
He died in 270, and was succeeded by AuieKan. 

CLAZ&U&NAB, city of Asia Minor, and one of the 12 Ionian cities, 
lay on the N. coast of the Ionian peninsula, upon the Gulf of Smyrna, 
It was the birthplace of Anaxagoras, 

CzJtAHTHfis, Stoic philosopher, born at Assus in Troas about 
300 B.C. He placed Himarft under Crates, and then, under Zeno, 
whose disciple he continued for 19 years. In order to support 
himself, ha worked aH night at drawing water from gardens; but as 


he spent the whole day in philosophical pursuits, and had no visible 
means of support, he was summoned before the Areopagus to account 
for his way of living. The judges were so delighted by the evidence 
of industry which he produced, that they voted him 10 minae, though 
Zeno would not permit him to accept them. He succeeded Zeno in 
his school 263 B.C. He died about 220, at the age of So, of voluntary 
starvation. His Hymn to Zeus has survived. [Text, with trans- 
lation and notes by E. H. Blakeney, 1921; also trans, by A. S. 
Way, X934-] 

CLfiARCHTJS, Spartan general, served in the Peloponnesian war, 
and at the close of it persuaded the Spartans to send him as a general 
to Thrace, to protect the Greeks against the Thracians. But having 
been recalled by the Ephors, and refusing to obey their orders, he 
was condemned to death. He thereupon crossed over to Cyrus, 
collected ior him a large force of Greek mercenaries, and marched 
with him into Upper Asia, 401, in order to dethrone his brother 
Artaxerxes. After the battle of Cnnaxa and the death of Cyrus, 
Qearchus and the other Greek generals were made prisoners by the 
treachery of Tissaphernes, and were put to death, 

CLEMENS, i. ROM&XUS, Bishop of Rome, at tne end of the 
ist century; probably the same as the Clement whom St. Paul 
mentions (FhiL iv. 3.). He wrote an epistle in Greek to the Corin- 
thian Church. There is extant a 2nd epistle under his name, which. 
however, is nowadays considered as the work of a later date (3rd 
century). See translation in Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, 1908; 
also in the Loeb Library. 2. ALEXANDRAS, so called from his 
long residence at Alexandria. He was born about A.D. 150 and died 
about 220. He wrote the Hortatory Address to the Greeks to convert 
them to Christianity; also the Paedagogue, which contains rules of 
conduct for the new convert; and the Stromata, a discursive book 
giving information on the history of philosophy. There is a text and 
translation of some of his works in the Loeb Library; see also C. 
Bigg, The Christian Platonists cf Alexandria, nev. ed. f 1913. 


one of the Seven Sages, of Lindus in Rhodes, son 
of Evagoras, lived about 580 B.C. Both he and his daughter, 
QeobuHne* or Oeobul,were celebrated for their gfcffl in riddles. 

QCJ&OUBR5TUS. i. Son of Anaxandrides, king of Sparta, became 
regent after the battle of Thermopylae, 480 B.C., for Plistarchus, 
infant son of Leonidas, but died in the same year. 2. King o f 
Sparta, son of Pausanias, succeeded his brother Agesipolis I, and 
reigned 380-371 B.C. He commanded the Spartan troops several 
times against the Thebans, and feQ at the battle of Lenctra (371). 
3. King of Sparta, son-in-law of Leonidas II, in whose place he was 
made long by the party of ACTS IV, about 243. On the return of 
Leonidas, Cleombrotus was deposed and banished to Tegea, about 
240. 4. An academic philosopher of Ambracaa, said to have killed 
himself, after reading the Pkaedo of Plato. See the famous reference 
i, Paradise Lost, iii. 473. 


z. King of Sparta, son of Anaxandrides, reigned 
520-491 B.C. He was a man of an enterprising but wild character. 
In 510 he commanded the forces by whose assistance Hippias was 
driven from Athens, and not long after he assisted Isagoras and the 
aristocratical party, against Clisthenes. By bribing the priestess at 
Delphi, he effected the deposition of his colleague DEMARATUS, 491. 
Soon afterwards he was seized with madness and lulled himself. 
2. King of Sparta, son of Cleombrotus I, reigned 370-309. 3. 
King of Sparta, son of Leonidas II, reigned 236-22. He married 
Agiatus, the widow of Agis IV; and following the example of the 
latter, he endeavoured to restore the ancient Spartan constitution. 
He succeeded, and put the Ephors to death. He was engaged in a 
contest with the Achaean League and Antigonus Doson, king of 
Macedonia, but was at length defeated at the battle of Sellasia (222), 
and fled to Egypt, where he killed himself, 220. 4. An Athenian 
sculptor, author of the Venus di Medici (now at Florence). 

CiJS6x, was originally a tanner, and first came forward in public 
as an opponent to Pericles. On the death of Pericles, 429 B.C., 
Cleon became the favourite of the people, and for about 6 years of 
the Peloponnesian war (428-422) was the head of the party opposed 
to peace. In 427 he advocated in the assembly that the Mytilen- 
aeans should be put to death. In 425 he obtained his greatest glory 
by taking prisoners the Spartans in the island of Sphacteria, and 
bringing them in safety to Athens. Puffed up by mis success, he 
obtained the command of an Athenian army, to oppose Brasidas in 
Thrace; but he was defeated by Brasidas, under the walls of Am- 
phipolis, and feU in the battle, 422. Aristophanes and Thucydides 
both speak of him as a vile, unprincipled demagogue. The chief 
attack of Aristophanes upon Cleon was in the Kmghts (424), in which 
Cleon figures as an actual dramatis persona; and, in default of an 
artificer bold enough to make the mask, was represented by the 
poet himself with his face smeared with wine lees. 

CL&&NAB, ancient town in Argolis, on the road from Corinth to 
Argos, on a river of the name flowing into the Corinthian Gulf. 
In its neighbourhood was Nemea. where Hercules killed the lion, 
which is accordingly called Cleonaeus lea by the poets. 

CLEOPATRA, i. Niece of Attains, married Philip 337 B.C., on 
whose murder she was put to death 1>y Olympias. 2. Daughter of 
Philip and Olympias, and sister of Alexander the Great, married 
Alexander, king of Epirus, 336. It was at her marriage feast that 
Philip was murdered by Pausanias. 3. Eldest daughter of Ptolemy 
Anletes, celebrated for her beauty, was 17 at the death of her father 
(51), who appointed her heir of his kingdom in conjunction with 
her younger brother, Ptolemy, whom she was to marry. She was 
expelled from the throne by Pothinus and Achillas, his guardians; 
but having won by her charms the support of Caesar, he replaced her 
on the thirmit in conjunction with her brother. She had a son by 
Caesar, called Caesanon, and she afterwards followed *"*n to Rome, 
where she appears to have been at the time of his death, 44. She 
then returned to Egypt, and in 41 she met Antony in Cilicia. She 


was now in her 23th year, and in the perfection of matured beauty, 
which completely won the heart of Antony. In the war between 
Octavian and Antony, Cleopatra accompanied her lover, and was 
present at the battle of Actium (31), in the midst of which she 
retreated with her fleet, and thus hastened the loss of the day. 
She fled to Alexandria, where she was joined by Antony. Seeing 
Antony's fortunes desperate, she entered into* negotiations with 
Augustus, and promised to make away with Antony. She fled to 
a mausoleum she had built, and then caused a report of her death 
to be spread. Antony, resolving not to survive her, stabbed him- 
self, and was drawn up into the mausoleum, where he died in her 
arms. She then tried to gain the love of Augustas, but seeing that 
he had determined to carry her captive to Home, she put an end to 
her own life by the poison of an asp. She died in the 39th year of 
her age (30 B.C.), and with her ended the dynasty of the Ptolemies 
in Egypt, which was now made a Roman" province. See Shake- 
speare's Antor.y and Cleopatra. 

CLEPSYDRA, a water-clock; used in the Athenian law-courts. 

CL!MAX, the name applied to the W. termination of the Taurus 
range, which extends along the W. coast of the Pamphylian Gulf, 
N, of Phaselis in Lycia. Alexander made a road between it and 
the sea. 

Clio. [MUSAE,] 

CtlSTHfeNfis, an Athenian, son of Megacles and Agarista, who was 
the daughter of Clisthenes, the tyrant of Sicyon. He appears as the 
head of the Alcmaeonid cl^n on the banishment of the Pisistratidae, 
Finding that he could not cope with his political rival Isagoras 
except through the aid of the commons, he set himself to increase 
the power of the latter. The principal change which he introduced 
was the abolition of the 4 ancient tribes and the establi.shm.ent of 
10 new ones in their stead, 510 B.C. The purpose of this reorganiza- 
tion was to secure a representation of the whole people in the BOTTLE, 
or Council of Five Hundred. Each of the new tribes more nearly 
represented a clan in the community and contained a number of 
Demes. Every person registered within the Deme was enfranchised, 
and voted in the popular Assembly. In addition each tribe had a 
local government of its own. Clisthenes is also said to have 
instituted ostracism. Isagoras and his party called in the 
aid of the Spartans, but Clisthenes and his Mends eventually 

CilTOR or CLlTSkluM, town in the N. of Arcadia on the river 
Clitor. There was a fountain near by, the waters of which are 
said to have given to persons who drank of them a dtdiire for 

CL!TUMKUS, small river in Umbria, springing from a rock in a 
grove of cypress trees, where was a sanctuary of the god Qitumnus, 
and falling into the Tinia, a tributary of the Tiber. 

CL!TUS, Macedonian general. He saved the life of Alexander at 
the battle of Granicns, 334 B.C. In 328 he was slain by Alexander 


at a banquet, when both parties were heated with wine, and Ctttos 
had provoked the king's resentment by insolent language. Alex- 
ander was inconsolable at his friend's death. 

another form of the name Claudius. [CLAUDIUS.] 

a Roman virgin, one of the hostages given to Porsena, 
who escaped from the Etruscan camp, and swam across the Tiber to 
Rome. She was sent back by the Romans to Porsena, who was so 
struck with her gallant deed, that he not only set her at liberty, but 
allowed her to take with her a part of the hostages. Porsena also 
rewarded her with a horse adorned with splendid trappings, and the 
Romans with a statue of a female on horseback. 

CLOTA AESTUARJUM (Frith of Clyde), on W. coast of Scotland. 

CL&TH6, one of the Fates. [MOIRAE.] 

CLtJENnus HislTUS, A., of Larinum, accused in 74 B.C. his own 
stepfather, Statius Albius Oppianicus, of attempting to procure his 
death by poison. Oppianicus was condemned, and it was believed 
that Quentius had bribed the judges. In 66 Cluentius was accused 
by young Oppianicus, son of Statius Albius, who had died in the 
interval, of 3 acts of poisoning. He was defended by Cicero in the 
oration still extant. 

CLUsluM (Ckiusi), one of the most powerful of the 12 Etruscan 
cities, oiigiaallv called Gamers or Carnars, situated above the river 
Qanis, and S.\V. of the Lacns Clusinus (L. di Chiusi). It was the 
residence of Porsena, and near by was the sepulchre of *hiy king in 
the form of a labyrinth. Subsequently Cluszum was in alliance 
with the Romans, and was regarded as a bulwark against the Gauls. 
Its siege by the Gauls, 391 B.C., led to the capture of Rome by the 
Gauls. In its neighbourhood were warm baths. 

CLtteXus, a surname of JANUS. 

CLlhcttNfi. z. Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, and wife of 
lapetns, to whom she bore Atlas and Prometheus. 3. Mother of 
Phaithon by Helios (the Sun). 3. Relative of Menelaus and a com- 
panion of Helena, with whom she was carried off by Paris. 

CLtTEMNESTRA, daughter of Tyndareus and Leda, sister of 
Castor, Pollux, and Helena; wife of Agamemnon; and mother of 
Orestes, Iphigenia, and Electra. See the play of Aeschylus, the 
Agametnnon. During her husband's absence at Troy she lived in 
adultery with Aegisthus, and on his return to Mycenae she murdered 
ftn with the help of Aegisthus. [AGAMEMNON.] She was subse- 
quently put to death by her son Orestes. 

CLihifi, a sea-nymph, daughter of Oceanus, changed into the 
plant kttiotropium. 

CKTOTTS, or GNIDUS, city of Asia Minor, on the promontory of 
Triopium on the coast of Caria, was a Lacedaemonian colony. It 
was built partly on the mainland and partly on an island, and *M 
two harbours. It had a considerable commerce. The statue of 
Aphrodite" by Praxiteles stood in her temple here. 


CNOSSUS, GNOSSUS, Cyasus, or G6sus, ancient town of Crete. 
It is mentioned by the poets in consequence of its connection with 
Minos, Ariadne, the Minotaur, and the Labyrinth; and the adjective 
Cnossius is used as equivalent to Cretan. "[CRETA.] 

CficlLCS, mythical king of Sicily, who received Daedalus on his 
flight from Crete, and with the assistance of his daughters put 
Minos to death, when the latter came in pursuit of Daedalus. 

CdcH, a city on the Tigris, near Ctesiphon. 

CocLfis, HdRATius, that is, Horatius the * one-eyed/ a hero of the 
old Roman lays, is said to have defended the Subfician bridge along 
with Sp. Lartius and T. Herminius against the whole Etruscan army 
under Porsena, while the Romans broke down the bridge behind 
them. When the work was nearly finished, Horatius sent back his 
2 companions. As soon as the bridge was quite destroyed, he 
plunged into the stream and swam across to the city in safety. The 
story has been told by Macaulay in his Lays of Ancient Rome. 

COCOSSATES, a people in Aquitania in GauL 

CScYLluM, Aeolian city in Mysia, mentioned by Xenophon. 

C6CYTCS (or 'river of wailing*), river in Epirus, a tributary of the 
Acheron. Like the Acheron, the Cocytus was supposed to be 
connected with the lower world. 

CoDOMANNtrs. [DARIUS, 3.] 

C&DRUS, son of Melanthus, and last king of Athens. 'When the 
Dorians invaded Attica from Peloponnesus, an oracle declared that 
they would be victorious if the life of the Attic king was spared. 
Codrns thereupon resolved to sacrifice himself for his country. He 
entered the camp of the enemy in disguise, commenced quarrelling 
with the soldiers, and was slain in the dispute. When the Dorians 
discovered the death of the Attic king, they returned home. Tradi- 
tion adds, that as no one was thought worthy to succeed such a 
patriotic king, the kingly dignity was abolished, and Medon, son of 
Codrus, was appointed archon for life instead. 

COELA, 'the Hollows' of Euboea, the W. coast of Euboea: here a 
part of the Persian fleet was wrecked, 480 B.C. 

CoBifiS'ihtfA ('Hollow Syria 1, the name given to the great valley 
between the two ranges of Alt. Lebanon, in the S. of Syria, bordering 
upon Phoenicia on the W. and Palestine on the S." In the wars 
between the Ptolemies and the Seleucidae, the name was applied 
to the whole of the S. portion of Syria. 

COLCHIS, a country of Asia, bounded on the W. by the Euatine, 
on tfce N. by the Caucasus, on the E. by Iberia. The land of Colchis 
(or Aea), and its river Phasis, are famous in the Greek mythology. 
[ARGONAUTAB.] It was famous for its manufactures of linen, on 
account of which, and of certain physical resemblances, Herodotus 
supposed the Cotehians to have been a colony from Egypt. The 
land was governed by its native princes, until Mithridates Eupator 
made it subject to the kingdom of Pastes. It was subdued by the 
Romans under Trajan* 


COLZAS, promontory on the W. coast of Attica, 20 stadia S. of 
Phalerum, with a temple of Aphrodite", where some of the Persian 
ships were cast after the battle of Salamis. 

COLL&T{ A, Sabine town in Latium, taken by Tarquinins Priscus. 

COLLATINGS, L. TARQUINIUS, son of Egerius, and nephew of 
Tarquinius Priscus, derived the surname Collatinus from the town 
CpHatia, of which his father had been appointed governor. The 
violence offered by Sex. Tarquinius to his wife Lucretia led to the 
dethronement of Tarquinins Superbus. Collatinus and L. Junins 
Brutus were the first consuls; but as the people could not endure 
the rule of any of the hated race of the Tarquins, Collatinus resigned 
his office, QTIIJ retired from Rome to Lavinium. 

CoiJu$TUS f demus in Attica, within the walls of Athens. It was 
the demus of Plato and the residence of Timon the misanthrope. 

CdLdXAE, small town in the Troad. 

CoL6NlA AGRIPPINA, or AGRIPP!NSNSIS (Cologne on the Rhine), 
originally the chief town of the Ubii, and called Oppidum, or Civitas 
Ubiorum, was a place of small importance till A.D. 5 1, when a Roman 
colony was installed by the emperor Claudius, at the instigation of 
his wife Agrippina, who was born here. It became the capital of 
Lower Germany. 

C5L6NUS, demus of Attica, zo stadia, or a little more than a mile, 
N.W. of Athens; celebrated for a temple of Poseidon, a grove of the 
Eumenides, the tomb of Oedipus, and as the birthplace of Sophocles, 
who describes it in his play the Oedipus Coloneus. 

CfiLOPHdN, one of the 12 Ionian cities of Asia Minor, stood about 
2 miles from the coast, between Lebedus and Ephesus, on the river 
Halesus, which was famous for the coldness of its water. Its harbour 
was called Notium. Besides claiming to be the birthplace of Homer, 
Colophon was the native city of Himnennus, Hennesianax, and 
Nicander. It was also celebrated for the oracle of Apollo Clarius 
in its neighbourhood. [LARUS.] 

CSLOSSAE, city of Great Phrygia, on the river Lycus, once 
important but so reduced later that it might have been forgotten 
but for the epistle written to its inhabitants by the apostle Paul. 

COLOSSEUM, at Rome (Axnphitheatrum Flaviaaum), begun by 
Vespasian, finished by Titus, A.D. 80. It held 87,000 spectators. 
See Middleton, The Remains of Ancient Rome. vol. ii. (See 

A, L. JtfNlus M&D&tATUs, a native of Gades, in Spain, 
and a contemporary of Seneca. He wrote a work upon agriculture 
(De Re Rvslica) in 12 books, which is still extant. His style is easy 
and ornate. 

C&MANA. i. City of Pontus, upon the Iris, celebrated for its 
temple of Artemis Taurica, the foundation of which tradition ascribed 
to Orestes. The high priests took rank next after the king, and their 
domain was increased by Ponipey after the Mithridatic war. 2< 


City of Cappadocia, also celebrated for a temple of Artemis Taurica, 
the foundation of which was likewise ascribed to Orestes. 

COMITIA, in the Roman constitution a legal assembly of the people. 
The powers of government were divided at Rome between the senate, 
the magistrates, and the people (the populus} . The sovereign people 
or populns was not the same at all times. In the earliest times of 
Rome the populus consisted of the patricians only. This original 
populus was divided into 30 curiae, and the assembly of these curiae, 
the comitia curiaia, was the sole legitimate representative of the whole 
people. A kind of amalgamation of the patricians and plebs after- 
wards appeared in the comitia of the centuries, instituted by Kfog 
Servius Tullius, and henceforth the term populus was applied to the 
united patricians and plebeians assembled in the comitia centuriate. 
But Servius also made a local division of the whole Roman territory 
into 30 tribes, which held their meetings in assemblies called comitia 
tributa, which, in the course of time, became national assemblies, so 
that the people thus assembled were likewise designated by the term 
populus. In the time of the Republic the functions of the 3 comitia 
were as follows: 

Comitia curiaia. They conferred the imperium and the right of 
taking auspices upon magistrates after their election. They in- 
augurated certain priests, such as the Flamines and the Rex 
Sacrorum. They regulated the internal affiairs of the curiae and 
the families connected with them. The comitia curiata began to 
be a mere formality as early as the time of the Punic wars. 

Comitia cmturiata. They had the right of electing the higher 
magistrates, passing the laws put before them by the senate, and 
deciding upon war. They were also the highest court of appeal, 
and they had to try all offences against the state. 

Comitia tribttta. Their rights gradually increased. They had the 
power of electing the inferior magistrates. Their legislative power 
was limited to framing resolutions which were laid before the senate. 
By degrees this became a right to initiate legislation. Their judicial 
powers were limited to trying and punishing with a fine a variety of 
civil offences, and also neglect of duty on die part of a magistrate, 
the embezzlement of public money, and the bad management of a 

The comitia cmturiata and the comitia tributa were afterwards 
mixed together, possibly in the 4th century B.C. This combination 
was far more democratic, as the comitia tributa had acquired 
supreme importance in the state. They were, however, deprived 
of much of their power by Julius Caesar, and gradually lost their 

COMITIUU, space in Rome used for meetings of the Assembly, and 
for Courts of Law. Later on it was incorporated in the Forum. 

CoHMlcfiNS, the N.E.-most district of Syria, lying between the 
Taurus and the Euphrates. It formed a part of the kingdom of 
Syria, after the fall of which it maintained its independence 
under the Seleucidae. It was united to the Roman empire by 


Coaodus, king of the Atrebates, was advanced to that dignity by 
Caesar. He was sent by Caesar to Britain, but he was cast into 
chains by the Britons, and was not released till the Britons had been 
defeated by Caesar. In 52 B.C. he joined the other Gauls in the 
great revolt against the Romans. 

COMM&DUS, L. AuRfiLlus, Roman emperor, A.D. 180-92, son of 
M. Anrelius and the younger Faustina, was born at Lanuvium, x6x, 
and was thus scarcely 20 when he succeeded to the empire. He 
was an unworthy son of a noble father. Notwithstanding the great 
care which his father had bestowed upon his education, he turned 
out a sanguinary and licentious tyrant. He sought to gain popular 
applause by fighting with the wild beasts in the amphitheatre; and 
having slain immense numbers of them, demanded worship for 
himself, as being the god Hercules. One of his concubines, whom 
he had determined to put to death, administered poison to him; 
but as the poison worked slowly, Narcissus, a celebrated athlete, 
was ordered to strangle him, 3ist Dec. 192. See Gibbon's Decline 
and Fall. 

C6arcM (Coma), a town in Gaflia Cisalpina, at the S. extremity of 
the W. branch of the Lacus Larius (L. at Conio). It was originally 
a town of the Insubrian Gauls, and subsequently a Roman colony. 
It was the birthplace of the younger Pliny. 

Cutte, the god of festive mirth and joy, represented as a winged 
youth, occurs only in the later times of antiquity. 

CONCORD!*, Roman goddess, the personification of concord, had 
several temples at Rome. The earliest was built by Camillas. 
In this temple the senate frequently met. Concordia is represented 
on coins as a matron, holding in her left hand a cornucopia, and in 
her right either an olive branch or a patera. 

CONDRCSI, German people in Gaflia Belgica, the dependants of 
the Treviri, dwelt between the Eburones and the Treviri. 

(Cobltnz), town in Germany, at the confluence of 
the Moselle and the Rhine. 

C&N5N. i. Athenian general, commanded in the Peloponnesian 
war. After the defeat of the Athenians by Lysander at Aegos- 
pptami (405 B.C.), Conon escaped with 8 ships, and took refuge with 
Evagpras in Cyprus, where he remained for some years. In 394 
he gained a decisive victory over Pisander, the Spartan general, off 
Cnidns. 2. Of Samos, a ^igHrtgr^jghftd m afh <*!" a-'frfojan and astrono- 
mer, flourished about 250 B.C. 

CONSENTES DII, the 12 Etruscan gods who formed the council of 
Jupiter, consisting of six male and six female divinities. We do 
not know the names of an of them, but they included Juno, Minerva, 
Suznmanus, Vulcan, Saturn, and Mais. 

CONSTANS, youngest of the 3 sons of Constantino the Great, 
received after his father's death. (A.D. 337) Ulyricum, Italy, and 
Africa, as his share of the empire. After resisting his brother 
Constantino, who was slain in invading his territory (310), Constans 


became master of the whole West. His character was weak and 
profligate. He was slain in 350 by the soldiers of MAGKENTIUS. 

CONSTANTSA, the city. [CntTA.j 

CONSTANTINO" P^LIS (Constantinople), built on the site of the 
ancient BYZANTIUM by Constantine the Great, who called it after 
his own name and made it the capital of the Roman empire. It 
was solemnly consecrated A.D. 330. For 1,100 years the city of 
Constantine preserved the antiquity of ancient civilization, the 
tradition of the arts, literature, and science of the old world. Again 
and again it stood as a barrier against the inroads of Persians (under 
Chosroes), Saracens, Ottomans, Goths, Huns, and Bulgars. Yet it 
was a historic city when Constantine rebuilt it. During the early 
Middle Ages it was the most civilized and lettered city in Europe. 
In its origin Byzantium was a Greek city, the creation of sea-power. 
When the Persians invested Greece in the 5th century B.C. it was 
captured; but on their defeat Pausanias the Spartan secured the 
straits once more. Many famous men in Greek history left their 
mark on Byzantium (Cirnon, Alcibiades, Xenophon, Philip, Alex- 
ander). The transfer of empire from Rome to Byzantium was a 
great master-stroke in the history of civilization; in ten years 
Constantine made it the centre of the civilized world. For the 4th 
century, at least, Constantinople was a Christian city far more 
truly than Rome. Of its buildings the church of Santa Sophia still 
remains almost intact one of the wonders of the world. This 
great church was erected by Justinian in the 6th century of our era, 
(See Sir T. G. Jackson's work on the architecture; Van Mffligan'i 
Byzantine Churches, 1912.) Portions of the city's magnifir.*!^ triple 
walls built by Ineodosius and Anastasius still survive. For 
further information consult Finlay's History of Greece, Gibbon (with 
Bury's notes), and Oman, The Byzantine Empire (1892). 

CoNSTANTlOTS. i. CoNSTANTiNUS I, surnamed the Great, Roman 
emperor, A.D. 306-37, eldest son of the emperor Constantius and 
Helena, was born A.D. 272, at Naissus, a town in Upper Moesia. He 
was early trained to arms, and during a large portion of his reign he 
was engaged in wars. On the death of his father at York (306), 
Constantine laid risum to a share of the empire, and was acknow- 
ledged as master of the countries beyond the Alps. In 308 he 
received the title Augustus. He was engaged in a contest with 
Mazentins, who had possession of Italy, and defeated him at the 
village of Saza Rubra near Rome, 27th Oct. 3x2. Haxentras tried 
to escape over the Milvian bridge into Rome, but perished in the 
river. It was in this campaign that Constantine is said to have 
been converted to Christianity. It was Constantino's interest to 
gain the affections of his numerous Christian subjects in hfc struggle 
with his rivals; and it was probably only self-interest which led him 
at first to adopt Christianity. After the death of Maxentiua, Con- 
stantine was engaged in a contest with Licinius, who hg^ obtained 
possession of the whole of the East; the struggle ended in the defeat 
and death of Licinius, so that Constantine was now sole master of 
titie empire. He removed the seat of empire to Byzantium, which 


he called after T"mmlf Constantinople, and solemnly dedicated it, 
330. Constantino reigned in peace the rest of his life. He died in 
May 337; he was baptized shortly before his death by Eusebius. 
His three sons, Constantinus, Constantius, and Constans, succeeded 
him in the empire. 2. CONSTANTINUS II, Roman emperor, 337-40, 
eldest of the three sons of Constantine the Great, by Fansta, received 
Gaul, Britain, Spain, and part of Africa at his father's death. Dis- 
satisfied with, his share of the empire, he made war upon his younger 
brother Constans, who governed Italy, but was defeated and slain 
near Aquileia, 

emperor, A.D. 305-6. He was one of the two Caesars appointed by 
Maxunian and Diocletian in 292, and received the government of 
Britain, Gaul, and Spain, with Treviri as his residence. Diocletian 
and Maximian abdicated in 305, and Constantius and Galerius 
became the Augusti. Constantius died in July 306, at Eboracum in 
Britain, on an expedition against the Picts: his son, Constantine, 
afterwards the Great, succeeded him. 2, CONSTANTIUS II, Roman 
emperor, A.D. 337-61, 3rd son of Constantine by his second wife 
Fausta. War with Persia prevented him taking part in the struggle 
between his brothers, Constantine and Constans [CONSTANS]. After 
the death of Constans in 350, Constantius opposed Magnentius and 
Vetranio, both of whom had assumed the purple. Vetranio sub- 
mitted, and Magnentius was crushed in 353. Constantius died in 
361, while on the march against his cousin Julian QUUANTJS]. 
3. CONSTANTIUS III, Emperor of the West (A.D. 421), a distinguished 
general of Honorius. He was declared Augustus by Honorius, but 
died in the 7th month of his reign, 

CONSUL, the highest republican magistrate at Rome. There were 
two consuls, elected annually by popular vote. They were the 
highest civil authority and also the supreme commanders of the 
army. They convened the senate and presided over it. They were 
the medium through which foreign affairs were brought to the 
senate, and they carried the decrees of the senate into effect. They 
also convened the assembly of the people and presided. They con- 
ducted the elections, put legislative measures to the vote, and 
carried the decrees of the people into effect. The two consuls 
could only act if in unanimous agreement. 

CONSUS, ancient Roman divinity, identified in later times with 
Neptune. Hence Livy calls him Keptanus Equestris. He was 
regarded by some as the god of secret deliberations. 

COHTRBB!A, town of the Certiberi, in Hispania Tarraconensis. 

CoNvfiNAB, people in Aquitania; a mixed race, which had served 
under Sertorfus, and were settled in Aquitania by Pompey. 

COPAE, ancient town in Boeotia, on the N. side of the lake Copais, 
which derived its name from this place. 

Coplis, a lake in Boeotia, formed chiefly by the river Cephisus. 
It was originally called Cephisjis, Tinder which name it occurs in 
Homer, Its eels were much prized in antiquity. 


CopHfiN or CopHfis (Cabul), river which flows into the Indus from 
the \V. It was the boundary between India and Ariana. 

COPTOS, city of Upper Egypt, lay to the E. of the Nile, some 
distance below Thebes. Under the Ptolemies it was important 

CCnXcEsIUM, strong city of Cilicia Aspera, on the borders of 
Pamphylia, standing upon a rock, and possessing a good harbour. 

C&RASslAB, group of small islands in the Icarian sea, S.W. of 
Icaria. They must not be confounded with the islands Corseae or 
Corslae, off the Ionian coast, opposite the promontory Ampelos, in 

C&RAX, Sicilian rhetorician, flourished about 467 B.C., and wrote 
the earliest work on the art of rhetoric. 

CoRBtiLO, CN. DdMlxIus, Roman general who distinguished him- 
self by his campaigns against the Parthians, in the reigns of Claudius 
and Nero. 

CORC^RA (Corfu), island in the Ionian sea, off the coast of E pirns. 
About 700 B.C. it was colonized by the Corinthians, and soon became 
rich and powerful. The increasing prosperity led to a rivalship with 
Corinth. (CORINTHUS.] At a later period Corcyra became one of 
the causes of the Peloponnesian war, 431. 

CORDAX, a coarse dance belonging to the old Attic comedy. 

CORD&BA (Cordoba), one of the largest cities in Hispania Baetica; 
birthplace of the two Senecas and of Lucan. 

C6RS, * the Maiden '. [PERSEPHONE.] 

C5RBSSUS, lofty mountain in Ionia, 40 stadia from Ephesus. 

CoRFlNltiM, town, of the Pelzgni in Samnxum, memorable as the 
place which the Italians in the Social war destined to be the new 
capital of Italy in place of Rome. Hence it was called Italica. 

C&RINNA, Greek lyric poetess, of Tanagra, in Boeotia, flourished 
about 300 B.C. She is believed to have instructed Pindar and is 
said to have gained a victory over him five times. Almost nothing 
was known of her poetry, but the remains of three poems have now 
come to light with the discovery of a papyrus at Hermopolis in 
Egypt. These poems (ed. Wilamowitz) are narrative, written in 
the Boeotian dialect (the only Boeotian poetry at present known), 
and they axe believed to give a good conception of pre-Homeric 
narrative poetry, as they probably followed a primitive pattern. 
See J. V. Powell, New Chapters in the History of Greek Literahtrt, 1933. 

C&RiNTHlXcus ISTHMUS, often called the Isthmus, lay between the 
Corinthian and Saronic Gulfs, and connected the Peloponnesus with 
the mainland or Hellas proper. In its narrowest part it was 40 
stadia, or 5 Roman miles across: here was the temple of Poseidon, 
and here the Isthmian games were celebrated. Four unsuccessful 
Attempts were made to ffig a f> ay* a l across the Isthmus, namely fry 
Demetrius Poliorcetes, Julius Caesar, Calignla. and Nero. 


CdRiNTHlicxrs SINUS (G. of Lepanto], the golf between the N. of 
Greece and Peloponnesus. In early times it was called the Crissaean 
Gulf* and its eastern part the Alcybnian Sea. 

C^RINTHUS, a city on the Isthmus of Corinth. Its territory, called 
Corinthia, embraced the greater part of the Isthmns with the 
adjacent part of the Peloponnesus. In the N. and S. the country is 
mountainous ; but in the centre it is a plain, with a solitary and steep 
mountain rising from it, the Acrocorinthus, 1,900 feet in height, 
which served as the citadel of Corinth. The city itself was built on 
the N. side of this mountain. Its favourable position between two 
seas raised Corinth in very early times to great commercial pros- 
perity, and made it the emporium of the trade between Europe and 
Asia. At Corinth tfce first triremes were built ; and the first sea-fight 
on record was between the Corinthians and their colonists, the 
Coxcyraeans, 664 B.C. Its greatness at an early period is attested by 
numerous colonies. Its commerce brought great wealth to its 
inhabitants; but with their wealth they became luxurious and licen- 
tious. Thus the worship of Aphrodite* prevailed in this city. 
Corinth was originally inhabited by the Aeoh'c race. Here ruled the 
Aeolic Sisyphus and his descendants. On the Dorian conquest of 
Peloponnesus, the royal power passed to the Heraclid Alfites. He 
and his descendants ruled for 5 generations, and then royalty was 
abolished ; ^n<j an oligarchy was established, confined to the powerful 
family of the Bacchiadae. This family was expelled 655 B.C. by 
CYPSBLUS, who reigned 30 years. He was succeeded, 625, by his 
son PERIANDBR, who reigned 40 years. On his death, 585, his 
nephew Psammetichus reigned for 3 years, and on his fall in 581 the 
government again became an aristocracy. In the Peloponnesian 
war Corinth was bitterly opposed to Athens. In 346 Timophanes 
attempted to make himself master of the city, but he was slain by his 
brother Timoleon. Corinth maintained its independence till the 
time of the Macedonian supremacy, when its citadel was garrisoned 
by Macedonian troops. This garrison was expelled by Aratus in 243, 
whereupon Corinth joined the Achaean League, to which it continued 
to belong till it was taken and destroyed in 146 by L. Mummius, the 
Roman consul, who treated it in a most barbarous manner. For 
a century it lay in ruins; but in 46 it was rebuilt by Caesar, who 
peopled it with a colony of veterans and descendants of freedmen. 
It became the capital of the Roman province of Achaia, and re- 
covered much of its ancient prosperity. The site of Corinth was for 
long indicated only by the 7 Doric columns of the temple of Apollo, 
which belongs to the time of Periander; but visible ruins are now 
more extensive owing to the work of the American School from 1896 
to the present day (1936). The ancient wall of Corinth has been 
traced and is very extensive. The perimeter of the lower city on 
the E. and W. slopes of the Acropolis was 40 stades ; continued for 85 
stades round the Heropolis, and for 100 stades, if the Long Walls 
are included which connected the city with its harbour of Lechaecm, 
in the Gulf of Corinth. The results of recent excavations have been 
published by H. N. Fowler for the Archaeological Institute of 


America, 1929 and onwards. See also J. G. O'Neill, Ancient Corinth 

CORI&LAHUS, the hero of one of the most beautiful of the early 
Roman legends. His original name was C, or Cn. Marcios. and he 
received the surname Cpriolanns from the heroism he displayed at 
the capture of the Volscian capital of Corioli His haughty bearing 
towards the commons excited their fear and dislike; and he was 
impeached and condemned to exile, 491 B.C. He took refuge among 
the Volscians, and promised to assist them in war against the 
Romans. Attius Tullius, the king of the Volsdans, appointed 
Coriolanns general of the Volscian army. Coziolanns advanced tin- 
resisted till he came to the Cluilian dyke close to Rome, 489. Here 
he encamped, and the Romans in alarm sent to him embassy after 
embassy. But he would listen to none of them. At length 1e 
noblest matrons of Rome, headed by Veturia, the mother of Corio- 
lanns, and Volumnia his wife, with his 2 little children, came to his 
tent. His mother's reproaches, and the tears of his wife, bent his 
purpose. He led back his army, and lived in exile among the 
Volscians tifl his death; though other traditions relate that he was 
killed by the Volscians on his return. 

CosKSu, town in Latium. [CORIOLANUS.] 

CORNEL! A. i. Daughter of P. Scipio Africanus the elder, wife 
of Ti. Sempronius Gracchus, and mother of the two tribunes Tiberius 
and Caius. She was virtuous and accomplished, and superintended 
with the greatest care the education of her sons, whom she survived. 
She was idolized by the people as the mother of the Gracchi. 2. 
Daughter of Metellus Scipio, married first to P. Crassus, son of the 
triumvir, afterwards to Fdmpey the Great She accompanied him 
to Egypt after the battle of Fharsalia, and saw him, murdered. She 
afterwards returned to Rome, and received from Caesar the ashes of 
her husband. 

CoR^SilA GENS, distinguished Roman gens. The names of the 
most distinguished patrician families are: CETHEGUS, CZNNA, 
Cossus, DOLABBLLA, LENTCxus, SCIPIO, and SUIXA. The names 
of the plebeian famfles are BALBTTS and GALLUS. 

CoRNSiIus N&POS. [NEPOS.] . 

COBNCTUS, Stoic philosopher (flourished, middle of istcent. AJ>.). 

C&Rtorrs, mother, by Apollo, of Aesculapius. 

CORSICA, called CYRWUS by the Greeks, a mountainous island in 
the Mediterranean, K. of Sardinia. Honey and wax were the 
principal productions of the island. The inhabitants were addicted 
to robbery. The most ancient inhabitants appear to have been 
Iberians; out in early times Ligurians, Tyrrhenians, Carthaginians, 
and even Greeks [AXERIA], settled in the island. It was subject to 
the Carthaginians at the commencement of the first Punic war, but 
soon afterwards passed into the hands of the Romans. 

CoRTdNA, one of the 12 cities of Etrnria, lay N.W. of the Traai- 
mene lake, and was one of the most ancient cities in Italy. It was 


an important place when possessed by Etruscans, and also previously 
when possessed by the Pelasgians. 

CORU*TCN!US, Ti., consnl 280 B.C., -with P. Valerius Laevinus, was 
the first plebeian who was created pontifex maximus, and the first 
person at Rome who gave regular instruction in law. 

CORVUS, M. VXifcjtfus, illustrious Roman in early history. He 
obtained the surname of Corvus, or ' Raven/ because, when serving 
as military tribune under Camillus, 349 B.C.. he accepted the challenge 
of a gigantic Gaul to single combat, and was assisted by a raven which 
flew in the face of the barbarian. He was 6 times consul, and twice 
dictator, and rendered memorable military services to his country. 
He reached the age of 100 years, and is referred to by the later 
Roman writers as an example of the favours of fortune. 

CfotBANTBS, priest of Cybele or Rhea in Fhrygia, who celebrated 
her worship with enthusiastic dances. 

CoRYclA, a nymph, who became by Apollo the mother of 
Lycorens, and from whom the Corycian cave on Mt, Parnassus 
was believed to have derived its name. The Muses are sometimes 
called by the poets Cdrydides Nympkae. 

Cojtiteus. z. Rocky hill on the coast of Ionia, forming the 
S.W. promontory of the Erythraean peninsula. 2. City of Pam- 
phylia, near Phaselis and Mt. Olympus. 3. City in Cilicia Aspera, 
with a good harbour, and a grotto in the mountains, called the 
Corycian Cave, celebrated by the poets, and also famous for its 
saffron. At the distance of zoo stadia (10 geog. miles) from Corycus 
was a promontory of the same name. 

C&s, C6us, one of the islands called Sporades, lay off the coast of 
Caria, in Asia Minor. Its chief productions were wine, ointments, 
and th famous fight transparent dresses called Coae vestes. 

CfiSA or C5SAB (Ansedonia), ancient city of Etruria near the sea, 
with a good harbour, called Herculis Portos, and after the faH of 
Falerii one of the 12 Etruscan cities. 

COSSJLEA, a district on the confines of Media and Persis, inhabited 
by a rude, warlike people, the Cossaei, whom the Persian kings never 
subdued. They were conquered by Alexander (325, 324 B.C.), 
bat after his death they regained their independence. 

Cossus, SBRVIUS CoRNfiilus, consnl 428 B.C., who killed Lar 
TohxmniQS, the frg O f the Veil, in single combat, and dedicated his 
spoils in the temple of Jupiter the 2nd of the 3 instances in which 
the spdiaopima were won. 

. pTHUBNUS, a Greek na.Tna for a buskin or high shoe worn by 
faygfe actors to increase their apparent stature. 

GtiotsD* king of the Datiaas, conquered in the reign of Augustus 

GOTTA, AuK&Ltas. z. C., consul 75 B.C., distiaguished orator; 
isimtrodEkoed by Cicero as one of the speakers in the JD0 Orator** and 
&o &* Nttar* Dfantm, 2. L., praJertor 70, idaen he. earned the 


celebrated law (Lex Aurdva Judiciaria} which entrusted the jndicxa 
to the senators, equites, and tribuni aerarii. 

COTTA, L. AURUNCULSIUS, one of Caesar's legates in Gaul, perished 
in the defeat inflicted by AMBIORIX, 54 B.C. [AMBIORIX.] 

COTTABOS, a Greek game. It consisted in throwing Trine at a 
mark, without spilling any, but with a double splash. 

Corrfus, king of several Lignrian tribes in the Cottian Alps. 
[ALFES.] He submitted to Augustus, who granted frfo* the 
sovereignty over 12 of these tribes. Cottius made roads over the 
Alps, and erected (8 B.C.) at Segusio (Susa) a triumphal arch, in honour 
of Augustus, extant at the present day. His authority was trans- 
mitted to htft son under Claudius. 

COTTUS, a giant with zoo hands. 

C6rt6RA, a colony of Sinope. celebrated as the place where the 
10,000 Greeks embarked for Sinope. 

C5Trs or C6TYTTO, Thracian divinity, whose licentious festival, 
the Cotyttia, resembled that of the Phrygian Cybele. In later 
times her worship was introduced at Athens and Corinth. 

C5TYS, the name of several kings of Thrace. Ovid, during his 
exile at Tomi, addressed an epistle to one of those longs. 

CR&GUS, mountain in Lytia. 

CRAKT&R. i. The armour-bearer of Pelens, slain by the centaur 
Demofeon. a. Of Soli in Cflicia, Academic philosopher, studied at 
Athens under Xenocrates and Polemon, and flourished 300 B.C. He 
was the author of several moral works, all of which are lost. Cicero 
commends him, and made great use of his work On Grit/, in the 3rd 
book of his Tusctda* Disputations, and in the Consoiaiio which he 
composed on the death, of his daughter Tullia, 

CRASSUS, the name of a distinguished family in the Gens Lidnia, 
the most distinguished persons in which were : i.L. LlciNnrsCRAssos 
the orator, who was consul 95 B.C., censor 92, and died, 91. In 
the treatise De Graiore Cicero introduces him as one of the speakers, 
and he is understood to express Cicero's own sentiments. 2. M. 
LICINIUS CRASSUS, surnamed Dives. His father, who was consul 
97 B.C. and censor 89, took part with Sulla in the civil war, and pot 
an end to his own life, when Marius and Cinna returned to Rome at 
the end of 87. Young Crassus fought with Sulla against the Marian 
party, and on the defeat of the latter was rewarded by donations of 
confiscated property. His ruling passion was the love of notey. 
He bought multitudes of slaves, and, in order to increase their vaJoe, 
had them instructed in lucrative arts. He worked sfhrer mines, 
cultivated farms, and built houses, which be let at high rents. In 
71 he was appointed praetor is coder to carry on the war against 
Spartacus and tihe gladiators; be defeated Spaitaew* wbo was slain 
in the battle, and he was honoured wHb aft ovation. In 70 he was 
consul with Pompey, and entertained the popelaoe at a bang wt of 
zo,ooo tables. A Jealousy sprang m between Pompey and Ccans 
wfakfe was reconciled by Cfrafiar, and tfaaa waa fanned tfao so rnlfcal 


Triumvirate in 60. In 55 he was consul with Pompey again, and 
received the province of Syria, where he hoped to add greatly to his 
wealth. He was defeated by the Parthians in the plains of Mesopo- 
tamia near Carrhae, the Haran of Scripture. He was shortly 
afterwards slain at an interview with the Parthian general. 

CR&T&RUS. x. Distinguished general of Alexander the Great, 
on whose death (323 B.C,) he received in common with Antipater 
the government of Macedonia and Greece. He fell in a battle 
against Eumenes, in 321. 2. Greek physician, who attended the 
family of Atticus, mentioned by Horace and Cicero. 

Cuixfts. z. Athenian poet of the old comedy, flourished 470 
B.C. 2. Of Thebes, a pupil of the Cynic Diogenes, nourished about 
320. 3. Of Mallus in Cilicia, a celebrated grammarian, founded 
the, school of grammar at Pergamus, and wrote a commentary on 
the Homeric poems, in opposition to Aristarchus. 

CRJLTHIS, i. River in Achaia, falling into the sea near Aegae. 
2. River in lower Italy, between Lucania and Bruttii, and faifcng 
into the sea near Sybaris. Its waters were fabled to dye the TH^T 

s, celebrated Athenian poet of the old comedy; died in 
422, at the age of 97. He gave the old comedy its peculiar character, 
and did not, like Aristophanes, live to see its decline. He is fre- 
quently attacked by Aristophanes, who charges hi with intem- 
perance, an accusation which was admitted by Cratinus Ttfmwlf* 

CRXTIPFUS. i. Greek historian, and younger contemporary of 
Thucydides. A portion- of his (Cratippus's) history so it is believed 
has recently been discovered and edited by Grenfell and Hunt. 
[OxiTRHYNCHUS.] See Bury, Ancient Greek Historians, lecture v. 
2. Peripatetic philosopher, accompanied Pompey in his flight after 
the battle of Fhaxsaha, 48 B.C. He afterwards settled at Athens, 
where young Cicero was his pupiL 

CR&M&RA, a small river in Etruria, which falls into the Tiber a 
little above Rome: memorable for the death of the 300 Fabii. 

CR&M^NA (Cremona), Roman colony in the N. of Italy, near the 
confluence of the Addua and the Po, was founded with Placentia, 
219 B.C., as a protection against the Gauls and Hannibal's invading 
army. It soon became important, but having espoused the cause of 
ViteHLus, it was destroyed by Vespasian, A.D, 69. 

CRfi&N. i. King of Corinth, whose daughter, Glauce, married 
Jason* Medea, thus forsaken, sent Glauce a garment which burnt 
her to death when she put it on; the palace took fire, and Creon 
perished in the flames. 2. Son of Menoecus, and brother of Jocaste, 
the wife of Laius. After the death of Laiua, Creon governed Thebes 
for a short time, and then surrendered the kingdom to Oedipus, who 
had delivered the country from the Sphinx, After the death of 
Eteoclea and Polynlces, the, sons of Oedipus, he again governed 
Thebes. His cruelty in forbidding burial to the, corpse of Polynlces, 
and his sentencing Antigoae ta death for disobeying his orders, 


occasioned the death of his own son Haemon. See the Sophoclean 
trilogy, Oedipus Tyrannus, Oedipus Colontus, and Antigone. 

CK&opirfxus, of Chios, one of the earliest epic poets, said to have 
been the friend or- son-in-law of Homer. 

CRBSPHONTfis, a Heraclid, son of Aristomachus, and one of the 
conquerors of Peloponnesus, obtained Messenia for his share. During 
an insurrection of the Messenians, he and two of his sons were aia.-i.n. 
A third son, Aepytus, avenged his death. [ABPYTXJS, 2.] 

CRBSTON!A, district in Macedonia between the Axius and Strymon, 
inhabited by the Crestonaei, a Thratian people : their chief town was 
Creston or Crestone, founded by the Pelasgians. 

CRBTE (Candia), large island in the S. part of the eastern Mediter- 
ranean. It was celebrated for its salubrity and fertility, and was 
civilized at an early period. Homer speaks of its 100 cities, and 
archaeology to-day shows that he did not exaggerate. Before the 
Trojan war we hear of a king Minos, who resided at Cnossus, and 
ruled over the greater part of the island. [Minos.] The ancient 
traditions of Minos have been confirmed by archaeological excava- 
tions, begun at Cnossus by Sir Arthur Evans in 1895 and continued 
for over 30 years. The Palace of the King has been unearthed a 
magnificent building. It was proved to be the same as the- tradi- 
tional labyrinth (the Palace of the Double Axe as the name signifies). 
Wonderful works of art were disclosed porcelains, frescoes, jars, 
vases, statuettes, plaster reliefs, and inscriptions in the still unde- 
ciphered Minpan script, which replaced picture-writing. The kings 
of Crete were sea-kings, and the people they ruled were probably a 
Mediterranean race. It is not credited that they traced their origins 
from Akkadian invaders under Sargon or some other conqueror. 
There were early relations between Crete , and Egypt, and the 
impulse towards civilization may have derived from Egyptian immi- 
grants in the 3rd TnillffliniTiTn. Art may fcave been. influenced also 
from Asia Minor. The highest level of civilization, denoted as 
Minoan, was reached at the period of Crete's greatest power (dating 
somewhere from 2000 to 1400 B.C.). The important cities of 
Phaestus in the S. and Cnossus in the N. may have been independent 
states at first until the former became subject to the latter, as the 
power of Cnossus grew. In addition to corn and wine Crete pos- 
sessed copper mines, and purple dye was extracted from the mturex 
shell-fish. The prosperity of Crete, however, 'depended more on 
the seamanship of the Cretan sailors and- their carrying trade *hjm 
on industry and export. A long period of peace encouraged art and 
craft. The island was ruled by an organized government, and taxes 
were collected in kind. Little is known of reEgious beliefs. A 
nature goddess was worshipped, whom the Greeks in later days 
claimed to be the mother of Zeus. Her symbol was the Double Axe. 
Doves, snakes, and pillars were also reverenced, and the bull played 
a part in religion and in popular sport. The legend of the Minotaur 
may have arisen from ttye stories of captives whp were trained in 
bull-leaping as a spectacle for the Cretans. Or it is possible that the 
legend is a distorted recollection of the fact of the royal incarnation 


of Minos, the Bull-king, who, after holding office for 9 years, 
went into the Dictaean cave, the sanctuary of his divinity, and was 
there solemnly qtein as a sacrifice, when his successor issued forth 
to be hailed as the rejuvenated incarnation of divinity, then in his 
turn to be slain after reigning g years. At a later stage the actual 
death of the Priest-Icing was probably merely a ritual act. Cretan 
influence and probably Cretan rule spread over tfoe Aegaean islands 
and mainland of Greece. But in the 2nd millennium Cnossus, 
Phaestus, and other cities were overtaken b^r some disaster. This 
may have been due to the natural causes which brought about the 
eruption at Thera. Or possibly the old rulers were overthrown by 
civU war. There is no sign of foreign invasion, and prosperity 
returned for a period, but about 1400 B.C. foreign invaders, possibly 
but not certainly from Mycenae, sacked Cnossus. The Minoan 
civilization came to an end. At a later period the ruling classes 
were Dorians, who settled in Crete about 60 years after the Dorian 
conquest of the Peloponnesus, and they introduced the social and 
political institutions of the Dorians. Subsequently Doric customs 
disappeared and a degeneracy in morals prevailed. The Cretans 
were celebrated as archers and often served as mercenaries in the 
armies of other nations. The island was conquered by Q. Metellus, 
who received the surname Creticus, 68-66 B.C., and it became a 
Roman province. See Sir Arthur Evans, The Palace of Minos, 
4 vols., 1921-35; Baikie, The Sea-kings of Crete; Glotz, The Aegean 
Civilization. (See Fig. 25.) 

CRflTKUs or CATRBUS, son of Minos by PasiphaS or Crete. 

CRBTBSBUS, son of Aeolus and Enarete, wife of Tyro, and father of 
Aeson, Pheres, Amythaon, and Hippolyte: he founded lolcus. 

CR&CSA, daughter of Priam and Hecuba, wife of Aeneas, and 
mother of Ascanius. She perished on the night of the capture of 
Troy. See Virgil, Aeneid, bk. ii. 

CRISSA or CRISA, and CIRRHA, towns in Phocis, regarded by some 
writers as the same place; but it seems probable that Crissa was a 
town inland S.W. of Delphi, and that Cirrha was its port in the 
Crissaean Gulf. The inhabitants of these towns taxed the pilgrims 
frequenting the Delphic oracle, in consequence of which the Amphic- 
tyons declared war, 595 B.C., and eventually destroyed them. The 
rich Crissaean plain was declared sacred to the Delphic god, and was 
forbidden to be cultivated. The cultivation of this plain by the 
inhabitants of Amphissa led to the Sacred war, in which Philip was 
chosen general of the Amphictyons, 338. Crissa remained in ruins, 
but Cirrha was afterwards rebuilt, and became the harbour of 

CRMAS, pupil of Socrates, one of the 30 tyrants established at 
Athens by the Spartans, 404 B.C., was conspicuous above all his 
colleagues, despite his learning, for rapacity and cruelty. 

CRIT&LAUS. I. Succeeded Ariston at Athens, as the head of the 
Peripatetic school of philosophy. In 155 B.C. he was sent by the. 
Athenians as ambassador to Rome with Carneades and Diogenes 


2. General of the Achaean League* 147, distinguished by his bitter 
enmity to the Romans. He was defeated by Metellus. 

CRlxdN, rich citizen of Athens, and a friend of Socrates. 

CROCUS, the beloved friend of Smilax, was changed by the gods 
into a saffron plant. 

CROESUS, last king of Lydia, son of Alyattes. reigned 560-546 B.C. 
He subdued all the nations between the Aegaean and the river Halys, 
and made the Greeks in Asia Minor tributary to him. The fame of 
his power and wealth drew to his court at Sardis all the wise men of 
Greece, and among them Solon, whose interview with the king was 
celebrated in antiquity. In reply to the question, who was the 
happiest man he had ever seen, the sage taught the king that no 
plan should be deemed happy titl he had finished M$ life in a happy 
way. In a war with Cyrus, king of Persia, Croesus was defeated. 
Croesus was condemned to be burnt to death. As he stood before 
the pyre, the warning of Solon came to his mind, and he thrice 
uttered the name of Solon. Cyrus inquired who it was that he 
called on; and, upon hearing the story, not only spared the life of 
Croesus, but made him his friend. Croesus survived Cyrus, and 
accompanied Cambyses in his expedition against Egypt. 

CROMM-fcCN, town in Megaris, on the Saronic Gulf, celebrated in 
mythology on account of its wild sow, slain by Theseus. 

CRONUS, called SATURNTJS by the Romans, youngest of the Titans, 
son of Uranus and Ge (Heaven and Earth), father of Hestia, Demeter, 
Hera, Hades, Poseidon, and Zeus. [TITANES.] 

CR&T6N or CROTCNA, powerful city in Magna Graecia, was situated 
on the E. coast of Brnttium, and was founded by the Achaeans 710 
B.C. It was the residence of Pythagoras and of Milo, the athlete. 

CxftslAS, a contemporary of Xenophon, was private physician of 
Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in his war against his 
brother Cyrus, 401 B.C. He wrote a great work on the history of 
Persia, and also a work on India, of which fragments are extant. 
He is more important as a source of romance than as a serious 

CittslBlus, celebrated for his mechanical inventions, lived at 
Alexandria about 250 B.C. 

CTftslPHON, city of Assyria, on the Tigris, 3 Roman miles from 
Seleucia, first became important under the Parthians. 

CUMAB, town in Campania, and the most ancient of the Greek 
colonies in Italy and Sicily. It became in early times a flourishing 
city, and remained independent till 417 B.C. It was celebrated as 
the residence of the earliest Sibyl: cf. Virgil's 6th Aeneid. 

CttNAXA, a small town in Babylonia, on the Euphrates, famous for 
tin battle fought here, 401 B.C., between the younger CYRUS and 
his brother Artaxerxes Mnemon. 

Ctfefis, an ancient town of the Sabines, celebrated as the birthplace 
of T. Tatius and Numa Pompilius. 


CuRfixas, in Cretan myth were demi-gods, to whom the care of the 
infant Zeus was committed. 

CURIA. [CoMiriA.] 

G&RlXTli, celebrated Alban family. [HORATIA GENS,] 

CtJRlo, C. ScRlsSirfus. i. Consul 76 B.C., was a personal 
enemy of Caesar, and supported P. Clodius, when the latter was 
accused of violating the sacra of the Bona Dea. In 57 he was 
appointed pontifex maximus, and died 53. He had some reputation 
as an orator, and was a friend of Cicero. 2. Son of No. i, also a 
friend of Cicero, was a profligate character. He married Fulvia, 
afterwards the wife of Antony. He at first belonged to the Pom- 
peian party and was made tribune of the plebs, 50 ; but he was bought 
over by Caesar, and employed his power as tribune against his 
former friends. On the breaking out of the Civil war (49), he was 
sent by Caesar to Sicily as propraetor. He drove Cato out of the 
island, and then crossed over to Africa, where he was defeated and 
slain by Juba and P. Attilus Varus. 

CuRlus DBNTATUS, M f ., a hero of the Roman republic, was cele- 
brated in later times as an example of old Roman frugality and 
virtue. In his first consulship (290 B.C.) he successfully opposed 
the Samnites; and in his second consulship (275) he defeated Pyrrhus 
so that the king was obliged to quit Italy. He declined to share in 
the large booty that he gained. At the close of his military career 
he retired to his small farm in the country of the Sabines, which he 
cultivated with his own hands. Once the Samnites sent an embassy 
to him with.costly presents ; they found him sitting at the hearth and 
roasting turnips. He rejected their presents, telling them that he 
preferred ruling. over those who possessed gold, to possessing it him- 
self. He was censor in 272, and in that year executed important 
public works. 

CURSOR, L. PXplRlus, Roman general in the second Samnite war, 
was". 5 times consul (333-313 B.C.), and twice dictator (325-309). 
He frequently defeated the Samnites, but his greatest victory was 
gained in his 2nd dictatorship. In his 2nd consulship, 272, he 
brought the third Samnite war to a close. 

CuRrfus, MBTTIUS, a distinguished Sabine. The legend goes that 
in 362 B.C. the earth in the forum gave way, and a great chasm 
appeared, which the soothsayers declared could only be filled up by 
throwing into it jRome's greatest treasure; that thereupon Curtius, 
a noble youth, mounted his steed in full armour, and declaring that 
Rome possessed no greater treasure than a brave and gallant citizen, 
leaped into the abyss, upon which the earth closed over him. 

CuRrfus RtfFUS, Q., Roman historian of Alexander the Great, 
whose date is about th$ middle of the ist century. A.D. His history 
of Alexander the Great consisted of 10 books, but the first 2 are lost, 
and the remaining 8 are not without considerable gaps. 

C?NAE INSULAB, 2 small rocky islands near the entrance of 
the Euxine, the Symplegades of mythology. [SYMPLBGADBS.] 


s, king of Media, 634-594, son of Phraortes, and grand- 
son of Deioces. He was the most warlike of the Median kings, and 
introduced great military reforms. He was engaged in wars with 
the Assyrians, Scythians, and Alyattes, king of Lydia. 


CYCLDES, a group of islands in the Aegaean Sea, so called because 
they lay in a circle around Delos, the most important of them. In the 
4th millennium they were an important centre of Aegaean civiliza- 
tion. They not only connected Crete with Troy, but were the 
chief source of metal and marble obsidian from Melos, marble 
from Paros and Naxos, and copper, lead, and other metals from 
Seriphus and Siphnus. Syros, the central island, was the commercial 

CYCLdPES and CYCLOPES, that is, creatures with round or circular 
eyes. Homer speaks of them as a gigantic race of shepherds in 
Sicily, who devoured human beings and cared naught for Zeus: 
each of them had only one eye in the centre of his forehead: the 
chief among them was POLYPHEMUS. According to Hesiod the 
Cyclopes were Titans, sons of Uranus and Ge, were 3 in number, 
Arges, Steropes, and Brontes, and each of them had only x eye 
in his forehead. They were thrown into Tartarus by Cronus, but 
were released by Zeus, and in consequence they provided Zeus with 
thunderbolts and lightning, Pluto with a helmet, and Poseidon with 
a trident. They were afterwards killed by Apollo for having 
furnished Zeus with the thunderbolts to kill Aesculapius. A later 
tradition regarded the Cyclopes as the assistants of Hephaestus. 
Volcanoes were the workshops of that god, and Mt. Aetna in Sicily 
and the neighbouring isles were accordingly considered as their 
abodes. As the assistants of Hephaestus they make the metal 
armour and ornaments for gods and horses. Their number is no 
longer confined to 3. The name Cyclopean was given to the walls 
built of great masses of unhewn stone, of which specimens are still 
to be seen at Mycenae and other parts of Greece, and also in Italy. 

CYCNUS. i. Son of Apollo, metamorphosed into a swan. 2. 
Son of Poseidon, and father of Tenes and Hemrthea. In the. Trojan 
war Cycnus was slain by Achilles, and his body was metamorphosed 
into a swan. 3. Son of Sthenelus, king of the Ligurians, and a 
friend and relation of PhaSthon, was metamorphosed by Apollo 
into a swan, and placed among the stars. 

CvDiPpfl. i. Mistress of ACONTIUS. 2. A Nereid. 

CYDNUS, river of Cilicia Campestris, rising in the Taurus, and 
flowing through the city of Tarsus. It was celebrated for the cold- 
ness of its waters, in bathing in which Alexander nearly lost his life. 

CYDO"NIA, city of Crete, situated on the N.W. coast, derived its 
name from the, Cyddnes, & Cretan race, placed by Homer in the 
W. part of the island. Cydonia was the place from which quinces 
(Cydonia mala) were first brought to Italy. 

CYLL&RUS, a beautiful centaur, killed at the wedding feast of 
Pirithous. The horse of Castor was likewise called Cyllarus. 


i. The highest mountain in Peloponnesus, on the 
frontiers of Arcadia and Achaia, sacred to Hermes, who had a temple 
on the summit, was said to have been born there, and was hence 
called Cylleolus. 2. A seaport town of Elis. 

CYLON, an Athenian of noble family, who gained an Olympic 
victory, 640 B.C. He seized the Acropolis, intending to make himself 
tyrant of Athens. Pressed by famine, Cylon and his adherents 
were driven to take refuge at the altar of Athena, whence they were 
induced to withdraw by the archon Megacles, the Alcmaeonid, on a 
promise that their lives should be spared. But their enemies put 
them to death. 

CYNASGIRUS, brother of the poet Aeschylus, distinguished himself 
at the battle of Marathon, 490 B.C. According to Herodotus, when 
the Persians were escaping by sea, Cynaegirus seized one of their 
ships to keep it back, but fell with his right hand cut off. 

CYNSsIi or CYNftras, a people who, according to Herodotus, 
dwelt in the W. of Europe, beyond the Celts. They are identified 
in modern research with the ancient inhabitants of southern Portugal 
between the Guadiana and the Atlantic. 

... CYNfcsARGfis, a gymnasium, sacred to Hercules, outside Athens, 
for the use of those who were not of pure Athenian blood: here 
taught Antisthenes, the founder of the Cynic school. 

CYNOScfipHiLAE, 'Dog's Heads/ two hills in Thessaly; where 
Flarnininus defeated Philip of Macedonia, 197 B.C. 

CYNOSS&MA, ' Dog's Tomb/ a promontory in the Thracian Cherso- 
nesus, so called because it was supposed to be the tomb of Hecuba, 
who had been previously changed into a dog. 

CYNSSURA, an Idaean nymph, and one of the nurses of Zeus, who 
placed her among the stars. 

CYNTHUS, a mountain of Delos, the birthplace of Apollo and 
Artemis, who were hence called Cynthius and Cynthia respectively. 

CYNtJRlA, district on the frontiers of Argolis and Laconia. After 
frequent wars the Spartans at length obtained it about 550 B.C. 

CYPiRissus, son of Telephus, who having inadvertently killed his 
favourite stag, was seized with immoderate grief, and metamor- 
phosed into a cypress. 

CYPRIANUS, one of the fathers of the Church, was a native of 
Africa. He was converted about A.D. 246 and became bishop of 
Cartilage in 248. He suffered under the persecutions of Decius 
and Valerian, and was in the end beheaded. Cyprian wrote several 
works which have come down to us. See Benson's monograph. 

CYPRUS or CYPRUS, island in the Mediterranean, S. of CiEcia and 
W. of Syria, about 140 miles in length, and 50 miles in its greatest 
breadth. It was celebrated for its fertility. The largest plain, 
called the Salaminian plain, is in the E. part of the island near 
Salamis. Cyprus was colonized both by the Phoenicians and the 
Greeks; was subject at different times to the Egyptians, the Persians, 
and the Romans, of whom the latter made it a province, 58 B.C. 


Cyprus was one of the chief seats of the worship of Aphrodite, who 
is hence called Cypris or Cypria, and whose worship was introduced 
by the Phoenicians. 

CYPSLUS, tyrant of Corinth, 655-625 B.C., so named because when 
a child he was concealed from the Bacchiadae (the Doric nobility of 
Corinth) by his mother in a chest (wif/fay) . See Frazer's Pausanias, 
vol. iii, pp. 600 sqq. 

CtfRflNfi, daughter of Hypseus, mother of Aristaeus by Apollo, 
was carried by the god from Mt. Pelion to Libya, where the city of 
Cyrene derived its name from her. 

CS-RfiNfl, Greek city in the N. of Africa, lying between Alexandria 
and Carthage. It was founded by Battus (631 B.C.), who led a 
colony from the island of Them, and he and his descendants ruled 
over the city for 8 generations. It stood 80 stadia (8 geog. miles) 
from the coast, on the edge of the upper of two terraces of table- 
land, at the height of 1,800 feet above the sea. At a later time 
Cyrene became subject to the Egyptian Ptolemies, and was eventu- 
ally formed, with the island of Crete, into a Roman province. The 
ruins of Cyrene are very extensive and remains of the original temple 
of Apollo, erected by Battus, have come to light (1925). The 
temple dates from between 630 and 700 B.C. and lasted until it 
was reconstructed under Augustus. It was the birthplace of Calli- 
machus, Eratosthenes, and Aristippus. The territory of Cyrene, 
called Cyrfinalca, included also the Greek cities of Barca, Teuchira, 
Hesperis, and Apollonia, the port of Cyrene. Under .the Ptolemies 
Hesperis became Berenice, Teuchira was called ArsinoS, and Barca 
was entirely eclipsed by its port, which was raised into a city under 
the name of Ptolemais. The country was at that time usually 
called Pentapolis, from the 5 cities of Cyrenaica Cyrene, Apollonia, 
Ptolemais, ArsinoS, and Berenice. 

CYRESCHXTA or CSTRfcpoiJS, city of Sogdiana, on the Jaxartes, 
the furthest of the colonies founded by Cyrus, and the extreme city 
of the Persian, empire: destroyed by Alexander. 

CYRILLUS. i. Bishop of Jerusalem, A.D. 351-86, was a firm 
opponent of the Arians. 2. Bishop of Alexandria, A.D. 412-44. He 
persecuted the Jews, and procured the deposition of Nestorius, 
bishop of Constantinople. 

CYRNUS, the Greek name of the island of Corsica, from which is 
derived the adjective Cyrnius, used by the Latin poets. 

CYRRHEsrlcS, under the Seleucidae a province of Syria, lying 
between Commagene on the N, and the plain of Antioch on the S. 

CPRUS. i, THE ELDER, the founder of the Persian empire. 
According to the legend preserved by Herodotus, Cyrus was the son 
of Cambyses, a noble Persian, and of Mandane, daughter of the 
Median king Astyages. In consequence of a dream, which seemed 
to portend that his grandson should be master of Asia, Astyages 
committed the child as soon as it was born to Harpagus with orders 
to kill it. But he delivered the infant to a herdsman, and by the 
herdsman's wife the child was reared. At ten years of age on being 


sent to Astyages he was discovered by him to be his grandson. By 
the advice of the Magians, who said that the dream had been fulfilled 
when Cyrus was made king in sport, he sent him to his parents in 
Persia. When Cyrus grew up, he led the hardy mountaineers of 
Persia against Astyages, defeated him in battle, and took him 
prisoner, 559 B.C. The Medes accepted Cyrus for their king, and 
thus the supremacy which they had held passed to the Persians. 
Cyrus now proceeded to conquer the other parts of Asia. In 546 
he overthrew the Lydian monarchy, and took Croesus prisoner 
[CROESUS.] The Greek cities in Asia Minor were subdued by his 
general Harpagus. Cyrus next took Babylon by diverting the 
course of the Euphrates, which flowed through the midst of it, so 
that his soldiers entered the city by the bed of the river. This was in 
538. Subsequently he set out on an expedition against the Mas- 
sagetae, a Scythian people, but he was defeated and slain in battle. 
Tomyris, the queen of the Massagetae, cut off his head, and threw it 
into a bag filled with human blood, that he might satiate himself 
(she said) with blood. He was killed in 529. He was succeeded by 
his son CAMBYSES. Xenophon's account is different. He represents 
Cyrus as brought up at his grandfather's court; as serving in 
the Median army under his uncle Cyaxares II, the son and suc- 
cessor of Astyages; as making war upon Babylon simply as the 
general of Cyaxares; as marrying the daughter of Cyaxares; and at 
length dying quietly in his bed. But Xenophon merely draws a 
picture of what a wise and just prince ought to be; and his account 
must not be -regarded a!s a genuine history. 2. THE YOUNGER, 
the 2nd son of Darius Nothus, king of Persia, and of Parysatis, was 
appointed by Ms father commander of the maritime parts of Asia 
Minor, and satrap of Lydia, Phrygia, and Cappadocia, 407 B.C. 
He assisted Lysander and the Lacedaemonians with money in their 
war against the Athenians. Cyrus was daring and ambitions. On 
the accession of his elder brother Artaxerxes Mnemon, 404, he 
formed the design of dethroning his brother, to accomplish which he 
obtained a force of 13,000 Greek mercenaries, set out from Sardis 
in the spring of 401, and, having crossed the Euphrates at Thapsacus, 
marched down the river to the plain of Cunaxa, 500 stadia from 
Babylon. Here he met the king's army. In the battle which 
followed his Greek troops were victorious, but Cyrus himself was 
slain. The character of Cyrus is drawn by Xenophon in the 
brightest colours. 

ClhrnflRA (Congo], island off the S.E. point of Laconia. It was 
colonized by the Phoenicians, who introduced the worship of 
Aphrodite into the island. This goddess was hence called Cytheraea, 
CythSrels ; and, according to some traditions, it was near this island 
that she first rose from the foam of the sea. 

C$TORU& or -UM, town on the coast of Paphlagonia, a settlement 
of Sinope, stood on the mountain of Cytorus. 

CfrzXcus, ancient Greek city in Asia Manor, stood upon an island 
of the same name in the Propontis, This island lay close to the 
shore of Mysia, to which it was united by two bridges, and after- 


wards (under Alexander the Great) by a mole, which has accumulated 
to a considerable isthmus. After the peace of Antalcidas it freed 
itself from the Persians, and its gallant resistance against Mithridates 
(75 B.C.) obtained for it the rank of a libera rivitas, or free state. 
The temple at Cyzicus was so magnificent that it was reckoned 
among the wonders of the world. It was begun by Hadrian and 
finished by Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 167). 

DAC!A, as a Roman province, lay between the Danube and the 
Carpathian mountains. The Daci were a brave and warlike people. 
In the reign of Domitian they became formidable under their long 
DECBBALUS. Trajan, however, conquered the country. [TRA- 
JANUS.] At a later period Dacia was invaded by the Goths; and as 
AureJian considered it more prudent to make the Danube the boun- 
dary of the empire, he abandoned Dacia. 

DACTYL, a metrical foot, consisting of one long syllable followed 
by two short (e.g. c&rmtnd). 

DACTYLI, fabulous beings, to whom the discovery of iron, and 
the art of working it by means of fire, was ascribed. Mt. Ida, in 
Phrygia, is said to have been the original seat of the Dactyls. 

DABDALA, a festival held by the Boeotians in honour of Hera. 

DAEDALUS, a mythical personage, whose name signifies 'cunning 
craftsman.' He is sometimes called an Athenian, and sometimes a 
Cretan, on account of the long time he lived in Crete. He. devoted 
himself to sculpture, and made great improvements in the art. 
He instructed his sister's son, Calos, Talus, or Perdix, who soon 
came to surpass him in skill and ingenuity, and Daedalus killed *n'm 
through envy. Being condemned to death by the Areopagus for 
+frifl murder, he went to Crete, where the fame of his skill obtained 
for Mm the friendship of Minos. He made the well-known wooden 
cow for PasiphaS; and when Pasiphae gave birth to the Minotaur, 
Daedalus constructed the labyrinth, at Cnossus, in which the 
monster was kept. Daedalus was imprisoned by Minos ; but PasiphaS 
released him ; and, as Minos had seized all the ships on the coast of 
Crete, Daedalus procured wings for himself and his son Icarus, and 
fastened them on with wax. Daedalus flew safely over the Aegaean, 
alighting, according to some accounts, at Cumae, in Italy. He 
then fled to Sicily, where he was hospitably entertained by Gocalus. 
Several other works of art were attributed to v Daedalus, in Greece, 
Italy, Libya, and the islands of the Mediterranean. The name of 
Daedala was given by the Greeks to the 'wooden statues,' orna- 
mented with gilding, and bright colours, and real drapery. 

DAEMON, Gk. fal/Aw: (i) a general term for deity; (2) an inter- 
mediate being between gods and men; (3) [GFNTUS]. 

DAHAB, a great Scythian people, who led a nomad life over a 
great extent of country, on the E.. of the Caspian, in Hyrcania 
(which still bears the name of Dagestan). 

DALMixlA, a part of the country along the E. coast of the Adriatic 


Sea. The Dalmatians were a brave and warlike people, and gave 
much trouble to the Romans. In 1 19 B.C. their country was overrun 
by L. Metellus, who assumed, in consequence, the surname Dalmati- 
cus, but they continued independent of the Romans. In 39 they 
were defeated by Asinius Pollio, of whose Dalmaticus triumphus 
Horace speaks; but it was not till the year 23 that they were finally 
subdued by Statilius Taurus. They, took part in the great Pannon- 
ian revolt under their leader Bato; but after a 3 years' war were 
again reduced to subjection by Tiberius, A.D. 9. 

DAMALIS or B6us, a small place in Bithynia, on the shore of the 
Thracian Bosporus, N. of Chalcedon. 

DAMASCUS, one of the most ancient cities of the world, mentioned 
as existing in the time of Abraham (Gen. xiv 15), stood in the district 
afterwards called Coele-Syria. Its fruits were celebrated in ancient 
as in modern times ; and the situation of the city is one of the finest 
on the globe. For a long period Damascus was the seat of an in- 
dependent kingdom, called the kingdom of Syria, which was sub- 
dued by the Assyrians, and passed successfully under the dominion 
of the Babylonions, the Persians, the Greek kings of Syria, and the 
Romans. Josephus traces the history of the city back to the Flood. 
One of the secrets of its prosperity lies in its admirable position; 
caravan routes pass through it from Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, 
S. Persia, and the Far East. In the days of the Ottoman domination 
Damascus was the 5th city of the Empire. "When the Pharaohs 
were overlords of Persia, Damascus was among their subject cities; 
its name is carved on the pylons of Karnak and the tablets of Tel-eJ- 
Amarna. Later on Darius used it as a treasure city before he met 
Alexander the Great at Issus, Strabo says Damascus flourished 
under the Persians; it prospered under the Seleucids, but gradually 
was eclipsed by Antioch. Aretas III (an Arabian king) and Tigranes 
of Armenia ruled over it. During the Parthian wars Pompey re- 
ceived ambassadors there from neighbouring nations, and in 63 B.C. 
it was included in the Roman province of Syria. Damascus was 
one of Antony's gifts to Cleopatra, and Augustus handed it over to 
Herod the Great. In the early days of Roman government it be- 
came a stronghold of Judaism (Josephus says a garrison of 10,000 
Jewish soldiers lived there). In the early days of Christianity it 
ranked first of the Churches under the patriarch of Antioch, or sixth 
in the whole hierarchy. Under Nero a great massacre of Jews took 
place in the city. Damascus suffered with the rest of Syria in the 
long struggle between Heraclius and the Persians, and was one of 
the earliest of the great conquests of Islam : it was captured by 
Khalid in A.D. 635, 

DAMO, a daughter of Pythagoras, to whom Pythagoras entrusted 
his writings, and forbade her to give them to any one. She was in 
extreme poverty, but she refused many requests to sell them. 

DlMOCLfts, a Syracusan, a companion of the elder Dionysius. 
Damocles having extolled the great felicity of Dionysius on account 
of his wealth and power, the tyrant invited hi to a banquet, in 
the midst of which Damocles saw a naked sword suspended over 


his head by a single horse-hair a sight which quickly dispelled all 
his visions of happiness. The story is alluded to by Horace (Carm. 
iii. 1. 17). 

DAMON, i. Of Athens, a celebrated musican and sophist, a 
teacher of Pericles. He was said to have been also a teacher of 
Socrates. 2. A Pythagorean, and friend of Phintias (not Pythias). 
When the latter was condemned to die for a plot against Dionysius I, 
of Syracuse, he obtained leave of the tyrant to depart, for the pur- 
pose of arranging his domestic affairs, upon Damon offering himself 
to be put to death instead of his friend, should he fail to return. 
Phintias arrived just in time to redeem Damon; and Dionysius was 
so struck with a friendship, that he pardoned the criminal, and 
entreated to be admitted as a third into their bond of brotherhood. 

DAM&PH5N, statuary of Messene, lived about 370 B.C., but his 
time is doubtful. He is mentioned by Pausanias, and an original 
group, attributed to him, has been excavated. 

DAN&&, daughter of Acrisius king of Argos, was confined by her 
father in a brazen tower, because an oracle *frd declared that she 
would give birth to a son, who should kill his grandfather. But 
here she became the mother of Perseus by Zeus, who visited her in 
a shower of gold, and thus mocked the precautions of the king. 


DANAI, used in Homer of the Greeks in general. 

DANAlDBS, the 50 daughters of Danaus. [DANAUS.] 

DANAUS, son of Belus, and twin-brother of Aegyptus. Belus had 
assigned Libya to Danaus, but the latter, fearing his brother and 
his brother's sons, fled with his 50 daughters to Argos. Here he 
was elected king by the Argives in place of Gelanor, the reigning 
monarch. The story of the murder of the 50 sons of Aegyptus by 
the 50 daughters of Danaus (the Danaides) is given under ABGYPTUS. 
There was one exception to the murderous deed. The life of Lyn- 
ceus was spared by his wife Hypermnestra; and he afterwards 
avenged the death of his brothers by Trilling his father-in-law, 
Danaus. According to the poets the Danaides were punished in 
Hades by being compelled everlastingly to pour water into a sieve. 

DAPHNE, daughter of the river-god Peneus, in Thessaly, was pur- 
sued by Apollo, who was charmed by her beauty; but as she was on 
the point of being overtaken by him, she prayed for aid, and was 
metamorphosedinto alaurel tree (W^i?), which became inconsequence 
the favourite tree of Apollo. 

DAPHNE, a beautiful spot 5 miles S. of Antioch in Syria. It was 
celebrated for the grove and temple dedicated to Apollo. 

DAPHNIS, Sicilian shepherd, son of Hermes by a nymph, was 
taught by Pan to play on the flute, and was regarded as the inventor 
of bucolic poetry. A Naiad to whom he proved faithless punished 
him with blindness, whereupon Hermes translated him to heaven. 

DARDANUS, son of Zeus and Electra, the mythical ancestor of 
the Trojans. The Greek traditions usually made him a king in 


Arcadia, from whence he emigrated first to Samothrace, and after- 
wards to Asia, where he received a tract of land from king Teucer, 
on which he built the town of Dardania. The Dardanians seem to 
have been derived from the central region of the Balkan peninsula. 

DXRfis, a priest of Hephaestus at Troy, mentioned in the Iliad, 
to whom was ascribed in antiquity an Iliad, believed to be more 
ancient than the Homeric poems. This work if indeed it existed 
is lost; but there is extant a Latin work in prose in 44 chapters, on 
the destruction of Troy, bearing the title Daretis Phrygii de Excidio 
Trojae Historia, and purporting to be a translation of the work of 
Dares by Cornelius Nepos. But the Latin work is of much later 
origin. It was used by medieval writers in their stories of the 
Trojan war. 

DARIUS, i. King of Persia, 521-485 B.C., son of Hystaspes, was 
one of the 7 Persian chiefs who destroyed the usurper SMKRDIS. 
The 7 chiefs agreed that the one of them whose horse neighed first at 
an appointed time and place, should become king; and as the horse 
of Darius neighed first, he was declared king. He divided the empire 
into 20 satrapies, assigning to each its amount of tribute. A few 
years after his accession the Babylonians revolted, but after a siege of 
20 months, Babylon was taken by ZOPYRUS, about 516. He then 
invaded Scythia and penetrated into the interior of modern Russia, 
but he was obliged to retreat. On his return to Asia, he sent part 
of his forces, under Megabazus, to subdue Thrace and Macedonia. 
The most important event in the reign of Darius was the commence- 
ment of the great war between the Persians and the Greeks. In 
501 the Ionian Greeks revolted ; they were assisted by the Athenians, 
who burnt Sardis, and thus provoked the hostility of Darius. Darius 
Bent against the Greeks Mardonius in 492, and afterwards Datis 
fl.nH Artaphernes, who was defeated by the Athenians at Marathon, 
490. Darius now resolved to call out the whole force of his empire 
for the purpose of subduing Greece; but, after 3 years of preparation, 
his attention was called off by the rebellion of Egypt. He died in 
485, leaving the execution of his plans to his son XERXES. 2. 
King of Persia, 424-405, named OCHUS before his accession, and 
then surnamed NOTHUS, or the Bastard, from his being one of the 
bastard sons of Artaxerxes I. He obtained the crown by putting 
his brother Sogdianus to death, and married Parysatis, by whom he 
had 2 sons, Artaxerxes II, who succeeded him, and Cyrus the younger. 
Darius was governed by eunuchs, and the weakness of his govern- 
ment was shown by repeated insurrection of his satraps. 3. Last 
king of Persia, 336-331, named CODOMANNUS before his accession, 
was raised to the throne by Bagoas, after the murder of ARSBS. 
He was conquered by Alexander the Great. [ALEXANDER.] 

DAssARSiIr or DASSAR!TAE, DA.SSARETAE, a people, in Greek 
niyria on the borders of Macedonia: their chief town was Lychnidus, 
on a Mil, on the N. side of the lake Lychnitis. 

DAxiMfls, Persian general, a Carian by birth, was satrap of Cilicia 
under Artaxerxes II (Mnemon), but revolted. He defeated the 
generals who were sent against him, but was at length assassinated, 


362 B.C. Cornelius Nepos, who has written his life, calls him the 
bravest of all barbarian generals, except Hamilcar and Hannibal. 

DATIS, a Mede, commanded, along with Artaphernes, the Persian 
army which was defeated at Marathon, 490 B.C. 

DATUM or DATUS, Thracian town, on the Strymonic Gulf, subject 
to Macedonia, with gold mines in Mt. Pangaeus, in the neighbour- 
hood, whence came the proverb, ' a Datum of good things.' 

DAULIS or DAUL!A, ancient town in Phocis, situated on a hill, cele- 
brated in mythology as the residence of the Thracian king TEREUS, 
and as the scene of the tragic story of PHILOMELA and PROCNE. 
Hence Daulias is the surname both of Procne and Philomela. 

Dfic&BALUs, a celebrated king of the Dacians, to whom Domitian 
paid an annual tribute. He was defeated by Trajan, and put an 
end to his own life, A.D. 106. [DACIA.] 

DJBfccftT.1t A, a demus (or 'parish ') of Attica, seized fl^"d fortified by 
the Spartans in the Pelqponnesian war. 

DECEMVIRI (<= 10 men), a college of officials at Home, with various 
functions, legal and religious. The Decemviri Legibus Scribendis 
were 10 commissioners of the patrician order, elected to revise the 
laws. They entered into office 451 B.C., and all other magistrates 
were obliged to abdicate. They administered the government for 
one year, and drew up a body of laws divided into 10 sections, 
which were approved by the senate and the comitia. On the 
expiration of their year of office, 10 new decemvirs were elected, 
of whom App. Claudius alone belonged to the former body. They 
framed several new laws, but behaved in a tyrannical manner. 
They were overthrown by an insurrection. [VIRGINIA.] 

Dftclus, Roman emperor, A.D. 249-51, native of Pannonia, and 
successor of Philippus. He fell in battle against the Goths, together 
with his son, in 251. In his reign the Christians were persecuted. 

Dficlus Mus, PUBLIUS. i. Consul 340 B.C. with T. Manlius Tor- 
quatus, in the T a,tin war. Each of the consuls had a vision in the 
night before fighting with the Latins, announcing that the general 
of one side and the army of the other were devoted to .death. The 
consuls agreed that the one whose wing first wavered should devote 
himself and the army of the enemy to destruction. Decius com- 
manded the left wing, which began to give way; whereupon he 
rushed into the thickest of the enemy, and was slain, leaving the 
victory to the Romans. 2. Son of the preceding, 4 times consul, 
devoted himself to death at the battle of Sentinum, 295 B.C. [SBN- 
TTNUM.] 3. Son of No. 2, consul 279, in the war against Pyrrhus. 

D&IANIRA, daughter of Althaea and Oeneus. Achelous and Her- 
cules both loved Delanira, and fought for the possession of her. 
Hercules was victorious, and she became his wife. She was, the 
unwilling cause of her husband's death by giving him the poisoned 
robe which the centaur Nessns gave her. In despair she killed 
herself. See Jebb, Introduction to the Trachinia* of Sophocles. . 


daughter of Lycomedes, in the island of Scyros. 
When Achilles was concealed there in maiden's attire, she became 
by him the mother of Pyrrhus or Neoptolemus. 

Datocfis, first king of Media, after the Medes had thrown off the 
supremacy of the Assyrians, reigned 709-656 B.C. He built the city 
of Ecbatana. He was succeeded by his son, PHRAORTBS. 

Dfiio'x.JLRUS, tetrarch of Galatia, adhered to the Romans against 
Mithridates, and was rewarded with the title of king. In the Civil 
war he sided with Pompey, and was present at the battle of Phar- 
salia> 48 B.C. He was defended by Cicero before Caesar in the 
speech (pro Rege Deiotaro) still extant. 

DttlPHfisS, the Sibyl at Cumae, daughter of Glaucus. 
DBlPH5sus, son of Priam and Hecuba; married Helen after the 
death of Paris. On the fall of Troy he was slain by Menelaus. 
DfiLlA, the quinquennial festival of Apollo at Delos. 

DfiLluM, town on the coast of Boeotia, in the territory of Tanagra, 
named after a temple of Apollo similar to that at Delos. Here the 
Athenians were defeated by the Boeotians, 424 B.C. 

Dflilus and DflilA, surnames of Apollo and Artemis respectively, 
from the island of DELOS. 

DELOS, the smallest of the islands called Cyclades, in the Aegaean 
Sea. According to a legend, it was called out of the deep by the 
trident of Poseidon, but was a floating island until Zeus fastened it 
by adamantine chains to the bottom of the sea, that it might be 
a secure resting-place to Leto for the birth of Apollo and Artemis. 
Hence it became the holy seat of the worship of Apollo. Delos was 
peopled by Ionian a, for whom it was the chief centre of political 
and religious union, in the time of Homer. It was long subject to 
Athens; but it possessed an extensive commerce which was increased 
by the downfall of Corinth, when Delos became the chief emporium 
for the trade in slaves. It contained a temple of Leto, and the great 
temple of Apollo. With this temple were connected games, called 
Delia, celebrated every 5 years, and said to have been founded by 
Theseus. A like origin is ascribed to the sacred embassy, Theoria, 
which the Athenians sent to Delos every year. The sanctity of the 
island secured it, though wealthy and unfortified, from plunder. See 
W. A- Laidlaw, History of Delos > 1933. 

DELPHI (Kastri), town in Phocis, celebrated in Greece, on account 
of its oracle of Apollo. It was situated on a steep declivity on the 
S. slope of Mt. Parnassus, and its site resembled the cavea of a great 
theatre. It was regarded as the central point of the whole earth, 
and was hence called the 'navel of the earth.' It was originally 
called Pytho, by which name it is alone mentioned in Homer. 
Delphi was colonized at an early period by Doric settlers from the 
neighbouring town of Lycorfa. The government was in the hands 
of a few distinguished families of Doric origin. The temple of 
Apollo contained immense treasures. In the centre, of the temple 
there was a small opening in the ground, from which an intoxicating 


vapour arose. Over this chasm there stood a tripod, on which the 
priestess, called Pythia, took her seat whenever the oracle was to 
be consulted. The words which she uttered after exhaling the 
vapour were believed to contain the revelations of Apollo. They 
were carefully written down by the priests, and afterwards com- 
municated by hexameter verse to the persons who had come to 
consult the oracle. The oracle is said to have been discovered by 
its having thrown into convulsions some goats which had strayed 
to the mouth of the cave. The Pythian games were celebrated at 

Council. For further details, see Frazer*s edition of Pausanias 
(index), and cf. Tozer, History of Ancient Geography, pp. 65-6, 

DfiMADfis, Athenian orator, who belonged to the Macedonian 
party, and was a bitter enemy of Demosthenes. He was put to 
death by Antipater, 318 B.C. 

DflMlRATUS or DlMARAxus. i. King of Sparta, reigned from 
about 510 to 491 B.C. He was deposed by Cleomenes, 491 B.C., and 
repaired to Persia, where he was kindly .received by Darius. He 
accompanied Xerxes in his invasion of Greece. 2. A merchant 
noble of Corinth, who settled afterwards in Etmria, and became the 
father of Aruns and Lucumo (Tarquinius Priscus). 

DEMfiTfiR (called Ceres by the Romans), one of the great divinities 
of the Greeks, was regarded as the protectress of agriculture and of 
all the fruits of the earth. She was the daughter of Cronus and 
Rhea, and sister of Zeus, by whom she became the mother of Perse- 
ph6n5. Zeus, without the knowledge of Demeter, had promised 
Persephone to Aldoneus; and while the unsuspecting maiden was 
gathering flowers in the Nysian plain in Asia, the earth suddenly 
opened and she was carried off by Aldoneus. [HADES.] After 
wandering in search of her daughter, Demeter learnt from the Sun, 
that it was Aldoneus who had carried her off. Thereupon .-she 
quitted Olympus in anger and dwelt upon earth among men, con- 
ferring blessings wherever she was kindly received, and severely 
punishing those who repulsed her. In *>" manner she came to 
Celeus, at Eleusis. [CELEUS.] As the goddess still continued angry, and 
did not allow the earth to produce any fruits, Zeus sent Hermes into 
the lower world to fetch back Persephone. Aldoneus consented, but 
gave Persephone part of a pomegranate to eat. Demeter retained 
to Olympus with her daughter, but as the latter had eaten in the 
lower world, she was obliged to spend one-third of the year with 
Aldoneus, continuing with her mother the remainder of the year. 
The earth now brought forth fruit again. This is the ancient 
legend as preserved in the Homeric hymn. In the Latin poets the 
scene of the rape is near KtiTia, in Sicily; and Ascalaphus, who had 
alone seen Persephone eat anything in the lower world, revealed the 
fact, and was in consequence turned into an owl by Demeter. The 
meaning of the legend is obvious: Persephone; who is carried off to 
the lower world, is the seed-corn, which remains concealed in the 
ground part of the year; Persephone, who returns to her mother, is 


the corn which rises from the ground, and nourishes men and 
animals. In Attica Demeter was worshipped with great splendour. 
The Athenians pretended that agriculture was first practised in their 
country, and that Triptolemus of Eleusis was the first who invented 
the plough and sowed corn. [TRIPTOLEMUS.] Every year at 
Athens the festival of the Eleusinia was celebrated in honour of 
Demeter and Persephone. The festival of the Thesmophoria was 
also celebrated at Athens as in other parts of Greece : it was intended 
to commemorate the introduction of the laws and the regulations of 
civilized life, which were ascribed to Demeter, since agriculture is 
the basis of civilization. In works of art Demeter is represented in 
full attire. Around her head she wears a garland of corn-ears, or a 
simple riband, and in her hand she holds a sceptre, corn-ears, or a 
poppy, sometimes also a torch and the mystic basket. The Romans 
received from Sicily the worship of Demeter, to whom they gave the 
name of Ceres. They celebrated in her honour the festival of the 
Cerealia. Her worship acquired considerable political importance 
at Rome. The decrees of the senate were deposited in her temple 
for the inspection of the tribunes of the people. For the religious 
significance of the Demeter cult, consult Sykes and Allen, Intro- 
duction to the Hymn to Demeter, in their edition of the Homeric 
Hymns, and the references there given. Cf. also Lawson, Modern 
Greek Folk Lore and Ancient Greek Religion, pp. 79-98. (See 
Fig. 27.) 

DfiMfiTRl&s, a town in Magnesia, in Thessaly, in the Pagasaean 
bay, founded by Demetrius Poliorcetes, and peopled from loclus. 

DfiMftTRlus. i. PoLiORCfixfis, or the Besieger, son of Antigonus, 
king of Asia, and Stratonice. During his father's lifetime he was 
engaged in constant campaigns against either Cassander or Ptolemy. 
In his siege of Rhodes (505 B.C.) he constructed those gigantic 
machines to assail the walls of the city, which gave hi the surname 
of Poliorcetes. He at length concluded a treaty with the Rhodians 
(304). After the defeat and death of his father at the battie of 
Ipsus (301), the fortunes of Demetrius declined; but in 294 he was 
acknowledged as king by the Macedonian army, and succeeded in 
keeping possession of Macedonia for 7 years. In 287 he was deserted 
by his own troops, who proclaimed Pyrrhus king of Macedonia. He 
crossed over to Asia, and was at length obliged to surrender himself 
prisoner to Seleucus (286). That king kept hi in confinement, but 
did not treat him with harshness. Demetrius died in the 3rd year 
of his imprisonment and the 56th of his age (213) . He was a man of 
.restless activity of mind, fertility of resource, and daring prompti- 
tude in the execution, of his schemes. 2. SOTBR (reigned 162-150 
B.C.), was the son of .Seleucus IV Phflopator and grandson of 
Antiochus the Great. While yet a child he had been sent to Rome 
by his father as a hostage, where he remained until he was 23 years 
of age. He then fled to Syria, and was received as king by the 
Syrians. An impostor named Balas raised an insurrection against 
him and slew him . He left * sons, Demetrius Nicator and Antiochus 
Sidetes, both of whom subsequently ascended the throne. 3. 


NICATOR (146-142 B.C., and again 128-125), son of Demetrius Soter. 
With the assistance of Ptolemy Philometor he defeated Balas, and 
recovered his kingdom; but, having rendered himself odious to his 
subjects by his vices and cruelties, he was driven out of Syria by 
Tryphon, who set up Antiochus, the infant son of Alexander Balas, 
as a pretender against him. Demetrius retired to Babylon, and 
from thence marched against the Parth.ia.-ns, by whom he was taken 
prisoner, 138. He remained as a captive in Parthia 10 years. 
Demetrius again obtained possession of the Syrian throne in 128; 
but while engaged in an expedition against Egypt, Ptolemy Physcon 
set up against hi the pretender Alexander Zebina, by whom he was 
defeated. He fled to Tyre, where he was assassinated, 125. 4. 
PHALBRfitts, so called from his birthplace, the Attic demus of 
Phalerus, where he was born about 345 B.C. His parents were poor, 
but he rose to the -highest honours at Athens, and became, dis- 
tinguished both as an orator, a statesman, a philosopher, and a poet. 
The government of Athens was entrusted to him by Cassander in 
317. When Demetrius Poliorcetes approached Athens in 307 
Phalereus was obliged to take to flight. He settled at Alexandria 
in Egypt, and exerted some influence in the foundation of the 
Alexandrine library. He died 283 B.C. He was the last of the 
Attic orators. See Jebb, Attic Orators, vol. ii, pp. 442-3. 

DfiMttc&D&s, a celebrated physician of Crotona. He practised 
medicine at Aegina, Athens, and Samos. He was taken prisoner 
along with Polycrates, in 522 B.C., and was sent to Susa to the court 
of Darius. Here he acquired fame by curing the king's foot and the 
breast of the queen Atossa. In order to effect his return to his 
native country, he procured by means of Atossa that he should be 
sent with some nobles to explore the coast of Greece, and to ascertain 
where it might be attacked. At Tarentum he escaped, and settled 
at Crotona, where he married the daughter of the famous wrestler, 

DflMOCRfrus, Greek philosopher, was born at Abdera in Thrace, 
about 460 B.C. He spent the large inheritance, which his father left 
him, on travels into distant countries in pursuit of knowledge. He 
was a man of most honourable character. He died in 361 at a very 
advanced age. There is a tradition that he deprived himself of his 
sight, that he might be less disturbed in his pursuits; but it is more 
probable that he may have lost his sight by too severe application to 
study. This loss, however, did not disturb the cheerful disposition 
of his mind, which prompted hi to look, in all circumstances, at 
the cheerful side of things which later writers took to mean that he 
always laughed at the follies of men. His knowledge was most 
extensive. It embraced not only the i^atural sciences, mathe- 
matics, mechanics, grammar, music, and philosophy, but various 
other useful arts. His works are praised by Cicero on account of 
th liveliness of their style, and are in this respect compared even 
with the works of Plato. Democritus developed the atomic theory, 
founded by Leucippus. 

DfiM5PH$N or DfiMSpHSoN. i. Son of Celeus and Metanlra, 


[CBLBUS.] 2. Son of Theseus and Phaedra, accompanied the 
Greeks against Troy, and on his return gained the love of Phyllis, 
daughter of the Thracian king Sithon. Before the nuptials were 
celebrated, he went to Attica, and as he tarried longer than Phyllis 
had expected, she thought she was forgotten, and put an end to her 
life; but she was metamorphosed into a tree. 

D&MOSTH&Nfis. i. Son of Alcisthenes, Athenian general in the 
Peloponnesian war. In 425 B.C. he rendered assistance to Cleon, 
in making prisoners of the Spartans in the island of Sphacteria. 
In 413 he was sent with a large fleet to Sicily to assist Nicias, but 
both commanders were defeated, and put to death by the Syracusans. 
2. The greatest of Athenian orators, was born in the Attic demus of 
Paeania, about 3843.0. At 7 years of age he lost his father, who left 
him and his younger sister to the care of guardians, who neglected 
him. When he was 20 years of age Demosthenes accused Aphobus, 
one of his guardians, and obtained a verdict in his favour. Em- 
boldened by t"hfc success, Demosthenes came forward as a speaker 
in the public assembly. He was encouraged and instructed by the 
actor Satyrus. Demosthenes had to struggle against physical dis- 
advantages. His voice was weak and his utterance defective. It 
is said that he spoke with pebbles in his mouth, to cure Tiirnmlf of 
stammering; that he repeated verses of the poets as he ran uphill, 
to strengthen his voice; that he declaimed on the sea-shore, to 
accustom himself to the noise of the popular assembly; that he 
lived for months in a cave underground, engaged in writing out the 
history of Thucydides, to form his own style. It was about 355 
that Demosthenes began to obtain reputation as a speaker. He saw 
that Philip had resolved to subjugate Greece, and he therefore 
devoted his powers to resist the aggressions of the Macedonian 
monarch. For 14 years he continued the struggle against Philip, 
an<J neither threats nor bribes could turn him from his purpose. 
The struggle was brought to a close by the battle of Chaeronea 
(338) . Demosthenes was present at the battle. At this time many 
accusations were brought against him. Of these one of the most 
formidable was the accusation of Ctesiphon by Aeschines, which 
was in reality directed against Demosthenes himself. Aeschines 
accused Ctesiphon for proposing that Demosthenes should be 
rewarded for his services with, a golden crown in the theatre. The 
trial was delayed for reasons unknown to us till 330, when Demos- 
thenes delivered his oration On the Crown. Aeschines was defeated 
and withdrew from Athens. Demosthenes was one of those who were 
suspected of having received money from Harpalus in 325. [HAa- 
PALUS.] His guilt is doubtful; but he was condemned, and im- 
prisoned. He escaped and lived partly at Troezen and partly in 
Aegina, looking daily across the sea to his beloved native land. 
On the death of Alexander (323) the Greek states rose against Mace- 
donia. Demosthenes returned in triumph. But in tine following 
year (322) the confederate Greeks were defeated, and he took refuge 
in the temple of Poseidon, in the island of Calauria. Here he was 
pursued by the emissaries of Antipater; whereupon he took poison, 


and died in the temple, 322. Sixty orations of Demosthenes have 
come down to us. Of these the most famous is the oration On the 
Crown. See Prof. S. H. Butcher's admirable monograph on Demos- 
thenes. [See Oxford text by Butcher and Rennie; also Pickard- 
Cambridge's Demosthenes (1914) and his translations (Oxford) in 
2vols.] (See Fig. 28.) ' 

DfiNARlus, a Roman silver coin, orig. worth about eightpence 
It is rendered in the New Testament (A.V.) by the word 'penny. 1 

DBRcfiTis, DERcftxO, also called Atargatis, a Syrian goddess. 
She offended Aphrodite, who in consequence inspired her with love 
for a youth, to whom she bore a daughter Semiramis; but ashamed of 
her frailty, she killed the youth, exposed her child in a desert, and 
threw herself into a lake near Ascalon. Her child was fed by doves, 
and she herself was changed into a fish. The Syrians worshipped 
her as a goddess. The upper part of her statue represented a 
beautiful woman, while the lower part terminated in the tail of a fish. 

DEucXiJfoN, in Greek mythology, son of Prometheus and Cly- 
mene; king of Phthia, in Thessaly. When Zeus had resolved to 
destroy the degenerate race of men, Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha 
were, on account of their piety, the only mortals saved. Deucalion 
built a ship, in which he and his wife floated in safety during the 
9 days' flood which destroyed all the other inhabitants of Hellas. 
At last the ship rested, according to the more general tradition, 
on Mt. Parnassus in Phocis. Deucalion and his wife consulted the 
sanctuary of Themis how the race of man might be restored. The 
goddess bade them cover their heads and throw the bones of their 
mother behind them. They agreed in interpreting the bones of 
their mother to mean the stones of the earth. They accordingly 
threw stones behind them, and from those thrown by Deucalion 
there sprang up men, from those thrown by Pyrrha women. Deu- 
calion then descended from Parnassus, built his first abode at Opus 
or at Cynus, and became by Pyrrha the father of Hellen, Amphictyon, 
and Protogenia. 

DEVA (Chester), town in Britain. 

DIx, the ancient name of Naxos. 

DltoScHi, a name given to the successors of Alexander the Great. 
Of these men the best known are Antigonus, Antipater, Ptolemy, 
Lysimachus, and Seleucus. They are sometimes called the elder 
Diadochi. Of the younger generation we may select three Deme- 
trius, Pyrrhus, and Cassander. 

DtX.Go"RAS, sumamed the Atheist, Greek philosopher and poet, 
a native of the island of Melos, and a disciple of Democritus. In 
consequence of his attack upon the popular religion, he was accused 
of impiety, 41 1 B.C., and fled from Athens. He went first to PaUene, 
and afterwards to Corinth, where he died. [Gomperz, Greek 
Thinkers, vol. i. Cicero, De Nat. Deorum, iii. 37, 89.] 

DIANA, ancient Italian divinity, whom the Romans identified 
with the Greek ArtSmis. Her worship is said to have been intro- 
duced at Rome by Servius Tullius, At Rome Diana was the goddess 


of light, and her name contains the same root as the word dies. As 
Dianus, or the god of light, represented the sun, so Diana, the god- 
dess of light, represented the moon. The attributes of the Greek 
Artemis were afterwards ascribed to Diana. [ARTEMIS.] 

DIlirfuM (Denia), town in Hispania Tarraconensis on a promon- 
tory of the same name, founded by the Massilians. Here stood 
a temple of Diana, from which the town derived its name. 


* DIAULOS, in Greek athletics, is the double course (about J mile) 
for runners. 

DJcABARCHUS, Peripatetic philosopher, geographer, and historian, 
a native of Messana in Sicily, a disciple of Aristotle and a friend of 
Theophrastns. Only fragments of his work are extant. 

DICAST (duca<rrfa), in Attic law a juror. The Dicasts were, from 
the time of Pericles, paid for their services. 

DICTATOR, an extraordinary magistrate at Rome. The dic- 
tatorship was instituted in 501 B.C. The ordinary republican govern- 
ment was entrusted to two consuls, but it was felt that circumstances 
might arise in which it was important for the safety of the state that 
the power should be invested for a season in. one person who should 
possess absolute authority. In these circumstances a dictator 
was nominated by the consuls. The office was abolished in 44 B.C. 

Dicrfl, mountain in the . of Crete, where Zeus was brought up. 
Hence he bore the surname Dictaeus. The Roman poets employ 
the adjective Dictaeus as synonymous with Cretan. 

DICTYNNA, a surname both of Britomartis and Diana. 

DICTYS CRSTENSIS, the reputed author of an extant work in 
(translated from a Greek original) on the Trojan war, divided .into 
6 books, and entitled Ephemeris Belli Trojani. In the preface we 
are told that it was composed by Dictys, of Cnossus, who accom- 
panied Idomeneus to the Trojan war; but it probably belongs to 
the time of the later Roman empire. 

DiDACHfi, one of the first Christian documents, written early in the 
2nd century. The text was lost; but it was found again by Philo- 
theos Briennios, Patriarch of Constantinople, in 1883. Its full 
title is : Aifaxft TUV 8<b$cica t A.vwrr6\w ; that is, Teaching of the Twelve 

Dfarfys SALVTUS J^LIANUS, bought the Roman empire of the 
praetorian guards, when they put up the empire for sale after the 
death of Pertinax, A.D. 193. After reigning two months, he was 
murdered by the soldiers when Sevenis was marching against 
the city. 

DlDfl, also called Elissa, the reputed founder of Carthage. She 
was daughter of the Tyrian king Belus, and sister of Pygmalion, 
who succeeded to the crown after the death of his father. Dido was 
married to her wealthy uncle, Acerbas, who was murdered by Pyg- 
malion. Upon this Dido secretly sailed from Tyre with his treasures, 
accompanied by some noble Tynans, and passed over to Africa. Here 


she purchased as much land as might be enclosed with the hide of 
a bull, but she ordered the hide to be cut up into the thinnest possible 
strips, and with them she surrounded a spot, on which she built a 
citadel called Byrsa (from j3tf/wu, i .6. the hide of a bull) . Around this 
fort the city of Carthage arose. The neighbouring king, Hiarbas, 
jealous of the prosperity of the new city, demanded the hand of 
Dido in marriage, threatening Carthage with war in case of refusal. 
Dido had vowed eternal fidelity to her dead husband; but as the 
Carthaginians expected her to comply with the demands of Hiarbas, 
she pretended to yield, and under pretence of soothing the manes 
of Acerbas by expiatory sacrifices, she erected a funeral pile, on 
which she stabbed herself in 
she was worshipped by the 
inserted in his Aeneid the legend of Did 
According to the common chronology, there was an interval of more 
than 300 years between the capture of Troy (1184 B.C.) and the 
foundation of Carthage (853 B.C.) ; but Virgil makes Dido a contempo- 
rary of Aeneas, with whom she falls in love on his arrival in Africa. 
When Aeneas hastened to seek the new home which the gods had 
promised him. Dido, in despair, destroyed herself on a funeral pile. 


DlGENTlA. (Licenxa), a small stream in Latium, cool and clear, 
flowing into the Anio, through the Sabine farm of Horace. 

DI iNDfcras, heroes raised to the rank of deities after death, 
and regarded as patrons of their country. These deities, male or 
female, presided over man from birth to death. Their names were 
proper names, though they are but words descriptive of the function 
which the deity performed or presided over. Yet they have no 
mythology attached to them, though they were worshipped with 
prayer and sacrifice. 

DINARCHXJS, the last and least important of the 10 Attic orators, 
was born at Corinth, about 361 B.C. He belonged to the friends of 
Fhocion and the Macedonian party. Only 3 of his speeches have 
come down to us. 

DINDYMUS or DIND^MA, mountain in Phrygia, on the frontiers 
of Galatia, near the town Pessinus, sacred to Cybele, the mother of 
the gods, who is hence called DindymSne". 

DiNOCRXxfis, Greek architect, flourished 4th cent. B.C. He is 
said to have restored the temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 

DIocLfiTUlNUS, VJtL&Rlus, Roman emperor, A.D. 284-305, was 
born near Salona, in Dakoatia, in 245, of most obscure parentage. 
On the death of Numerianus, he was proclaimed emperor by the 
troops, 284. That he might more successfully repel the barbarians, 
he associated with himself Maximianus, who was invested with the 
title of Augustus, 286. Subsequently (292) the empire was again 
divided. Constantius ChJorus and Galerius were proclaimed Caesars, 
and the government of the Roman world was divided between the 
2 Augusti and the 2 Caesars. Diocletian governed the East; but 
after an anxious reign of 21 years, he longed for repose. Accordingly 


on the ist of May 305, he abdicated at Nicomedia. Diocletian 
retired to his native Dalmatia, and passed the remaining 8 years 
of his life near Salona. He died 313. Diocletian persecuted the 
Christians (303), to which he was instigated by his colleague Galerius. 
Consult Gibbon, Decline and Fail, and GwatMn, Early Church 
History, vol. ii. 

DI#D6RUS, sumamed Siculus, of Agyrium, in Sicily, celebrated 
historian, was a contemporary of Julius Caesar and of Augustus. 
In order to collect materials for his history, he travelled over a great 
part of Europe and Asia, and lived a long time at Rome. His work 
was entitled Bibliotheca Historica (The Historical Library), and was 
a universal history, embracing the period from the earliest mythical' 
ages down to the beginning of Caesar's Gallic wars. Of the 40 books 
into which the work was divided, 15 have come down to us entire. 
Of the rest, only fragments have been preserved. [Text, with 
translation by C. H. Oldfather, in Loeb Library.] As an authority 
he cannot be relied upon. 

DISofcTUs, a Stoic philosopher, and a teacher of Cicero, in whose 
house he died, 59 B.C. 

DftteftNfts. i. OF APOLLONIA, in Crete, Ionic philosopher, and 
a pupil of Anaximenes, lived in the 5th century B.C. 2. THE 
BABYLOJTIAN, Stoic philospher, was a pupil of Chrysippus, and 
succeeded Zeno of Tarsus as the head of the Stoic school at Athens. 
He was one of the 3 ambassadors sent by the Athenians to Rome in 
155 B.C. 3. THB CYNIC, was born at Sinope, in Pontus, about 
412 B.C. His youth was spent in extravagance; but at Athens his 
attention was arrested by the character of Antisthenes, and he be- 
came distinguished by his austerity and moroseness. He wore 
coarse clothing, lived on the plainest food, slept in porticoes or in 
the streets; and finally, according to the common story, took up his 
residence in a huge jar belonging to the Metroum, or shrine of the 
Mother of the Gods. On a voyage to Aegina he was taken prisoner 
by pirates, and carried to Crete to be sold as a slave. He was 
purchased by Xeniades, of Corinth, who gave Mm his freedom, and 
entrusted him with the care of his children. During his residence at 
Corinth his celebrated interview with Alexander the Great is said to 
have taken place. The conversation between them began by the' 
king's saving, 'I am Alexander the Great 1 ; to which the philosopher 
replied, And I am Diogenes the Cynic.' Alexander then asked 
whether he could oblige him in any way, and received no answer, 
except, 'Yes; you can stand out of the sunshine.' We are further 
told that Alexander admired Diogenes so much that he said, 'If 
I were not Alexander, I should wish to be Diogenes.' Diogenes died 
at Corinth, at the age of nearly 90, 323 B.C. C/. J. B. Mayor, Sketch 
of Ancient Philosophy, pp. 36 sqq. 4. LABRTTUS, of LaSrte, in Cilicia, 
probably lived in the 2nd century after Christ. He wrote the Lives 
of the Philosophers in 10 books, an uncritical but valuable work which 
is still extant. [Text, with translation by R. D. Hicks, in Loeb 
Library; and see The Book of Diogenes Laertius by R. Hope, 


E, 5 small islands in the Adriatic Sea, N. of the 
promontory Garganum, in Apulia, named after DIOMEDES. The 
largest of these, called Diomedea Insula or Trimerus (San Domenico), 
was the place where Julia, the granddaughter of Augustus, died. 

DIdMEDfis. i. Son of Tydeus and Derpyle, whence he is con- 
stantly called TydldSs, succeeded Adrastus as king of Argos. 
Homeric Story. Tydeus fell in the expedition against Thebes, 
while his son Diomedes was yet a boy; but Diomedes was afterwards 
one of the Epigoni who took Thebes. He went to Troy with So 
ships, and was, next to Achilles, the bravest hero in the Greek army. 
He enjoyed the especial protection of Athena. See Homer's Iliad. 
Later Stories. Diomedes and Ulysses carried off the palladium from 
the city of Troy, since it was believed that Troy could not be taken 
so long as the palladium was within its walls. After the capture of 
Troy, he returned to Argos, where he found his wife Aegiale living 
in adultery with Hippolytus, or, according to others, with Cometes 
or Cyllabarus. This misfortune befell Him through the anger of 
Aphrodite. He therefore quitted Argos, and went to Aetolia. He 
subsequently attempted to return to Argos; but on his way home 
a storm threw him on the coast of Daunia, in Italy. He married 
Euippe, the daughter of Daunius, and settled in Daunia, where he 
died at an advanced age. He was buried in one of the islands off 
Cape Garganum, which were called after him the Diomedeau Islands. 
His companions were inconsolable at his loss, and were metamorphosed 
into birds (aves Diomedeae}. 2. King of Thrace, who threw way- 
farers to his man-eating horses (Eur. Ale. 483). 

DION, a Syracusan, son of Hipparinus, and a relation of Dionysius, 
who employed "hi in many services of trust and confidence. On the 
visit of Plato to Syracuse, Dion became an ardent disciple of the 
philosopher. When the younger Dionysius succeeded his fatiaer, 
Dion, aided by Plato, endeavoured to withdraw hj-m from his vicious 
courses, but failed, and was banished. He then retired to Athens, 
Plato visited Syracuse a third time, that he might secure the recall 
of Dion ; but failing in this, Dion determined on expelling the tyrant 
by force. In this he succeeded; but since his own conduct against 
the Syracusans was equally tyrannical, he was assassinated in his 
own house, 353 B.C. 

DXoN CASS!US, Roman historian, son of a senator; born, A.D. 155, 
at Nicaea, in Bithynia. He held several important offices under 
Commodus, Caracalla, and Alexander Severus, 180-229, and after- 
wards retired to Campania; subsequently he returned to Nicaea, 
his native town, where he passed the remainder of his life, and died. 
The chief work of Dion was a History of Rome, in 80 books, from the 
landing of Aeneas in Italy to A.D. 229. From the 36th book to the 
54th the work is extant complete, and embraces the history from the 
wars of Lucullus and Cn. Pompey against Mithridates, down to the 
death of Agrippa, 10 B.C. [See text, and translation by E. Gary, 
in Loeb Library.] Of the remaining books we have only the epi- 
tomes made by Xiphilinus and others. 

DION CHRYSOSTSMUS, that is, the golden-mouthed, a surname 


given him on account of his eloquence, was born at Prusa, in Bithynia, 
about the middle of the ist century of our era. The emperors 
Nerva and Trajan entertained for him the highest esteem. He was 
the most eminent of the Greek rhetoricians and sophists in the tune 
of the Roman empire. There are extant 80 of his orations; they 
are essays on political, moral, and philosophical subjects. [See 
text, and translation by J. W. Cohoon, in Loeb Library.] 

DIONE, a female Titan, beloved by Zeus, by whom she became the 
mother of Aphrodite, who is hence called Dionaea, and sometimes 
even Dione. Hence Caesar is called Dionaeus Caesar, because he 
claimed descent from Venus, the Latin counterpart of Aphrodite. 
DIONYSIA, festivals held at Athens in honour of Dionysus. 
DlfiNYslus. i. THE ELDER, tyrant of Syracuse, son of Her- 
mocrates, born 430 B.C. Prompted by ambition, and possessing 
natural talent, he gradually raised himself to distinction; and in 
405 B.C., though only 25 years of age, was appointed sole general at 
Syracuse, with full powers. From this period we may date the 
commencement ofr his reign, or tyranny, which continued without 
interruption for 38 years. He strengthened himself by the increase 
of the army, and by converting the island "Ortygia into a fortified 
residence for himself. His plans embraced the subjugation of 
Sicily, the humiliation of Carthage, and the annexation of part of 
Southern Italy to his dominions. In all these projects he succeeded. 
During the last 20 years of his life he possessed power and influence 
far exceeding that enjoyed by any other Greek before the time of 
Alexander. His death took place at Syracuse, 367, in the middle of 
a war with Carthage. The character of Dionysius has been drawn 
in the blackest colours by many ancient writers; he appears to have 
become a type of a tyrant, in its worst sense. He built the terrible 
prison called X&utumiae, which was cut out of the solid rock in 
the part of Syracuse named Epipolae. Dionysius frequently enter- 
tained at his court men distinguished in literature and philosophy, 
among whom was the philosopher Plato. He was himself a poet] 
and contended for the prize of tragedy at Athens. 2. THE YOUNGER, 
son of the preceding, succeeded his father as tyrant of Syracuse, 
367 B.C. He was at this time under 30 years of age; he had been 
brought up at his father's court in idleness and luxury. The 
ascendancy which Dion, and through his means Plato, obtained 
for a time over his mind was undermined by flatterers and the 
companions of his pleasures. Dion, who had been banished by 
Dionysius, returned to Sicily in 357, at the head of a small force. 
Dionysius sailed away to Italy, and thus lost the sovereignty after 
a reign of 12 years, 356. He now repaired to Locri, the native city 
of his mother, Doris, where he was received in the most friendly 
manner; but he made himself tyrant of the city, and treated the 
inhabitants with cruelty. After remaining at Locri 10 years, he 
obtained possession again of Syracuse, where he reigned for the next 
3 years until Timoleon came to Sicily to deliver the Greek cities 
there from the tyrants. He surrendered the citadel to Timoleon, on 
condition of being allowed to depart in safety to Corinth; 343. Here 


he spent the remainder of his life in a private condition; and accord- 
ing to some writers was reduced to support himself by keeping a 
school. 3. OF HAUCARNASSUS, a celebrated Greek rhetorician, 
lived many years at Rome in the time of Augustus, and died 7 B.C. 
His principal work was a history of Rome in 22 books, containing 
the history of the city from the mythical times down to 264 B.C. 
Of this work only the first 1 1 books have come down to us. [Roman 
Antiquities, in the Loeb Library.] Dionysius was deficient both as 
a historian and as a statesman. He also wrote various rhetorical 
and critical works, which abound with exquisite remarks and 
criticisms on the works of the classical writers of Greece. Of these 
several have been preserved. 

DIflNYSus, also called BACCHUS, the god of wine. He was the 
son of Zeus and Semele, the daughter of Cadmus of Thebes. Before 
his birth, Semele was persuaded by Hera, who appeared to her in 
disguise, to request the father of the gods to appear to her in the 
same glory in which he approached his own wife Hera. Zeus un- 
willingly complied, and appeared to her in thunder and lightning, 
Semele, being seized by the flames, gave premature birth to a child ; 
but Zeus saved the child, sewed >im up in his thigh, and thus pre- 
served him till he came to maturity. After his birth Dionysus was 
brought up by the nymphs of Mt. Nysa. [HYADES.] When he had 
grown up, Hera drove him mad. He went to Egypt, thence pro- 
ceeded- through Syria, then traversed all Asia, teaching the in- 
habitants of the different countries of Asia the cultivation of the 
vine and introducing among them the elements of civilization. The 
most famous part of his wanderings in Asia is his expedition to 
India. On his return to Europe, he passed through Thrace, but was 
ill received by Lycurgus, king of the Edones. He then returned to 
Thebes, where he compelled the women to quit their houses, and to 
celebrate Bacchic festivals on Mt. Cithaeron. [PENTBSUS.] Dionysus 
next went to Argos, where the people refused to acknowledge hi 
but after punishing the women with frenzy, he was recognized as 
a god. His last feat was performed on a voyage from Icaria to 
Naxos. He hired a ship which belonged to Tyrrhenian pirates; but 
the men, instead of landing at Naxos, .steered towards Asia, to sell 
him there as a slave. Thereupon the god changed the mast and 
oars into serpents, and himself into a lion; ivy grew around the 
vessel, and the sound of flutes was heard on every side; the sailors 
were seized with madness, leaped into the sea, and were meta- 
morphosed into dolphins. After he had thus gradually established 
his divine nature throughout the world, he took his mother out of 
Hades, called her ThyonS, and rose with her into Olympus. Various 
mythological beings are described as the offspring of Dionysus; but 
among the women who won his love none is more famous **>*> 
Ariadne. In Homer Dionysus does not appear as one of the great 
divinities; he is simply described as the god who teaches man the 
preparation of wine* As the cultivation of the vine spread, in 
Greece, the worship of Dionysus likewise spread; and after the time 
of Alexander's expedition to India, the celebration of the Bacchic 


festivals assumed more and more their wild and dissolute character. 
Dionysus may be taken as the representative of the productive 
and intoxicating power of nature. On account of the close connec- 
tion between the cultivation of the soil and the earlier stages of 
civilization, he is regarded as a lawgiver and a lover of peace. As 
the Greek drama had grown out of the dithyrambic choruses at the 
festival of Dionysus, he was also regarded as the god of tragic art. 
In the earliest times the Graces or Charites were the companions of 
Dionysus, but afterwards we find him accompanied in his expeditions 
and travels by Bacchantic women, called Lenae, Maenades, Thyiades, 
Mimallones, Clodones, Bassarae or Bassarides, all of whom are 
represented in works of art as raging with madness or enthusiasm, 
their heads thrown backwards, with dishevelled hair, and carrying 
in their hands thyrsus staffs (entwined with ivy, and headed with 
pine-cones), cymbals, swords, or serpents. Siieni, Pans, satyrs, 
centaurs, and other beings of a like kind, are also the constant 
companions of the god. The animal most commonly sacrificed to 
Dionysus was the ram. Among the things sacred to him, we may 
notice the vine, ivy, laurel, and asphodel : the dolphin, serpent, tiger, 
lynx, panther, and ass. In works of art he appears as a youthful god. 
The form of his body is manly, but approaches the female form by 
its softness and roundness. The expression of the countenance is 
languid and his attitude is easy, like that of a man who is absorbed 
in sweet thoughts, or slightly intoxicated. See Louis Dyer, The Gods 
of Greece, chaps, iii, iv; Prof. L. Campbell, Religion in Greek Litera- 
ture; Sandys, Introduction to the Bacchae of Euripides. 

DIOPHANTUS, Greek mathematician, of Alexandria, flourished in 
4th cent. B.C. 

DISscftRlpfis PsDidus or PEDANIUS, of Anazarba, in Cilicia, a 
Greek physician, who probably lived in the 2nd century of the 
Christian era, the author of an extant work on Mater ia Medica. 

DIosctJRi, that is, sons of Zeus, the well-known heroes Castor and 
Pollux, called by the Greeks Polydeuces. The two brothers -were 
sometimes called Castores by the Romans. According to Homer 
they were the sons of Leda and Tyndareus, king of Lacedaemon, 
and consequently brothers of Helen. Hence they are often called 
by the patronymic Tyndiridae. Castor was famous for his skill in 
'taming horses, and Pollux for his skill in boxing. Although they 
were buried, says Homer, yet they came to life every other day, 
and they enjoyed divine honours. According to other traditions, 
both were the sons of Zeus and Leda. [LEDA.] According to others, 
again, Pollux and Helen only were children of Zeus, and Castor was 
the son of Tyndareus. Hence Pollux was immortal, while Castor was 
subject to old age and death like other mortals. The fabulous life 
of the Dioscuri is marked by 3 great events: (i) Their expedition 
against Athens, where they rescued their sister Helen, who had 
been carried off by Theseus, and placed in Aphidnae, which they 
took, (a) Their part in the expedition of the Argonauts, during 
which Pollux killed, in a boxing-match, Amycus, king of the 
Bebryces. During the Argonautic expedition they founded tixe 


town of Dioscurias, in Colchis. (3) Their battle with the sons of 
Aphareus, Idas and Lynceus. Castor, tke mortal, fell by the hands 
of Idas, but Pollux slew Lynceus, and Zeus lolled Idas by a flash of 
lightning. At the request of Pollux, Zeus allowed him to share his 
brother's fate, and to live alternately one day under the earth, 
and the other in the heavenly abodes of the gods. According to a 
different form of the story, Zeus rewarded the attachment of the 
two brothers by placing them among the stars as Gemini. These 
heroic youths received divine honours at Sparta, from whence their 
worship spread over other parts of Greece, and over Sicily and Italy. 
They were worshipped more especially as the protectors of sailors, 
for Poseidon had given them power over winds and waves. Hence 
they are called by Horace, Fratres Helena*, Ittcida sidera. 
('brothers of Helen, clear-shining stars'). They were regarded as 
presidents of the public games, as the inventors of the war dance, 
and the patrons of poets and bards. They are usually represented 
in works of art as youthful horsemen, with egg-shaped helmets, 
crowned with stars, and with spears in their hands. At Rome, the 
worship of the Dioscuri was introduced at an early time. They 
were believed to have assisted the Romans against the Latins in the 
battle of Lake Regillus; and the dictator A. Postumius Albinus 
during the battle vowed a temple to them. This temple was 
erected in the forum, opposite the temple of Vesta. The equites 
regarded the Dioscuri as their patrons. See Rendel Harris, The 
Cult of the Heavenly Twins. 

DiorfMA, the wise woman of Mantinea, mentioned in Plato's 
Symposium as one of the philosophic instructors of Socrates. She 
is represented as discoursing to him on the nature of love. 

DiPBrfcLUS, poet of the new Attic comedy, contemporary of 

DIRAB, a name of the Puriae. [EUMBNTDBS.] 

DIRCS, wife of Lycus, who married her, after divorcing his former 
wife Anti6p. AntiOpS was treated cruelly by Dirce but was 
avenged by her sons, Amphion and Zethus. [AMPHION.] The 
adjective Dircaeus is frequently used as equivalent to Boeotian. 

DIs, a name sometimes given to Pluto. [HADES.] 

DlTH-frRAMBUS, a hymn sung at festivals of Dionysus, to the 
accompaniment of music. Cf. Jebb, Greek Classical Poetry, 
lecture vi. 

Drvfco, leader of the Helvetians against L. Cassius in 107 B.C., 
was at the head of the embassy sent to Julius Caesar, nearly 50 
years later, 58 B.C., when he was preparing to attack the 

DiviTiXcus, an Aeduan noble and brother of Dumnorix, was a 
warm adherent of the Romans and of Caesar. [DuMNORix.j 

DrvtottRUM (Metx)> subsequently Mediomatrici, and later Metis 
or Mettis, capital of the Mediomatrici in Gallia Belgica. 

DO'DO'NA, the most ancient oracle in Greece, situated in Epirns; 


founded by the Pelasgians, and dedicated to Zeus. The responses 
of the oracle were given from lofty oaks or beech trees. The will 
of the god was declared by the wind rustling through the trees, and 
in order to render the sounds more distinct, brazen vessels were 
suspended on the branches of the trees. These sounds were inter- 
preted in early times by men, but afterwards by aged women. 
The priests were called Selli or Helli. It has been suggested, as 
the result of archaeological investigation (1929), that there was no 
temple proper, but the centre of the cult of Zeus at Dodona was 
simply the altar, surrounded by tripods. The oracle of Dodona 
had less influence in historical times than in the heroic age, and was 
supplanted to a great extent by the oracle of Delphi. -See Percy 
Gardner, New Chapters in Greek History, chap. xiv. 

D8LABBLLA, celebrated patrician family of the Cornelia gens. 
Those most deserving of notice are : i . CN. CORNELIUS DOLABBLLA, 
consul 8 1 B.C., whom the young Julius Caesar accused in 77 of 
extortion in his province. 2. CN. CORNELIUS DOLABBLLA, praetor 
urbanus 81. With Verres as his legate, he plundered his province 
in Cilicia, and upon his return was accused, betrayed by Verres, 
and condemned. 3. PUBLIUS CORNELIUS, the son-in-law of Cicero, 
whose daughter Tullia he married in 51. He was one of the most 
profligate men of his age. On the breaking out of the civil war he 
joined Caesar and fought on his side at the battle of Pharsalia (48), 
and was raised by hirn to the consulship in 44. He afterwards 
received from Antony the province of Syria. On his way to his 
province he plundered the cities of Greece and Asia Minor, in conse- 
quence of which the senate sent against him Cassius, who .took 
Caesarea, in which Dolabella had taken refuge. He then commited 
suicide, 43. 

DO'L&'N, a Trojan spy, *\* by Diomedes. See Homer, Iliad, 
bk. x. 

DSLflpES, a powerful people in Thessaly, dwelt on the Enipeus, 
and fought before Troy. 

DtiMlxIlNUS, or with his full name T. FLAVIUS DOMITIANUS 
AUGUSTUS, Roman emperor, A.D. 81-96, was the younger son of 
Vespasian, and was born at Rome A.D. 51. During the reigns of 
Vespasian (69-79) and of his brother Titus (79-81) he was not 
allowed to take any part in public affairs. During the first few 
years of his reign his government was much better than had been 
expected. But his conduct was soon changed for the worse. His 
wars were mostly unfortunate. In 83 he undertook an expedition 
against the Chatti, which was attended with no result, though on 
his return to, Rome in the following year, he celebrated a triumph, 
and assumed the name of Gennanicus. In 85 Agricola, whose 
success and merits excited his jealousy, was recalled to Rome. 
[AGRICOLA.] After his war with the Datians, which terminated 
very unfavourably [DBCBBALUS], he gave way to cruelty and tyranny. 
The silent fear which prevailed in Rome and Italy during the latter 
years of Domitian's reign is described by Tacitus in the introduction 
to his Life of Agricola, and his vices and tyranny are exposed by 


the satire of Juvenal. He was at length murdered by the con- 
nivance of his wife, Domitia. Cf. Merivale, History of the Romans 
under th* Empire, vol. vii. 

^s, a celebrated grammarian, who taught at Rome in the 
middle of the 4th century, and was the preceptor of St. Jerome. 
His most famous work is a system of Latin Grammar. 

DORIS, i. Daughter of Oceanns and Thetis, wife of her brother 
Nereus, and mother of the Nereides. The Latin poets sometimes 
use the name of this divinity for the sea itself. 2. One of the 
Nereides, daughter of the preceding. 

D&RIS. i. A small and mountainous country in Greece, formerly 
called Dryopis, bounded by Thessaly on the N., by Aetolia on the 
W., by Locris on the S., and by Phocis on the E. It contained 
4 towns, Bourn, Citinium, Erineus, and Pindus, which formed 
the Dorian Tetrapolis. The country was the home of the Dorians 
(Dores), one of the great Hellenic races, who conquered Pelopon- 
nesus. It was related that Aegimius, king of the Dorians, had been 
driven from his dominions by the Lapithae, but was reinstated by 
Hercules; that the children of Hercules hence took refuge in this 
land when they had been expelled from Peloponnesus; and that 
it was to restore them to their rights that the Dorians invaded 
Peloponnesus. Accordingly, the conquest of Peloponnesus by the 
Dorians is usually called ' the Return of the Heraclidae.' [HERACLI- 
DAE.] The Dorians were divided into three tribes: the Hytteis, 
Pamphyli, and Dymanes. They were the ruling class throughout 
Peloponnesus; the old inhabitants were reduced to slavery, or 
became subjects of the Dorians under the name of Perioeci.' 2. 
District in Asia Minor consisting of the Dorian settlements on the 
coast of Caria and the neighbouring islands. Six of these towns 
formed a league, called the Dorian HexapbHs, consisting of Lindus, 
lalysus, and Camlrus in the island of Rhodes, the island of Cos, and 
Cnidus and Halicamassus on the mainland. 

DO'RISCUS, town in Thrace at the mouth of the Hebrus. Xerxes 
reviewed his vast forces on the plain of Doriscus. 

D6RUS, son of Helen, and mythical ancestor of the Dorians. ' 

DOSSBNNUS, FXBlus, or DORSBNTTS, ancient Latin comic dramatist, 
censured by Horace for the buffoonery of his characters. 

DRACHMA (Greek), weight and coin (value .about 9$**.). 

DRXcON, the anther of the first written code of laws at Athens. 
In this code he affixed the penalty of death to almost all 
crimes which gave occasion to the remark that his laws were 
written not in ink, but in blood. His legislation is placed in 
621 B.C. After the legislation of Solon (594), Dracon's laws fell 
into disuse. 

DRANGUNA, part of Ariana, bounded by Gedrosia, Carmania, 
Arachosia, and Aria. It sometimes formed a separate satrapy, 
but was more usually united to the satrapies either of Archosia or of 


Gedrosia, or of Aria. In the N. of the country dwelt the Drangae. 
The Ariaspae inhabited the S. part of the province. 

DRB*PANUM, that is, a sickle, i. Also Drepana, more rarely 
Drepane (Trapani), a seaport town in the N.W. corner of Sicily, 
founded by the Carthaginians. It was here that Anchises died, 
according to Virgil. 2. Also Drepane, a town in Bithynia, the birth- 
place of Helena, mother of Constantino the Great, in whose honour 
it was called Helenopolis, and made an important place. 

DRUENT!A (Durance), rapid river in Gallia Narbonensis, rising in 
the Alps, and flowing into the Rh6ne near Avenio (Avignon). 

DRUSILLA. i. Mother of Tiberius. [LiviA, 2.] 2. Daughter of 
Germanicus and Agrippina, lived in incestuous intercourse with 
her brother Caligula, who deified her at her decease, A.D. 38. 
3. Daughter of Herodes Agrippa I, king of the Jews, married Felix. 

DRtJsus, a distinguished family of the Livia gens. i. M. Lrvius 
DRUSUS, tribune of the plebs with C. Gracchus, 122 B.C. He 
adhered to the aristocracy, and gained popularity for the senate by 
proposing almost the same measures as he had opposed when 
brought forward by Gracchus. He was consul, in. 2. M. Lrvius 
DRUSUS, son of No. i, an eloquent orator, was tribune of the plebs, 
91 . Although, he belonged to the aristocratical party, he meditated 
extensive changes in the Roman state. He carried some portion of 
his scheme; but eventually his measures became unpopular. The 
senate, perceiving the dissatisfaction of all parties, voted that the 
laws of Drusus, being carried against the auspices, were null and 
void. Drusus now organized a conspiracy against the government; 
but one evening, as he was entering his house, he was stabbed. 
The death of Drusus destroyed the hopes of the Socii, to whom he 
had promised the Roman citizenship, and was followed by the Social 
War. 3. LIVIUS DRUSUS CLAUDIANUS, fattier of Livia, the mother 
of Tiberius. He was one of the gens Claudia, and was adopted by a 
Livius Drusus. Being proscribed by the triumvirs (42), he put an 
end to his own life. 4. NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS, commonly called 
by the moderns Drusus Senior, to distinguish him from No. 5, was 
the son of Tib. Claudius Nero and Livia, and younger brother of 
Tiberius. He was born in the house of Augustus three months 
after the marriage of Livia and Augustus, 38 B.C. Drusus was 
more liked by the people than was his brother. He married 
Antonia, the daughter of the triumvir, and was greatly trusted by 
Augustus. He carried on the war against the Germans, and in the 
course of 4 campaigns (12-9 B.C.) he advanced as far as the Albis 
(Elbe). On the return of the army from the Elbe to the Rhine, he 
died through a fall from his horse. 5. DRUSUS CAESAR, commonly 
called by modern writers Drusus Junior, was the son of the 
emperor Tiberius by his ist wife, Vipsania. He married Livia, 
the sister of Germanicus. He was poisoned by Sejanus, the 
favourite of Tiberius, who aspired to the empire, 23 A.D. 



DRYAS, father of the Thracian in-ng Lycurgus, who is hence called 

DR^MUS. i. Or Drymaea, a town in Phocis. 2. A strong place 
in Attica, on the frontiers of Boeotia. 

DRYMUSSA, island off Ionia, opposite Clazomenae. 

DROOPS, daughter of king Dryops, was beloved by Apollo, by 
whom she became the mother of Amphissus. She was afterwards 
carried off by the Hamadryades, and became a nymph. 

DR?5PBS, a Pelasgic people who dwelt first in Thessaly. 

DtflLlus, consul 260 B.C., gained a victory over the Carthaginian 
fleet by means of grappling-irons. This was the first naval victory 
that the Romans had ever gained, and the memory of it was per- 
petuated by a column which was erected in the forum, and adorned 
with the beaks of the conquered ships (Columna Rostrata) . 

DUMNO"RIX, chieftain of the Aedui. He conspired against the 
Romans, 58 B.C., but was pardoned by Caesar owing to the en- 
treaties of his brother, Divitiacus. When Caesar was going to 
Britain, 54 B.C., he wished Dumnorix to accompany him, but 
Dumnorix fled and was killed. 

DttRlus (Duero, Douro), one of the chief rivers of Spain, near 
Numantia, and flowing into the Atlantic. 

DuROCORTdRUM (Rhoims), the capital of the REMI. 

DUROVERNTJM or DARVSRNUM (Canterbury), a town of the Cantii 
in Britain, afterwards called Cantuaria. 

DYRRHACHlxiM (Dwcutxo), formerly called Epidamnus, a town in 
Greek Illyria, on a peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. It was founded 
by the Corcyraeans, and received the name of Epidamnus ; but the 
Romans changed it into Dyrrhachium. 

EBORACUM (York), a town in Britain, made a Roman station bv 
Agricola, and became the chief Roman settlement in the island, it 
was both a municipium and a colony, and the residence of the 
Roman emperors when they visited Britain. Here the emperors 
Septimius Severus and Constantius Chlorns died. 

EBUR^NES, a German people who crossed the Rhine and settled 
in Gallia Belgica, between the Rhine and the Mosa (Maas). 

fistteus or fisflsus (Ivixa), island off the E. coast of Spain, 
reckoned by some writers among the Baleares, 

ECBATXNA (Hamadan), great city, situated near Mt. Orontes, 
.was the capital of the Median kingdom, and afterwards the summer 
residence of the Persian and Parthian kings. Cf. Herodotus, bk. i. 

ECCLBSIA, the general assemply of the citizens of Athens, in which 
they met to discuss and determine upon matters of public interest. 
The place in which the assemblies were anciently held was the Agora. 
Afterwards they were transferred to the Pnyx, and at last to the 
great theatre of Dionysus. The right of convening the Ecclesia 


was vested in the prytanes or presidents of the Boule. [BouLB.] 
The Ecclesia met ordinarily 4 times in every prytany. The Ec- 
clesia alone could pass laws. 

, a small river in Macedonia, flowing through Myg- 
donia, and falling into the Thermaic Gulf. 

s, king of Arcadia, slew HYIXUS in single combat, 

ECHIDNA, a monster, half woman and half serpent, became by 
Typhon the mother of the Chimaera, of the many-headed dog 
Orthus, of the hundred-headed dragon who guarded the apples of 
the Hesperides, of the Colchian dragon, of the Sphinx, of Cerberus 
(hence called Echidntus canis), of Scylla, of Gorgon, of the Lernaean 
Hydra (Echidna Lemata), of the eagle which consumed the liver of 
Prometheus, and of the Nemean lion. She was killed in her sleep 
by Argus. 

CH!NXDBS, a group of small islands at the mouth of the Achelous, 
belonging to Acarnania, said to have been formed by the alluvial 
deposits of the Achelous. They appear to have derived their name 
from their resemblance to the echinus or sea-urchin. The largest 
of these islands was named Dullchtum, and belonged to the kingdom 
of Ulysses, who is hence called Dulichius. 

cHlo*N. i. One of the heroes who sprang up from the dragon's 
teeth sown by Cadmus. He was the husband of Agave and father 
of Pentheus, who is hence called Echldnldes. 2. Son of Hermes and 
Antianlra, took part in the Calydonian hunt, and in the expedition 
of the Argonauts. 

ECHO, a nymph who used to keep Hera engaged by incessantly 
talking to her, while Zeus was sporting with the Nymphs. Hera, 
however, found out the trick that was played upon her, and punished 
Echo by changing her into an echo. Echo in this state fell in love 
with Narcissus; but as her love was not returned, she pined away in 
grief, so that there remained of her nothing but her voice. 

ECLECTICS (lit. 'Choosers']* philosophers attached to no definite 

. EDBSSA, ancient city in the N. of Mesopotamia, the capital of 
OsroSne, and the seat of a kingdom from 137 B.C. to A.D. 216. 

DBTANI or SBDBTANI, a people in Hispania Tarraconensis, E. of 
of the Celtiberi (modern S. Aragon, province of Tewel). 

EDCNI or EDCNBS, a Thracian people celebrated for their orgiastic 
worship of Bacchus; whence Edonis in the Latin poets signifies a 
female Bacchante, and Edonus is used as equivalent to Thracian. 

B*TION, king of Theb5, in Cilicia, and father of Andromache. 

EofolA. [ABGBRIA.] 


EoNlTlA, town of Apulia, on the coast, called GNATXA by Horace. 
It was celebrated for its miraculous stone or altar, which of itself 
set on fire frankincense and wood ; a prodigy which afforded amuse- 
ment to Horace and his friends, who looked upon it as a mere trick. 


Egnatia was situated on the high road from Rome to Brundisium, 
which from Egnatia to Brundisium bore the name of the Via Egnatia. 
The continuation of this road on the other side of the Adriatic from 
Dyrrhachium to Byzantium also bore the name of Via Egnatia. 
It was the great military road between Italy and the E. 


ElRfiNfi. [IRENE.]' 

EISPHORA (efc^opd) income tax (Athenian). 

LABA, ancient city on the coast of Aeolis, in Asia Minor, subse- 
quently served as the harbour of Pergamus. 

ELAGABALUS, Roman emperor, A.D. 218-22, was born at Emesa 
about 205, and was called Elagabalus, or Heliogabalus, because in 
childhood he was made priest of the Syro-Phoenician Sun-god at 
Emesa, bearing that name. He obtained the purple at the age of 
13, by the intrigues of his grandmother Julia Maesa, who gave out 
that he was the son of Caracalla. On his accession he took the name 
of M. AureUus Antoninus. He was a prince of incredible folly, super- 
stition, and vice. He was qla*" by the soldiers in 222, and was 
succeeded by his cousin Alexander Severus. 

, an Athenian festival in honour of Artemis. 
. i. Town in Phocis, situated near the Cephissus. 
2. Town in Pelasgiotis, in Thessaly, near Gonni. 3. Or Elatria, 
town in Epirus, near the sources of the Coc^tus. 

&LAXUS, one of the Lapithae, and father of Caeneus. 

ELECTKA, ie. the bright or brilliant one. i. Daughter of Oceanus 
and Tethys, mother of Iris and the Harpies. 2. One of the 7 
Pleiades. 3. Daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, also 
called Laodice, sister of Iphigenia and Orestes. After the murder 
of her father by her mother, she saved the life of her young brother 
Orestes. Electra then excited him to avenge the death of Agamem- 
non, and assisted him in slaying their mother Clytemnestra. 
[ORESTES.] After the death of the latter, Orestes gave her in marriage 
to his friend Pylades. See Jebb's Introduction to the Electra of 

ELECTRON, son of Perseus and Andromeda, and father of 
Alcmene, wife of Amphitryon; and mother of Hercules. 

ELEPHANTINE, an island in the Nile, with a city of the same name, 
opposite to Syene, and 7 stadia below the little -Cataract, was the 
frontier garrison of Egypt towards Ethiopia, 

ELETJSIS, town and demus of Attica, situated N.W. of Athens, on 
the coast. It possessed a magnificent temple of Demeter, and gave 
its Tiarr>fl to the great festival and mysteries of the Eleusinia. [Ds- 
MBTER.] In 1924 a Btatue of Persephone was unearthed here, 
dating from 500 B.C, See Percy Gardner, New Chapters in Greek 
History, chap. xiii. ... 

fiLEUTHfiRU, a festival held in Samoa* in honour of Eros. 


s, a surname of Jupiter at Rome, because he was invoked 
to send down lightning. 

ELIS, a country on the W. coast of Peloponnesus, bounded by 
Achaia on the N., Arcadia on the E., Messenia on the S., and the 
Ionian Sea on the W. It was divided into 3 parts : i. Elis Proper 
or Hollow Elis, the N. part, watered by the Peneus, of which the 
capital was also called Elis. 2. Pisatis, the middle portion. [PISA.] 
3. Triphylia, the S. portion, of which Pylos was the capital, lying 
between the Alpheus and the Neda. In the heroic times we find the 
kingdom of Nestor and the Pelldae in the S. of Elis; while the N. of 
the country was Inhabited by the Epeans, with whom some Aetolian 
tribes were mingled. On the conquest of Peloponnesus by the 
Heraclidae, the Aetolian chief Oxylus received Ehs as his share of 
the conquest; and it was the union of his Aetolian and Dorian fol- 
lowers with the Epeans which formed the subsequent population of 
the country, under the general name of Eleans. Elis owed its 
importance in Greece to the worship of Zeus at Olympia. [OLYM- 
PIA.] In consequence of this festival being common to the whole of 
Greece, the country of Elis was declared sacred, and its inhabitants 
possessed priestly privileges. 


EixorfA. i. District in the N. of Euboea, with a town of the 
same name: the whole island of Euboea is sometimes called Ellopia. 
.2. Ancient name of the district about Dodona. 

ELPNOR, one of the companions of Ulysses, metamorphosed by 
Circe into swine, and afterwards back into men. Intoxicated with 
wine, Elpenor one day fell asleep on Circe's roof, and broke his 

L$M!XS, district of Susiana, which derived its name from the 
Elymaei or Elymi, a warlike and predatory people. They were 
probably among the most ancient inhabitants of the country N. 
of the head of the Persian Gulf: in the O.T. Susiana is called Elam. 

s, natural son of Anchises, and brother of Eryx; one of 
the Trojans who fled from Troy to Sicily. 

ELYSIUM, the Elysian fields. In Homer Elysium forms no part 
of the realms of the dead; he places it on the W. of the earth, near 
Ocean, and describes it as a happy land, where there is neither snow, 
nor cold, nor rain. Hither favoured heroes, like Menelaus, pass 
without dying, and live happy under the rule of Rhadamantfaus. 
In the Latin poets Elysium is part of the lower world, and the 
residence of the shades of the Blessed. 

MTB%A, district of Macedonia between the Haliacmon and the 
. Axius. The poets give the name of Emathis to the whole of Mace- 
donia, and sometimes even to Thessaly. Cf. Milton's sonnet 'The 
Great Emathian Conqueror' (Alexander the Great). 

EuXxHlDBS, the 9 daughters of Pierus, king of Emathia. 

MSA, or EM!SA, city of Syria, on the E. bank of the Orontes, 
the native city of Elagabalus. 


, philosopher of Agrigentum in Sicily, flourished 
about 444 B.C. He was learned and eloquent; and, on account of 
his success in curing diseases, was reckoned a magician. One 
tradition relates that he threw himself into the names of Mt. Aetna, 
that by his sudden disappearance he might be believed to be a 
god; but it was added that the volcano threw up one of his sandals, 
and thus revealed the manner of his death. His works were all in 
verse; and some fragments of them have come down to us. Empe- 
docles was chosen as a model by Lucretius. The best account 
of this writer is given in Prof. Bumet's Early Greek Philosophy, 
chap, v, where the fragments are translated into English. 

EMPOR!AB (Ampurias), one of the oldest Greek colonies, established 
in the N.E. of Spain. 

EMP&SA, monstrous spectre, which devoured human beings. 

ENcffj.Xpus, son of Tartarus and Ge (Earth), and one of the 
hundred-armed giants who made war upon the gods. He was 
killed by Zeus, who buried him under Mt. Aetna. 

END'&MIO'N, a youth renowned for his beauty and his perpetual 
sleep. As he slept on Mt. Latmus, in Caria, his beauty warmed 
the cold heart of Selene (the Moon), who came down to him, kissed 
him, and lay by his side. His eternal sleep on Latmus is assigned 
to different causes; but it was generally believed that Selene had 
sent him to sleep that she might be able to kiss him. 

N!PEUS, river in Thessaly. Poseidon assumed the form of the 
god of this river in order to obtain possession of Tyro. [TYRO.] 

ENNA or HENNA, an ancient town of the Siculi, in Sicily, on the 
road from <Vfgna. to Agrigentum, said to be the centre of the island. 
It was surrounded by fertile plains and was one of the chief seats 
of the worship of Demeter. According to later tradition, it was in a 
flowery meadow near this place that Pluto carried off Proserpine. 

ENN!US, Q., Roman poet, was born at Rudiae, in Calabria, 
239 B.C. He was a Greek by birth, but a subject of Rome, and 
served in the Roman armies. In 204 Cato, who was then quaestor, 
found Ennius in Sardinia, and brought him in his train to Rome. In 
180 Ennius accompanied M. Fulvius Nobflior during the Aetolian 
campaign, and shared his triumph. Through the son of Nobflior, 
Ennius, when far advanced in life, obtained the rights of a Roman 
citizen. He died 169, at the age of 70, and was buried in the 
sepulchre of the Scipios. Ennius was regarded by the Romans as 
the fether of their poetry, but all his works are lost with the excep- 
tion of a few fragments. His most important work was an epic 
poem in dactylic hexameters, entitled Annales, being a history of 
Rome, from the earliest times to his own day. Cf. Prof. MackaiTs 
Latin Literature, chap, i; Tyrrell, Latin Poetry, pp. 30-5. 

ENN^Dlus, Latin rhetorician and poet 5th century A.D. Cf. 
Dill, Roman Society, p. 326. 

fiNYXiJtus, the Warlike, frequently occurs in the Iliad (never in 
the Odyssey) as an epithet of Ares, the wax god. At a later time 


Enyalius and Ares were distinguished as 2 different gods of war. The 
name is evidently derived from ENYO. 

N?O, the goddess of war, who accompanied Ares in battles. 
Respecting the Roman goddess of war, see BELLONA. 

Eds, in Latin Aurora, the goddess of the dawn, daughter of 
Hyperion and Thia or Euryphassa; or of Pallas, according to Ovid. 
At the close of every night she rose from the couch of her spouse 
Tithonus, and in a chariot drawn by swift horses ascended up to 
heaven from the river Oceanus, to announce the coming light of the 
sun. She carried off several youths distinguished for their beauty, 
such as ORION, CBPHALUS, and TITHONUS, whence she is called by 
Ovid Tithonia conjux. She bore Memnon to Tithbnus. 

6us, the morning star. [LUCIFER.] 

FM!NONDAS, Theban general and statesman, son of Polymnis, 
was born and reared in poverty, though his blood was noble. He 
saved the life of Pelopidas in battle, 385 B.C., and lived in close 
friendship with him afterwards. After the Spartans had been 
expelled from Thebes, 379, Epaminondas took an active part in 
public affairs. He defeated the Spartans at Leuctra (371 B.C.), 
which destroyed the Spartan supremacy in Greece. Four times 
he successfully invaded Peloponnesus at the head of the Theban 
armies. In the last of these campaigns he defeated the Spartans 
at MantinSa; but, in -Hie full career of victory, died. He is said to 
have fallen by the hands of Gryllus, the son of Xenophon. Epa- 
minondas was one of the greatest men of Greece. He raised Thebes 
to the supremacy of Greece, which she lost almost as soon as he died. 
Both in public and'in private life he was distinguished by his integrity. 

P!PHUS, son of Zeus and lo, born on the river Nile. He became 
king of Egypt, and built Memphis. 

fipflus, son of Panopeus, and builder of the Trojan horse, 
i, an Athenian term for youths over 16. 
s, the chief of the 12 Ionian cities on the coast of Asia 
Minor. In the plain beyond its walls stood the celebrated temple 
of Artemis, built in the 6th century B.C. After being burnt down 
by Herostratus in the night on which Alexander the Great was 
born (356 B.C.), it was restored by the joint efforts of all the Ionian 
states, and was one of the wonders of the world. With the rest of 
Ionia, Ephesus fell under the power successively of Croesus, the 
Persians, the Macedonians, and the Romans. It was always very 
flourishing. In the early history of the Christian Church it is con- 
spicuous as having been visited both by St. Paul and St. John. 

fipHlAi/rfis. i. One of the Aloidae. [ALOBUS.] 2. A Malian, 
who in 480 B.C., when Leonidas was defending the pass of Ther- 
mopylae, guided a body of Persians over the mountain path, and 
thus enabled them to fall on the rear of the Greeks. 3. An Athenian 
statesman, and a friend and partisan of Pericles. 

EPEORS (overseers), a board of 5 members at Sparta, exercising 
almost sovereign power. 


, the ancient name of Corinth. 

fipiCASTfl, commonly called JOCASTB. 

fipIcHARMUS, chief comic poet among the Dorians, born in the 
island of Cos, about 540 B.C., was carried to Megara in Sicily in his 
infancy, and spent the latter part of his life at Syracuse at the 
court of Hieron. He died at th age of 90. Epicharmus gave to 
comedy a new form, and introduced a regular plot. 

EpicxfiTUS, of Hierapolis in Phrygia, Stoic philosopher, was a 
freedman of Epaphroditus. Being expelled from Rome by Domitian, 
he took up his residence at Nicopolis in Epirus. He did not leave 
any works behind him; and the short mannal (Enchiridion) which 
bears his name was compiled from his discourses by his pupil 
Arrian. His manual has been Englished by George Long; also in 
Loeb Library; Oxford Translations; and Everyman's Library. 

fipfctJRUS, Greek philosopher, was born B.C. 342, in the island of 
Samos, and took up his permanent .residence at Athens in 306. 
Here he purchased the garden, afterwards so noted, in which he 
established the philosophical school, called after "him the Epicurean. 
He died in 270, at the age of 72, after a long and painful illness, 
which he endured with truly philosophical patience and courage. 
He taught that the summum bonum, or highest good, is happiness. 
The happiness he taught his followers to seek was not sensual enjoy- 
ment, but peace of mind as the result of the cultivation of all the 
virtues. According to the teaching of his school virtue should be 
practised because it leads to happiness; whereas the Stoics teach that 
virtue should be cultivated for its own sake. In the physical part 
of Ms philosophy he followed the atomistic doctrines of Democritus 
and Diagoras. The pupils of Epicurus were very numerous, and 
were excessively devoted to him. His system has been attacked, 
partly because after the days of Epicurus men who professed to be 
his followers gave themselves over to mere sensual enjoyment, and 
partly because it was really founded on an erroneous principle, in 
making virtue dependent upon consequent happiness. A good 
account of his teaching is given by Erdmann, History of Philosophy, 
vol. i (E.T.), 96; Benn, Greek Philosophers , vol. ii, chap. ii. See 
Cyril Bailey's ed. of the extant remains with trans, and notes, 
1926; also Bailey, The Greek Atomists and Epicurus, 1928. 


JP!DAURUS, town in Argolis on the Saronic Gulf, formed, with 
its territory Epidauria, a district independent of Argos, and not 
included in Argolis till the time of the Romans. It was the seat 
of the worship of Aesculapius, whose temple was situated about 
5 miles from the town. The remains of the fine theatre (4th century 
B.C.) at Epidaurus are well preserved. See Frazer*s Pausanias t 
vols. iii and v. (See Fig. 9.) 

plGO*Ni, that is, 'the Descendants,* the name of the sons of the 
7 heroes who perished before Thebes. [ADfcAsrxrs.] Ten years 
after the death of those heroes, the Epigoni marched against Thebes, 
which they took and razed to the ground. The names of the Epfconi 


are not the same in all accounts; but the common lists contain 
Alcmaeon, Aegialens, Diomedes, Promachus, Sthenelus, Thersander, 
and Euryalus. 

fipfcifiNlDfis, poet and prophet of Crete, whose history is, to a 
great extent mythical. There is a legend that when a boy he was 
sent out by his father in search of a sheep ; and that, seeking shelter 
from the heat of the midday sun, he went into a cave, and there fell 
into a deep sleep, which lasted 57 years. On waking and returning 
home, he found that his younger brother had grown an old man. 
His visit to Athens, however, is an historical fact, and determines 
his date. The Athenians, who were visited by a plague in conse- 
quence of the crime of Cylon, invited Epimenides to undertake the 
purification of the city. Epimenides accordingly came to Athens, 
about 596 B.C., and performed the desired task by certain mysterious 
rites and sacrifices. Many works were attributed to him by the 
ancients, and the Apostle Paul has preserved (Titus i 12) a cele- 
brated verse of his against the Cretans. 
EpfrHANBS, a surname of Antiochus IV, king of Syria. 

P!RUS, that is, 'the main land/ a country in the N.W. of Greece, 
so called to distinguish it from Corcyra. Homer gives the name 
of Epirus to the whole of the W. coast of Greece, thus including 
Acarnania in it. Epirus was bounded by lUyria and Macedonia on 
the N., by Thessaly on the E., by Acarnania and the Ambracian 
Gulf on the S., and by the Ionian Sea on the W. Its inhabitants 
were numerous. They appear to have been a mixture of Pelasgians 
and niyrians. The ancient oracle of Dodona in the country was 
of Pelasgic origin. Epirus contained 14 different tribes. Of these 
the most important were the CHAONBS, THBSPROTI, and MOLOSSI, 
who gave their names to the 3 principal divisions of the country, 
Chapm'a, Thesprotia, and Molossia. The different tribes were 
originally governed by their own princes. The Molossian princes, 
who traced their descent from Pyrrhus, son of Achilles, subsequently 
acquired the sovereignty over the whole country, and took the title 
of kings of Epirus. The most celebrated of these was PYRRHUS, 
who carried on war with the Romans. [See Epirus by G. N. Cross 

EPITAPH OF ABERC!US, a Greek inscription composed before th<* 
year 216 by Abercius, Bishop of Hieropolis in Phrygia. It is of 
great importance in connection with the sacramental system of the 
Christian Church. 

P$NA, goddess of horses and grooms. 

EPSPBUS, son of Poseidon and Canace, king of Sicyon. He 
carried away from Thebes Antiope, daughter of Nycteus, who made 
war on Epopeus, but was killed. Epopeus was eventually slain 
by Lycus. [ANTIOPB; LYCUS.] 

(Ivrea), town in Gallia Cisalpina, on the Duria, in the 
territory of the Salassi, colonized by the Romans, 100 B.C. 


EQUTTS Tttrlcus or ABQUUM Ttf xIcuM, small town oi the Hirpini, 
in Samniuin, 21 miles ftom Beneventum. 

R!HA, town near M. Amanus, the chief seat of the Elentherocilices, 
in the time of Cicero. 

fiRXsiSTRixus, physician and anatomist, a native of lulls, in 
the island of Ceos, flourished from 300 to 260 B.C., and was the 
founder of a medical school at Alexandria. 
O", one of the Muses. [MusAE.] 

S, of Cyrene, born 276 B.C., was placed by Ptolemy 
Euergetes over the library at Alexandria. He died at Alexandria at 
the age of 80, about 196 B.C., of voluntary starvation, having lost 
his sight, and being tired of life. He was a man of extensive learning, 
and wrote on almost all the branches of knowledge then cultivated 
astronomy, geometry, geography, philosophy, history, and grammar. 
His works have perished, with the exception of some fragments. 
His most celebrated work was a systematic treatise on geography, 
of which Strabo made great use. See Tozer, History of Ancient 
Geography, p. 180. 

RBUS, son of Chaos, begot Aether and Hemera (Day) by Nux 
(Night), his sister. The name signifies darkness, and is appned to 
the dark space through which the shades pass into Hades. 


RBTRIX, town of Euboea, situated on the Euripus, with a harbour, 
Porthmus, was founded by the Athenians, but had a mixed popula- 
tion, among which was a considerable number of Dorians. Its 
commerce and navy raised it in early times to importance; it con- 
tended with Chalets for the supremacy of Euboea; and it planted 
colonies in Macedonia and Italy. It was destroyed by the Persians, 
490 B.C., and its inhabitants were enslaved. 

Hephaestus. Athena reared the child without the knowledge of 
the other gods, and entrusted him to Agraulus, Pandrosus, and 
Herse, concealed in a chest, which they were forbidden to open. 
But disobeying the command, they saw the child in the form of a 
serpent or entwined by a serpent, whereupon they were seized with 
madness, and threw themselves down the rock of the Acropolis. 
Erichthonius became king of Athens, and was succeeded in the 
kingdom by his son Pandion. He introduced the worship of Athena, 
instituted the festival of the Panathenaea, and built a temple of 
Athena on the Acropolis. He was the first who used a chariot with 
4 horses, for which reason he was placed among the stars as Auriga. 
He was worshipped as a god after his death: and a temple, called 
the Erechtheum, was built to him on the Acropolis. 2. ERBCH- 
THBUS II, grandson of the former, and son of Pandion, whom he 
succeeded as king of Athens. He was father of Cecrops, Procris, 
Creusa, Chthonia, and Orithyia. In the war between the Eleusin- 
ians and Athenians, Eumolpus, the son of Poseidon*, was slain; 
whereupon Poseidon demanded the sacrifice of one of the daughters 
of Erecntheus. When one was drawn by lot, her 3 sisters resolved 


to die with her; and Erechthens himself was killed by Zens with a 
flash of lightning at the request of Poseidon. 

R&>INTTS, river god, on whose banks amber was found. The 
Electrides Insulae or 'Amber Islands f are placed at the mouth of the 
Padus (Po), and here Phaethon was struck by the lightning of 
Zeus, [PADUS.] 

ERIG&NB, daughter of Icarius, beloved by Bacchus. 

ERINNA, Greek poetess, who died at the age of 19. The opinion, 
deriving from Suidas, that she was contemporary with Sappho, 
has been abandoned. She probably lived on the island of Telos, 
and was a contemporary of Theocritus and Asclepiades, who praised 
her poetry. Three epigrams of hers are preserved in the Greek 
Anthology, but her fame rests also on a poem to the memory of 
Baucis, called The Distaff. See J. U. Powell, New Chapters in the 
History of Greek Literature, 1933. 

R!PHYLS, daughter of Talaus, wife of Amphiaraus, and mother 

RIS, in Latin Discordia, the goddess of Discord, the friend and 
sister of Ares, who delighted with Mm in the tumult of war. It was 
Eris who threw the apple into the assembly of the gods, the cause of 
so much suffering and war. [PARIS.] 

ROS, in T,atin Amor, or Cupido, the god of love, son of Aphrodite, 
by either Ares, Zeus, or Hermes. He was represented as a beautiful 
but wanton boy. His arms consist of arrows, which he carries in a 
golden quiver, and of torches which no one can touch with impunity. 
Eros is further represented with golden wings, and as fluttering 
about like a bird. His eyes are sometimes covered, so that he acts 
blindly. He is the usual companion of his mother, Aphrodite. 
ANTEROS, literally, return-love, is usually represented as the god who 
punishes those who do not return the love of others: thus he is the 
avenging Eros, or a deus ultor. But in some accounts he is described 
as a god opposed to Eros and struggling against hi. Respecting 
the connection between Eros and Psyche, see PSYCHE. The later 
poets speak of a number of Erotes. 

ERYMANTHUS. i. Mountain in Arcadia, celebrated in mythology 
as the haunt of the savage Erymanthian boar destroyed by Hercules. 
[HERCULES.] The Arcadian nymph Callisto, who was changed into 
a she-bear, is called Erymanthis ursa, and her son Areas Eryman- 
tMdis ursae cusios, [ARCTOS.] 2. River in Arcadia, rising in the 
above-mentioned mountain, and falling into tile Alpheus. 

RI?SICHTHON, son of the Thessalian king Triopas, who cut down 
trees in a grove sacred to Demeter, for which he was punished with 
afearful hunger, that caused him to devour his own flesh. 

ERYTHRAB, one of the 12 Ionian cities of Asia Minor. 

RYTHRABTJM MARK, the name originally of the whole expanse of 
sea between Arabia and Africa on the W. and T^rMa on the E 
including its two great gulfs (the Red SM and Persian Gulf). li 


this sense it is used by Herodotus. Afterwards the parts of these seas 
were distinguished, the main body of the sea being called Indicus 
Oceanus, the Red Sea Arabians Sinus, the Persian Gulf Persians 
Sinus. The name Erythraeum Mare was generally used as identical 
with Arabicus Sinus, or the corresponding genuine Latin term, 
Mare Rubrum (Red Sea). 

ERYX (5. Giuliano). I. Mountain in the N.W. of Sicily, near 
Drepanum. On the summit stood an ancient temple of Aphrodite, 
said to have been built by Eryx, Trmg of the Elymi, or, according to 
Virgil, by Aeneas, but more probably by the Phoenicians, who 
introduced the worship of Aphrodite into Sicily. Hence the goddess 
bore the surname Erycina, under which name her worship was 
introduced at Rome about the beginning of the second Punic war. 
2. A son of Poseidon and Aphrodite, worshipped on Eryx. 

ExfiocLfls, son of Oedipus and Jocasta. After his father's flight 
from Thebes, he and his brother Polynices undertook the govern- 
ment of the city; but disputes having arisen between them, Poly- 
nices fled to Adrastus, who then brought about the expedition of 
the Seven against Thebes. Eteocles and Polynices perished in 
single combat. See Aeschylus, Seven Against Tkebes, and the 
Oedipus of Sophocles. 

fixflslAB, the Etesian Winds, derived from Ires, 'year,' signified 
any periodical winds, but more particularly the northerly winds 
which blow in the Aegaean for 40 days from the rising of the dog star. 

or TusclA, called by the Greeks TyrrhSnla, 
a country in central Italy. The inhabitants were called by the 
Romans Etrusci or Tusci, by the Greeks Tyrrheni or Tyrseni, and by 
themselves Rasena. The origin of the Etruscans is uncertain: 
possibly they were of Pelasgian stock. See Dennis, Cities ofEtruria. 
The government was a close aristocracy, and was confined to the 
family of the Lucumones, who united in their own persons the 
ecclesiastical as well as the civil functions. The people appear to 
have been in a state of serfdom. A meeting of the confederacy of 
the 12 states was held annually in the spring, at the temple of 
Voltumna, near Volsinii. The Etruscans were a highly civilized 
people, and from them the Romans borrowed many of their religious 
and political institutions. The 3 last kings of Rome were Etruscans, 
and they left in the city enduring traces of Etruscan power. The 
later history of the Etruscans is a struggle against Rome, to which 
they became subject, after their decisive defeat by Cornelius Dola- 
bella in 283 B.C. In 91 they received the Roman franchise. The 
military colonies established in Etruria by Sulla and Augustus 
destroyed the national character of the people, and the country thus 
became Romanised. 

EUBOBA (Negroponf), the largest island of the Aegaean Sea, about 
90 miles in length, lying along the coasts of 'Attica, Boeotia, and the 
S. part of Thessaly, from which countries it is separated by the 
Euboean Sea, called the Euripus in its narrowest part. In Homer 
the inhabitants are called Abantes. In the N. of Euboea dwelt the 


Histiaei; below these were the Ellopii, and in the S. were the Dry opes. 
The centre of the island was inhabited chiefly by lonians. It was 
in this part of Euboea that the Athenians planted the colonies of 
CSAJLCIS and ERBTRIA, which were the 2 most important cities in 
the island. After the Persian wars, Euboea became subject to the 
Athenians. Since Cumae, in Italy, was a colony from Chalcis, in 
Euboea, the adjective Euboicus is used by the poets in reference to 
the former city. 

EucLlDfis. i. Mathematician, lived at Alexandria in the time 
of the first Ptolemy, 323-283 B.C., and was the founder of the 
Alexandrian mathematical school. It was his answer to Ptolemy, 
who asked if geometry could not be made easier, that there was ' no 
royal road.' Of the works attributed to Euclid, several are still 
extant, of which by far the most noted is the Elements. [See 
Todhunter*s edition in Everyman's Library.] 2. Of Megara, one 
of the disciples of Socrates, quitted Athens on the death of Socrates 
(399 B.C.), and took refuge in Megara, where he founded a school, 
distinguished by the cultivation of dialectics. 

EuDfiMUS, Greek philosopher; distinguished pupil of Aristotle, 
and author of the (still extant) Eudemian Ethics. 

EUDOXTJS, of Cnidus, astronomer and geometer, lived about 
366 B.C. He studied at Athens and in Egypt. He had an observa- 
tory at Cnidus. He is said to have been the first who taught in 
Greece the motions of the planets. His works are lost. 

EuBRGftrss, the 'Benefactor/ a title of honour conferred by the 
Greek states upon those from whom they had received benefits. 


EuHfiMftKus, a SiftiWjm, who lived at the court of Cassander, in 
Macedonia, about 316 B.C., and the author of a work called the 
Sacred History, in which he attempted to show that all the ancient 
myifrs were genuine historical events. He represented the gods as 
originally men who had distinguished themselves and who after 
their death received divine worship from the grateful people. The 
word 'euhemerism' is derived from his nam^. 

EULABUS, river in Susiana, rising in Great Media, passing E of 

Susa, and falling into the head of the Persian Gulf. Some of the 

ancient geographers make the Eulaeus 601 in to the Choaspes. 

EUMASUS, faithful swineherd of Ulysses. (See Homers Odyssey.) 

EmcttNfis, i. Of Cardia, served as private secretary to Philip 

and Alexander; and on the death of the latter (323 B.C.), obtained 

file government of Cappadoda, Paphlagonia, and Pontus. He 

was put to death, 316, by Antigonus. He was a great general 

and statesman, a. King of Pergamum, reigned 197-159 B.C. 


EuMfcrtDBS, also called Erinyes, and by the Romans Purlae or 
Krae, the Avenging Deities. The name Erinyes is the more ancient 
one; tiie form Eumenides, which signifies 'the well-meaning,' or 
'soothed goddesses,' is a euphemism, because people dreaded to call 


these goddesses by their real name. It was said to have been first 
given them after the acquittal of Orestes by the Areopagus, when 
the anger of the Erinyes had been soothed. They are represented 
as the daughters of Earth or of Night, and as winged maidens, with, 
serpents twined in their hair, and with blood dripping from their 
eyes. They dwelt in the depths of Tartarus. With later writers 
their number is usually 3, and their names are TisiphSne, Alecto, 
and Megaera. They punished men both in this world and after 
death. The sacrifices offered to them consisted of black sheep and 
nephalia, i.e. a drink of honey mixed with water. The crimes which 
they punished were disobedience towards parents, violation of the 
respect due to old age, perjury, murder, violation of the laws of 
hospitality, and improper conduct towards suppliants. See Aeschy- 
lus, Eumenides. Cf. Lawson, Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient 
Greek Religion, p. 148. 

EUMOLPUS (that is, 'the good singer'), in Greek myth the son of 
Poseidon and ChiSne, the daughter of Boreas. As soon as he was 
born he was thrown into the sea by his mother, who was anxious to 
conceal her shame, but was preserved by his father Poseidon, who 
had hi educated in Ethiopia by his daughter Benthesicyma. After 
dwelling for a time in Ethiopia, and afterwards at the court of the 
Thracian THng Tegyrius, he came to Eleusis in Attica. He joined 
the Eleusinians in an expedition against Athens, but was slain by 
Erechtheus. Eumolpus was regarded as the founder of the Eleu- 
ainiftn mysteries, and as the first priest of Demeter and Dionysus. 
His Jfomily, the Eumolpidae, continued till the latest times the 
hereditary priests of Demeter at Eleusis. 

EUNUS, a Sicilian slave, the leader of the Sicilian slaves in the 
Servile War (134-132 B.C.). 

EUPATR&DAZ, the members of the Athenian nobility. 

EUPHMUS, son of Poseidon, and ancestor of Battus I. 

EUPHORBUS, son of Panthous, one of the bravest of the Trojans, 
slain by Menelaus, who dedicated his shield in the temple of Hera, 
near Mycenae. Pythagoras asserted that he had once been Euphor- 
bus, and in proof of his assertion took down at first sight the shield 
from the temple of Hera. 

EUPHORION, of Chalcifl in Euboea, grammarian and poet, was 
the librarian of Antiochus the Great in 221 B.C. All his works 
are lost. 

EUPHR&NOR, statuary and painter, was a native of Corinth, but 
practised his art at Athens about 336 B.C. 

EUPHRATES,, river of Asia, consists in its upper course of 2 branches, 
both of which rise in the mountains of Armenia. The nortttern 
branch is the true Euphrates : the southern was called by the ancients 
the Arsanias. After their junction the river breaks through the 
maV chain of the Taurus between Melitene and Samosata, and then 
flows through the plain of Babylonia, till it joins the Tigris about 
sixty miles above the head of the Persian, Gulf* 


EuFHR6ff$Kfi, one of the CHAJUTBS. 

EUPO'LIS, Athenian poet of the old comedy, contemporary of 
Aristophanes, was born about 446 B.C., and died about 411. The 
story that Alcibiades threw him into the sea out of revenge is not 

EuRlpfDfis, tragic poet, was born at Salamis, 480 B.C., on the very 
day that the Greeks defeated the Persians off that island, whither 
his parents had fled from Athens on the invasion of Xerxes. In 
his youth he cultivated gymnastic pursuits, and won the prize at 
the Eleusinian and Thesean contests. He studied philosophy under 
Anaxagoras, and rhetoric under Frodicus. He lived on intimate 
terms with Socrates, and traces of the teaching of Anaxagoras have 
been remarked in many passages of his plays. In 441 he gained for 
the first time the first prize, and he continued to exhibit plays until 
408, the date of the Orestes. Soon after this he left Athens for the 
court of Archelaus, king of Macedonia, where he died in 406, at the 
age of 75. Euripides in his tragedies brought down the ancient 
heroes and heroines to the ordinary standard of men and women. 
He represented men, according to an oft-quoted dictum, ' not as they 
ought to be, but as they are.' Hence the preference given to his 
plays by the practical Socrates. His great excellency is the tender- 
ness and pathos with which some of his characters are invested. 
Euripides was undoubtedly a rationalist; and his aim, in many of 
his plays, was to pour scorn on the popular religion of bis time. 
1 8 of his tragedies are extant, if we omit the Rhesus, which is probably 
spurious. There are admirable verse translations by A. S. Way 
and Prof. Gilbert Murray. The fragments have been edited by 
A. S. Hunt (1912). fragments of some 55 plays are extant, and 
of the Hypsipyle about 300 lines exist out of a total of 1,700 (dis- 
covered at Oxyrhynchus, 1906). Specimens are given in English 
by Prof. Murray in his Athenian Drama: Euripides (appendix on 
the lost plays); and fragments of a tetralogy, A Icmena, Temenus, 
Temenides f and Archelaus have been published with translation 
by R. J, Walker, The Macedonian Tetralogy, 1920. See also Verrall 
Euripides the Rationalist. (See Pig. 29.) 

Eralpus, any part of the sea where the ebb and flow of the tide 
were remarkably violent, is the name especially of the narrow strait 
which separates Euboea from Boeotia. . 

EUR&PA, daughter of the Phoenician king, Agenor (or, according 
to the Iliad, daughter of Phoenix). Her beauty charmed Zeus, 
who assumed the form of a bull and mingled with the herd as Europa 
and her maidens were sporting on the sea-shore. Encouraged by 
his tameness, Europa ventured to mount his back; whereupon the 
god rusfced into the sea, and swam with her to Crete. Here she 
became by Zeus the mother of Minos, Rhadainanthus, and SarpSdon. 
ETTROTAS, the chief river in Laconia, on which Sparta stood. 
EUKUB, the SJB. wind; the Latin VoKurnus. 

of Ulysses, whom he followed to Troy. 
, an 


to hire mercenaries for him in his war -with Cyrus. He, however, 
went over to Cyrus, and betrayed Croesus. In consequence of this 
treachery, his name passed into a proverb amongst the Greeks. 

^ the nurse of Odysseus; she recognized him, though 

disguised as a beggar, on his return from Troy after 20 years' wander- 
ing. See Homer's Odyssey. 

EuRYDfcB. i. Wife of Orpheus. [ORPHEUS; ARISTAEUS.] 2. 
The name of several Dlyrian and Macedonian princesses. The most 
celebrated was the wife of Philip Arrhidaeus, who succeeded Alex- 
ander the Great. She was put to death by Olympias, 317 B.C. 

EURYLSCHUS, a companion of Ulysses, escaped when his Mends 
were metamorphosed into swine. [CIRCE.] 

EuRYMftDON. i. Son of Thucles, an Athenian general in the 
Peloponnesian war. 2. A small river in Pamphylia, celebrated 
for the victory which Cimon gained over the Persians (469 B.C.) . 

EURYMUS, father of the seer Telemus, hence called Eurymldes. 

EuRYNo"Mfi, daughter of Oceanus, and mother of Leucothofi. 

EUR;YPON, otherwise called Eurytfon, grandson of Procles, was 
the third king of that house at Sparta, 'and thenceforward gave tfc 
the name of Eurypontidae. 

EURYPYLUS. i. Son of Euaemon, and one of the bravest of the 
Greek heroes before Troy. 2. Son of Poseidon and Astypalaea, king 
of Cos, killed by Hercules. 

EURY$THE*NSS and PROCLES, the twin sons of Aristodemus, born 
before their father's return to Peloponnesus and occupation of his 
allotment of Laconia. He died immediately after the birth of his 
children, and in accordance with the oracle at Delphi both were 
made kings, but the precedence given to Eurysthenes and his de- 
scendants. From these 2 brothers the 2 royal families in Sparta 
were descended. 


EURYTUS, king of Oechalia, and father of lole. [HERCULES.] 
Eus&Blus, snrnamed Pamphili to commemorate his friendship 
for Pamphilus, bishop of Caesarea. Eusebius was born in Palestine 
about A.D. 264, was made bishop of Caesarea about 315, and 
died about 340. He wrote in Greek. His greatest work is his 
Ecclesiastical History [translated from Burton's text (1838) by W. 
Bright (Oxford, 1881);. also in Loeb Library]. His Praeparatio 
Ev angelica contains valuable extracts from the ancient philosophers 
[edited with commentary and translation by E. H. Giflord, 5 yols. 
1903]. His Chronicon is likewise valuable to students of ancient 
history. It exists only in a Latin version by Jerome [edited by 
J. K. Fotheringham, 1923]. 

EUTERPE, one of the Muses. [MUSAB.] 

EUTICHES, abbot of a monastery at Constantinople, and founder 
of the heresy called, after him, EntJcbianism, that denies that*there 
are two natures in Christ. Eutiches died about the year 450 


EuTRfisis, ancient town of ,Boeotia, mentioned by Homer and 
said to have been the residence of Zethus and Amphion before they 
ruled over Thebes. Situated between Thespiae and Plataeae, with 
a temple and oracle of Apollo, who hence had the surname of Apollo 
Eutrfsltes. The site of Eutresis has been identified of recent years 
(1924-5) and some remains of the Homeric city unearthed. See 
Goldman, Excavations at Eutresis in Boeotia (1931)* 

EUTRO>!US, Roman historian, contemporary of Constantino the 
Great, Julian, and Valens, and the author of a brief compendium 
of Roman history in 10 books, from the foundation of the city to the 
accession of Valens, A.D. 364, to whom it is inscribed. This work is 
extant, and is drawn up with care. 
, EvADNfi, daughter of Iphis, and wife of CAPAOTUS. 

EVAG&RAS, king of Salamis in Cyprus, from about 410 to 374 
B.C. He was assisted by the Athenians against the Persians. 

EVANDBR, son of Hermes, by an Arcadian nymph. About 60 
years before the Trojan war, Evander is said to have led a colony 
from PaUantium, in Arcadia, into Italy, and there to have built a 
town. Pallanteum, on the Tiber, at the foot of the Palatine Hill, 
which town was subsequently incorporated with Rome. Evander 
taught his neighbours the arts of peace and of social life, and 
especially the art of writing. 

EvfiNUS. i. (Phidaris), river of Aetolia, rising in Mt. Oeta, and 
flowing into the sea, 120 stadia W. of Antirrhium. It derived its 
name from Evenus, the father of Mazpessa, who was carried off by 
Idas; and Evenus, being unable to overtake the latter, threw him- 
self into the river, which was henceforth called after him. 2. River 
of Mysia, falling into the Sinus Elalticus near Fitane. 

vf us, an epithet of Bacchus, given hi from the sL-nimsM-nfr cry 
evoe> in the festivals of the god. 

FABfa, ancient patrician gens at Rome. Its most important 
members are: i. K. FABIUS VIBULANUS, 3 times consul, 484, 481, 
479 B.C. In his third consulship he espoused the cause of the ple- 
beians; but as his propositions were rejected by the patricians, he 
and his house resolved to quit Rome altogether. Accordingly, 306 
Fabii marched with the consul at their head through the Garments! 
Gate, and proceeded to the banks of the Cremera, where they erected 
a fortress. Here they lived with their families and clients, and for 
2 years continued to devastate the territory of Veii. They were 
at length destroyed by the Veientes in 477, on the i8th of Tune 
The whole gens perished with the exception of one individual, from 
whom all the later Fabii were descended. 2. Q. FABIUS MAXIMUS, 
named Cunctator, from his caution in war. He was 5 times con- 
sul (233-209 B.C.). In 217, immediately after the defeat at Trasi- 
menu^ Fabius was appointed dictator. From this period, so long 
as the war with Hannibal was merely defensive, Fabius became the 
leading man at Rome. He avoided all direct encounter with the 


enemy; moved his camp from highland to highland, where the 
Numidian horse and Spanish infantry could not follow him ; watched 
Hannibal's movements, and cut off his stragglers and foragers. 
His enclosure of Hannibal in one of the upland valleys between 
CaJes and the Vulturous, and the Carthaginian's adroit escape by 
driving oxen with blazing faggots fixed to their horns, up the hill- 
sides, are well-known facts. But at Rome and in his own camp the 
caution of Fabius was misinterpreted; and the people in consequence 
divided the command between him and M. Minucius Rufus, his 
master of the horse. Minucius was speedily entrapped, and would 
have been destroyed by Hannibal, had not Fabius hastened to his 
rescue. In the closing years of the second Punic war Fabius appears 
to less advantage. The war had become aggressive under a new 
race of generals. Fabius dreaded the political supremacy of Scipio, 
and was his opponent in his scheme of invading Africa. He died 
in 203. 3. C. FABIUS PICTOR, received the surname of Pictor, 
because he painted the walls of the temple of Sains, which the 
dictator C. Junius Brutus Bubulcus dedicated in 302. This is the 
earliest Roman painting of which we have any record. 4. Q. FABIUS 
PICTOR, grandson of the last, the most ancient, writer of Roman 
history in prose. He served in the Gallic war, 225, and also in the 
second Punic war. His history, which was written in Greek, began. 
with the arrival of Aeneas in Italy, and came down to his own time. 

FABRlcIus, the name of a Roman family the chief members of 
which were: i. C. FABRICIUS., one of the most popular heroes in the 
Roman ft.Tma.U- He was consul 282 B.C., and two years afterwards 
was one of the Roman ambassadors sent to Pyrrhus at Tarentum to 
negotiate a ransom or exchange of prisoners. Pyrrhus used every 
effort to gain the favour of Fabricius ; but the sturdy Roman rejected 
all his offers. In 278 Fabricius was consul a second time, when he 
sent back to Pyrrhus the traitor who had offered to poison him. 
Negotiations were then opened, which resulted in the evacuation of 
Italy by Pyrrhus. He was censor in. 275, and fliBtfTigniahfld TITTTIMM 
by the severity with which he repressed the growing taste for luxury. 
Ancient writers love to tell of the frugal way in which Fabricius and 
his contemporary Curius Dentatus lived on their hereditary forms. 
2. L. FABRICITJS, curator viarum in 62 B.C., built a new bridge of 
stone, connecting the city with the island in the Tiber, and called . 
after him pans Fabricius. 

FXiftRii or FXLflRltFM, town in Etruria, situated on a height near 
Mt. Soracte, was originally a Pelasgic town, but was afterwards one 
of the 12 Etruscan cities. Its inhabitants were called Falisci, and 
were regarded as of the same race as the Aequi, whence we find them 
often called Aequi Falisci. After a long struggle with Rome, the 
Faliscans yielded to Camillus, 394 B.C. The' Faliscans revolted at 
the close of the first Punic war (241 B.C.), when the Romans 
destroyed their city. A new town was built on the plain. The 
white cows of Falerii were valued at Rome for sacrifices. 

AGBR, district in the N* of Campania. It produced 
some of the finest wine in Italy. 


FANUM FoRTtJNA* (Fano), town in Umbiia at the mouth of the 
Metaurus, "with a celebrated temple of Fortuna. 

FARFXRUS or FAB!RIS (Farfa), river flowing across the region of 
the Sablni, near Rome. Often mentioned by the Latin writers. 

FASCES, the Latin name for a bundle of rods enclosing an axe; 
the symbol of authority carried by the lictors before one of the 
higher magistrates. (See Fig. 30.) 


FAUNUS in Latin myth; one of the oldest of Italian deities. He 
was worshipped as the protecting deity of agriculture and of shep- 
herds, and also as a giver of oracles. After the introduction of the 
worship of the Greek Pan into Italy, Faunus was identified with 
Pan, and represented, like the latter, with horns and goat's feet. 
At a later tune we find mention of Fauni in the plural. What 
Faunus was to the male sex, his wife Faula or Fauna was to the 
female. [BoNA DBA.] Faunus gradually came to be identified 
with the Arcadian Pan, and the Fauni with the Greek Satyrs. 

FAUSTA, CORNSL!A, daughter of the dictator Sulla, wife of Milo, 
and infamous for her adulteries. 

FAUSTINA, i. Senior, wife of Antoninus Pius, notorious for her 
licentiousness. 2. Junior, daughter of the elder Faustina, and wife 
of M. Aurelius, also notorious for her profligacy. 

FXv6" NTUS, the Latin term for Zephyrus, the W. wind. 

FIv6Nlus, M., an imitator of Cato Uticensis, whose character and 
conduct he copied so servilely as to be nicknamed Cato's ape. 

FBBRUUS, ancient Italian divinity, to whom the month of February 
was sacred. 

FSzJtcrrls, the personification of happiness, is frequently seen on 
Roman medals, in the form of a matron, with the staff of Mercury 
and a cornucopia. 

FStrx, ANT6NJus, procurator of Judaea, in the reigns of Claudius 
and Nero. He induced Drusilla, wife of the king of Emesa, to leave 
her husband; and she was still living with him in A.D. 60, when St. 
Paul preached before them both. 

FENNI, savage people, reckoned by Tacitus among the Germans. 
They probably dwelt in the further part of E. Prussia, and were the 
same as the modern Finns. 

F^RttTRlus, a surname of Jupiter, derived from firir e, to strike, 
for persons who took an oath called upon Jupiter to strike them if 
they swore falsely; or from/<r* because he was the giver of peace. 

FBR!AB, holidays (dedicated to the worship of a deity), 

FfiR&NiA r ancient Ita.lia.ri divinity, whose sanctuary was at Terra- 
cma,nearHt. Soracte. At her festival a great feir was held, when 
the people used to offer her the first-fruits of their fields. 

FESCBNNltJM, a town in mruria, of Pelasgic origin. From this 
town the Romans derived the coarse Fescennine songs bandied 
about at harvest festivals and weddings. 


FESTUS, PORCIUS, succeeded Felix as procurator of Judaea, in A .D. 
62. It was he who bore testimony to the innocence of St. Paul, when 
he defended himself before torn in the same year: Acts xxiv, xxv. 

FESTUS, SEX. POMPBIUS, Roman grammarian, in the 4th century 
of our era, the author of a dictionary or glossary of Latin words 
and phrases, of which a considerable portion is extant. 

FEMALES, a collegium of men (elected for life) whose duty it 
was ' to maintain the laws of international relationship.' The institu- 
tion was universal in Italy. 

FlDBNAE, sometimes FidJna (Castel GiubiUo), ancient town in 
the land of the Sabines, 5 miles N.E. of Home, situated on a hill, 
between the Tiber and the Anio. It is said to have been .colonized 
by Romulus; but it was probably colonized by the Etruscan Veii, 
with which city we find it in alliance. It frequently revolted, and 
was frequently taken by the Romans. Its last revolt was in 438 
B.C. It was destroyed by the Romans, but was afterwards rebuilt. 

Ftofis, Roman goddess, personification of faithfulness. 

Ffolus, occurs in the expression Medius Fidiu$**'So help me the 
god of truth. 1 This Dius Fidius (god of faith) was identified with a 
Sabine deity, Semo Sancus, and was later regarded as synonymous 
with Zed* rfrrto*. The w- was a demonstr. particle, like the m&- in 
mthercule, tnecastor. 

FlGULUS, P. NiGiDlus, Roman senator, and Pythagorean 
philosopher of high reputation, who nourished about 60 B.C. 

FIMBRIA, C. FLJLvIus. i. Jurist and orator, consul 104 B.C. 
2. Son of the preceding, and one of the most violent partisans of 
Marius and Cinna during the civil war with Sulla. In 86 B.C. he 
he was sent into Asia as legate of Valerius Flaccus, whom he induced 
the soldiers to put to death. He carried 6n war against Mithridates ; 
but in 84 he was attacked by Sulla, and put an end to his life. 

FLACCUS, FULVOUS, the name of two distinguished families in the 
Fulvia and Valeria gentes. The best known are: i. M. FULVIUS 
FLACCUS, friend of the Gracchi, consul 125 B.C., and one of the tri- 
umvirs for carrying out the agrarian law of Tib. Gracchus. He was 
slain, together with C. Gracchus, in 121. 2. L. VALERIUS FLACCUS, 
consul 100 B.C., with C. Marius, when he took part in subduing the 
insurrection of Saturninus. In 86 he was chosen consul in place of 
Marius, and was sent into Asia against Mithridates, but was put 
to death by his soldiers. [FIMBRIA.] 3. L. VALERIUS, native of 
Padua in tibe time of Vespasian. He wrote the Argonautica, an 
extant heroic poem, in 8 books, on the Argonauts. There is a 
translation by Mozley in the Loeb Library. 


FLAMlNlnrus, T. Quiirrlus, consul 198 ,B.C O . had the conduct of 
the war against Philip of Macedon, whom he defeated at the battle 
of Cynoscephalae, in Thessaly, in 197* 

FLAMfcrtus, C., consul for the first time 223 B*a, when he gained 
a victory over the Insubrian Gauls; and censor in 220, -when he 


executed 2 great works, which bore his name, viz. the Circus Flami- 
nius and the Via Flaminia. In his second consulship (217) he was 
defeated and slain by Hannibal, at the battle of Trasunenus. 

FLivlA GENS, celebrated as the house to which the emperor 
Vespasian belonged. During the later period of the Roman empire, 
the name Flavins descended from one emperor to another, Constan- 
tius, the father of Constantino the Great, being the first in the series. 

FL^RA, Roman goddess of flowers and spring, whose annual 
festival, Ploralia, was celebrated from the 28th of April till the 3rd 
of May, with extravagant merriment and lasciviousness. 

FL&KssrlA. (Firenze, Florence), town in Etruria, and subsequently 
a Roman colony, situated on the Arnus. 

FLORIANUS, M. Amrfus, brother, by a different father, of the 
emperor Tacitus, on whose death he was proclaimed emperor at 
Rome, A.D. 276. He was murdered by his troops at Tarsus two 
months later, while marching against Probus. 

FLO"RUS. i. L. ANNAHUS, Roman historian, lived under Trajan 
and Hadrian, and wrote a summary of Roman history, which is 
extant, divided into 4 books, extending from the foundation of 
the city to the time of Augustus. 2. ANNABUS, Roman poet of the 
2nd century, author of three extant trochaic dimeters addressed to 
Hadrian; and of various epigrams in trochaic tetrameter. TTie 
PervigUium Veneris has been attributed to him. [PBRVIGILIUM 
VBNURIS.] See Minor Latin Poets in the Loeb Library. 

FoNTfiitfs, M., propraetor in Narbonese Gaul/ between 76 and 73 
B.C., accused in 69 of extortion in his province and defended by 
Cicero in an oration, part of which is extant. 

FojutUB, ancient town in Latium, on the Appia Via. Near 
this place were numerous villas of the Roman nobles: of these the 
best known is the Formianum of Cicero, in the neighbourhood of 
which he was kffled. The hills of Formiae produced good wine. 

FORNAX, Roman goddess, who presided over baking the corn 
in the oven (fornax). Her festival was the Fomacalia. 

FORTUNA, called [ Trf#7 (TuchS) by the Greeks, the goddess of good 
luck, TOhrpped both in Greece and Italy. She was represented 
with different attributes. With a rudder, she was conceived as the 
divinity guiding the affairs of the world; with a ball, she represented 
the varying unsteadiness of fortune; with Hutus, or the horn of 
Amalthea, she was the symbol of the plentiful gifts of fortune The 
emperor Trajan founded a temple in her honour. 
FORTUNATAS or -ORUM iNstJLAB, 'the Islands of the Blessed' 

3? H S?S ^ e *}*** fields were *rfea * the abode oftbe 
favoured dead. [ELYSIUM.] In poems later than Homer, an island 
spoken of as their abode; and le poets, and the geographer who 

, ograper wo 

foHowedthem placed it beyond the Pillars of HerS He^ce 
when certain islands were discovered in the ocean, off the^t 
of Africa, ^e name ^Fortunatae Insulae was applied to them. 
are now called the Canary and Madeira 


F6*RUM, an open space of ground, in which the public met for 
the transaction of public business, and for the sale and purchase of 
provisions. The number of fora increased at Rome with the growth 
of the city. They were level pieces of ground of an oblong form, 
and were surrounded by buildings, both private and public. The 
principal fora at Rome were: i. FORUM ROMANUM, also called 
the Forum, and at a later time distinguished by the epithets vetus 
or magnum. It lay between the Capitoline and Palatine hills, 
and ran lengthwise from the foot of the Capitol or the Arch of Septi- 
mius Severus in the direction of the Arch of Titus. The Forum, in 
its widest sense, included the Forum properly so called, and the 
Comitium. The Comitium occupied the narrow or upper end of the 
Forum, and was the place where the patricians met in their comitia 
curiata: the Forum, in its narrower sense, was originally only a 
market-place, and was not used for any political purpose. At a 
later time, the Forum In its narrower sense was the place of meeting 
for the plebeians in their comitia tributa, and was separated from 
the Comitium by the Rostra or platform, from which the orators 
addressed the people. In the time of Tarquin the Forum was sur- 
rounded by a range of shops, probably of a mean character, but 
they gradually changed, and were eventually occupied by bankers 
and money-changers. As Rome grew in greatness, the Forum was 
adorned with statues of celebrated men, with temples and basilicae, 
and with other public buildings. See Middleton, Remains of A ntient 
Rome, vol. i, pp. 231-352. 2. FORUM JULIUM or FORUM CABSARIS, 
built near the old Forum by Julius Caesar, because the latter was 
found too small for the transaction of public business. 3. FORUM 
AUGUSTI, built by Augustus, behind the Forum Julium. 4. FORUM 
NBRVAE,was a small forum lying between the Temple of Peace and the 
fora of Julius Caesar and Augusta. Jt was built by Nerva. 5. FORUM 
TRAJ ANI, built by the emperor Trajan, between the forum of Augustus 
and the Campus Martins. Cf. Middleton, of. cit. t vol. ii, pp. 24 sqq. 

FORUM, several towns originally markets or places for administra- 
tion of justice, i. APPII, in Latium, on the Appia Via, in the midst 
of the Pontine marshes, 43 miles S.E. of Rome, founded by the 
censor Appius Claudius when he made the Appia Via. Here the 
Christians from Rome met the Apostle Paul 2. JULII or JULIUM 
(Frijus), Roman colony founded by Julius Casar, 44 B.C., in Gallia 
Narbonensis, on the coast; the birthplace of Agricola. 

FOSSA or FOSSAE, a canal, i. CLUTLIA or CLUHIAE, a trench 
about 5 miles from Ifome, said to have, been the ditch with which 
the Alban fcfag Cluilius protected his camp, when he marched against 
Rome in the reign of Tullus Hostilius. 2. DRUSIANA or DRUS!NAB, 
a canal by which Drnsus in n B.C. united the Rhine with the Yssel. 
3. MARIANA or MARIANAS, a canal dug by command of Marius 
during his war with the Cimbri, in order to connect the Rhone with 
the Mediterranean. 4. XBRXIS. See ATBOS. 

FRANCI, i.e. 'the Free men,' confederacy of German tribes. 
AJfter carrying on frequent wars with the Romans, they at length 
settled in Gaul, which they ruled under Clovis, A.D. 496. 


, Samnite people dwelling on the coast of the Adriatic, 
from the river Sagrus on the N. (and almost as far N. as from the 
Aternus) to the river Frento on the S., from which they derived their 
name. They submitted to the Romans in 304 B.C. 

FK&TUM GADITINUM, the Straits of Gibraltar. 

FR&TUM GALL!CUM, the English Channel. 

FRlsft, people in Germany, inhabiting the coast from the . mouth 
of the Rhine to the Amisia (Ems}. In the 5th century they joined 
the Saxones and Angli in their invasion of Britain. 

FRONTbrus, SBX. JOLlus, governor of Britain (A.D. 75-8), where 
he distinguished himself by the conquest of the Silures (q,v.). He 
was the author of two treatises that are still extant one on the art 
of war, and another on the Roman aqueducts. [Text, with transla- 
tion by C. E. Bennett, in Loeb Library.] 

FRONTO, M. CORNELIUS, Roman rhetorician, born about A.D. no. 
Lived -mainly in Rome. Had an immense reputation in antiquity. 
Parts of his correspondence discovered in 1815 ; results disappointing. 
His letters are translated in the Loeb Library. 

FOdNUS LACUS (Logo di Cekmo or Logo Fucino), lake in the centre 
of Italy and in the country of the Marsi, about 30 miles in circum- 
ference, into which aH the mountain streams of the Apennines flowed 
To avoid the frequent flooding of this lake, the emperor Claudius 
constructed an emissarium or artificial channel for carrying off the 
waters of the lake into the river Liris. This emissarium is nearly 
perfect : it is almost 3 miles in length. For an account of the famous 
sea fight on this lake, read chap, xlix of Merivale's History of the 

FULVIA. i. The mistress of Q. Curius, one of Catiline's conspira- 
tors, who divulged the plot to Cicero, a. A daughter of M. Fulvius 
Bambalio of Tusculum, and successively the wife of P. Clodius 
C. Scribonius Curio, and M. Antony; died 40 B.C. ' 


GisXi, town in Latram, a colony from Alba Longa; and the place 
according to tradition, where Romulus was brought up. It was 
taken by Tarquinius Superbus, and was in ruins in the time of 
Augustus. The cinckts Gdbinus, a mode of wearing the toga at Rome 
appears to have been derived from this town. . In its neighbourhood 
are the stone quarries, from which a part of Rome was built. 

GXBbrfus, A., tribune of the plebs 66 B.C., when he carried a law 
conferring upon Pompey the command of the war against the pirates 
and consul in 58, when he took part in the banishment of Cicero' 
In the civil war he fought for Caesar. Died 48 B.C. 

Gtoss (Cadiz), ancient town in Hispania Baetica, founded by 

GABA. or GS, odled TBU.TJS by the Romans, the personification 


of the earth, is described as the first being that sprang from Chaos, 
and gave birth to Uranus (Heaven), and Pontus (Sea). By Uranus 
she became the mother of the Titans, who were hated by their father. 
Ge therefore concealed them in the bosom of the earth ; and she made 
a large iron sickle, with which Cronos mutilated Uranus. Ge (or 
Tellus) was regarded by both Greeks and Romans as one of the gods 
of the nether world. 

A, the interior of N. Africa. 

GAIus, Roman jurist, who wrote under Antoninus Pius and M. 
Aurelius. One of his chief works was an elementary treatise on 
Roman law, entitled Institution's, in 4 books, which was the chief 
text-book until the compilation of the Institutiones of Justinian. 
It was lost for centuries, until discovered by Niebuhr in 1816 at 
Verona. Best edition, Poste's (Oxford University Press). 

GirJtTfiA, sea-nymph, daughter of Nereus and Doris. [Acis.] 

GXiJCTlA, a country of Asia Minor, composed of parts of Phrygia 
and Cappadocia. It derived its name from its inhabitants, who were 
Gauls that had invaded and settled in Asia Minor during the 3rd 
century B.C. They overran all Asia Minor within the Taurus, 
and exacted tribute from its princes; but Attalus I defeated them 
(230 B.C.), and compelled them to settle down within the limits of 
the country, thenceforth called Galatia, and also Graeco-Galatia 
and Gallograeda. The people of Galatia adopted to a great extent 
Greek habits and manners and religious observances, but preserved 
their own. language. They retained their political divisions and 
forms of government. From the Epistle of St. Paul to the Galatians 
we learn that the Christian churches in Galatia consisted, in great 
part, of Jewish converts. See Ramsay, The Church in the Roman 

GALBA, name of a distinguished family in the Sulpicia gens. 
x. P. SUUPICIUS GALBA, twice consul, 211 and 200 B.C., and carried 
on war against Philip, king of Macedonia. 2. SBR. SULPICIUS 
GALBA, praised by Cicero for his oratory, praetor 151, when he 
treacherously murdered a large number of Lusitanians, and consul 
144. 3. SER. STJLPICIUS, Roman, emperor, June A.I>. 68 to January 
69, was born 3 B.C. After his consulship he had the govern- 
ment of Gaul, 38, where he carried on a successful war against 
the Germans. Nero gave him, in 61, the government of His- 
pania Tarraconensis, where he remained for 8 years. When, Nero 
was murdered Galba proceeded to Rome, where he was acknowledged 
as emperor. But his severity and avarice made him unpopular 
with the soldiers, by whom he was murdered, at the instigation of 

GlLfiNUS, CLAUDIUS, commonly called Galen, next to Hippo- 
crates the most celebrated of ancient physicians, born at Perga- 
mum, A.D. 130. He was educated by his father Nicon, who, in 
consequence of a dream, chose for him the profession of medicine. 
This subject he first studied at Pergamum, afterwards at Smyrna, 
Corinth, and Alexandria. He practised in his native city, and at 


Rome, where he attended the emperors M. Aurelius and L. Verns. 
He died about 200, at the age of 70. He wrote a great number 
of works on medical and philosophical subjects. His treatise on 
the Natural Faculties has been translated by A. J. Brock in the 
Loeb Library. 

GALftsus, river in the S. of Italy, flowing into the Gulf of Tarentmn 
through the meadows where the sheep grazed whose wool was so 
celebrated in antiquity. 

GlLfius, that is, 'the lizard,' son of Apollo and Themisto, from 
whom the Galedtae, a family of Sicilian soothsayers, derived their 
origin. The principal seat of the Galeotae was the town of Hybla, 
which was hence called Galefitis or Galeatis. 

or G&LANTHis, daughter of Proetus of Thebes, and 
a Mend of Alcmene. When Alcmene was on the point of giving 
birth to Hercules, and the Moerae and Ilithyiae, at the request of 
Hera, were endeavouring to delay the birth, Galinthias suddenly 
rushed in with the false report that Alcmene had given birth to a 
son. The hostile goddesses were so surprised at this information 
that they dropped their arms. Thus the charm was broken, and 
Alcmene was enable to give birth to Hercules. The goddesses 
avenged the deception practised upon them by metamorphosing 
Galinthias into a weasel (yoMj). Hecate, however, took pity upon 
her, and made her her attendant, and Hercules erected a sanctuary 
to her. 

(modern Gcdicia), the country of the Gallaeci or Callaed, 
in the extreme N.W. of Spain. Its inhabitants were the most un- 
civilized in Spain. They were defeated with great slaughter by 
D. Brutus, consul 138 B.C., who was given the surname of 

GAT.T.TA, in its widest acceptation, indicated all the land inhabited 
by the Galli or GELTAB, but, in its narrower sense, was applied to 
two countries : i. GAT.LIA TJULNTSALPINA, to distinguish it from Gallia 
Cisalpina, or the N. of Italy. In the time of Augustus it was bounded 
on the S. by the Pyrenees and the Mediterranean; on the E. by the 
river Varus and the Alps, and by the river Rhine, on the N. by the 
German Ocean and the KngTiah Channel, and on the W. by the 
Atlantic^ The Greeks, at a very early period, became acquainted 
with, the S. coast of Gaul, where they founded, in 600 B.C., the im- 
portant town of MASSHIA. The Romans commenced the conquest 
of Gaul 125 B.C., and a few years afterwards made the south-eastern 
part of the country a Roman province. In Caesar's Commentaries 
the Roman province is called simply Provincia, in contradistinction 
to the rest of the country ; hence comes the modern name of Provence. 
The rest of the country was subdued by Caesar after a struggle of 
several years (58-^50). At this time Gaul was divided into 3 parts 
Ammonia, Cettica, and Belgica, according to the 3 different races by 
which it was inhabited. The Aquitani dwelt in the S.W., between 
the Pyrenees and the Garumna; the Celtae, or Galli proper, in the 
centre and W., between the Garumna. and the Seqnana and the 


Matrona; and the Belgae in the N.E., between the two last-mentioned 
rivers and the Rhine. Of the many tribes inhabiting Gallia Celtica 
none were more powerful than the Aedui, the Sequani, and the 
Helvetia. Augustas divided Gaul into 4 provinces: (i) Gallia 
Narbonensis, the same as the old Provincia. (2) G. Aquitanica, 
which extended from the Pyrenees to the Liger. (3) G. Lugdunensis, 
the country between the Liger, the Sequana, and the Arar, so called 
from the colony of Lugdunum (Lyons) , founded by Munatius Plancus. 
(4) G. Belgica, the country between the Sequana, the Arar, and the 
Rhine. Shortly afterwards the portion of Belgica bordering on the 
Rhine, and inhabited by German tribes, was subdivided into 2 new 
provinces, called Germania Prima and Stcunda, or Germania Superior 
and Inferior. The Latin language became the language of the 
inhabitants, and Roman civilization took deep root in all parts 
of the country. The rhetoricians and poets^of Gaul occupy a dis- 
tinguished place in the later history of Roman literature. On the 
dissolution of the Roman empire, Gaul was overrun by barbarians, 
and the greater part of it finally became subject to the Franci 
or Franks, under their king Qovis, about A.D. 496. 2. GALLIA 
CISALPINA, also called G. Citerior, a Roman province in the N. of 
Italy. It was divided by the Po into Gattia Transpadana, also 
called Italia Transpadana, in the N. and Gallia Cispadana in the S. 
It was originally inhabited by Ligurians, Umbrians, Etruscans, and 
other races; but its fertility attracted the Gauls, who at different 
periods crossed the Alps, and settled in the country, after expelling 
the original inhabitants. After the ist Punic war the Romans 
conquered the whole country, and formed it into a Roman province. 
It was not, however, till after the final defeat of the Boii in 191 that 
the country became submissive to the Romans. 

GAuJtfiNUS, Roman emperor, A.D. 260-8, succeeded his father 
Valerian, when the latter was taken prisoner by the Persians in 260. 
Gallienus was profligate and indifferent to the public warfare; and 
his reign was ignoble and disastrous. Usurpers .sprung up in differ- 
ent parts of the empire, who are commonly distinguished as The 
Thirty Tyrants. Gallienus was slain by his own soldiers in 268, 
while besieging Milan, 

GALLXJS, C. CosNfiLXus, Roman poet, born in Gaul, went to Italy 
at an early age, and rose to distinction under Julius Caesar and 
Augustus. He was appointed by the latter the first prefect of the 
province of Egypt; but having incurred the displeasure of Augustus, 
the senate sent him into exile; whereupon he put an end to his life, 
26 B.C. Ovid assigned to him the first place among the Roman 
elegiac poets. All his productions have perished. 

GALLUS, TRfisSirfANUS, Roman emperor, A.D. ^5 J -4 *&* successor 
of Decius, purchased a peace witix the Goths on dishonourable 
terms, and was afterwards put to death by his own soldiers. 

GALLUS SALON!NUS, L. ASTNTCTS, son of C. Asinius Poffio, was 
consul 8 B.C. He was hated by Tiberius, because he had married 
Vipsania, the former wife of Tiberius. Tiberius kept him imprisoned 
for three years and he died of starvation in prison, A.D. 33. GaUua 


wrote a work unfavourable to Cicero, to which the emperor Claudius 

GiirftuSDfis, son of Tros and Callirrhoe, and brother of Hus and 
Assaracus, was the most beautiful of all mortals, and was carried 
off by the gods that he might fill the cup of Zeus. This is the 
Homeric account; but other traditions give different details. He 
is called son either of Laomedon, or of Hus, or of Erichthonius, or of 
Assaracus. Later writers state that Zeus himself carried him off, 
in the form of an eagle, or by means of his eagle. Later writers 
represent Mm as carried off from Mt. Ida. Zeus compensated the 
father by a pair of divine horses. Astronomers placed Gany- 
medes among the stars under the name of Aquarius. 

GsXM ANTES, the S.-most people known to the ancients in N. 
Africa, dwelt far S. of the Great Syrtis in the region called Fhazania 
(Fexzan), where they had a capital city, Garama. They are men- 
tioned by Herodotus as a weak, unwarllke people. 

GA&GANUS MONS (Mont* Gargano), promontory in Apulia. 

GARGBTTTJS, a demus (or 'parish 1 ) in Attica; the birthplace of the 
philosopher Epicurus. 

GAUG&M&LA, village in Assyria, the scene of the last battle between 
Alexander and Darius, 331 B.C., commonly called the battle of 

GAURUS MONS, GAURANTJS or -NI M., a volcanic range of mountains 
in Campania, between Cumae and Neapolis, in the neighbourhood 
of Puteoli, producing good winje, and memorable for the defeat of 
Samnites by M. Valerius Corvus, 343 B.C. 

GAZA, one of the 5 cities of the Philistines; taken by Alexander 
the Great after an obstinate defence of several months. 

Gfi. [GABA.] 

G&DROslA, the furthest province of the Persian empire on the 
S.E., bounded on the W. by Carmania, on the N. by Drangiana and 
Arachosia, on the E. by India, and on the S. by the Mare Erythraeum, 
or Indian Ocean. It is known in history chiefly through the distress 
suffered for want of water, in passing through it, by the army of 

GBLA, city on the S. coast of Sicily. It obtained power and wealth ; 
and, in 582, it founded Agrigentum. Gelon transported half of its 
inhabitants to Syracuse; the place fell into decay, and in the time 
of Augustus was not inhabited. Aeschylus died here. 

GsLiIus, AULUS, Latin grammarian, who lived about A JD. 117^-80. 
He wrote a work, still extant, containing numerous valuable extracts 
from Greek and Roman writers, which he called Nodes Atiicae, 
because it was composed near Athens, during the long nights of 
winter. [Text, and translation by J. C. RolfeTin Loeb Library.] 

GfcLCN, tyrant of Gela, and afterwards of Syracuse, became master 
of hjsnative city, 491 B.C. In 485 he obtained the supreme power 
in Syracuse, and henceforth endeavoured to enlarge and enrich it 
In 480 he gained a victory at Hlmera over the Carthaginians, who 


had Invaded Sicily. He died in 478, after reigning 7 years at 
Syracuse. He is represented as a man of aiTigniar leniency and 

GfiMSjrtAB (scalae) or GM$Nli (gradus), a flight of steps cut out 
of the Aventine, down which the bodies of criminals strangled in 
the prison were dragged, and afterwards thrown into the Tiber. 

GfcNXsuM or C&NrXBUM (Orleans), town in Gallia Lugdunensis, on 
the N. bank of the Ligeris, the chief town of the Carnutes, subse- 
quently called Civitas Aurelianorum, or Aurelianensis Urbs, whence 
its modern name. 

GfiNfixiox, that is, 'the mother/ used by Ovid as a surname of 
Cybele, but it is better known as a surname of Venus, to whom 
Caesar dedicated a temple at Home, as the mother of the Julia 

G&NfiVA. or GfiN&VA (Geneva), the last town of the AHobroges, on 
the frontiers of the Helvetii, situated on the S. bank of the Rhfine, 
at the spot where the river flowed out of the Lacus Lemannus. 
There was a bridge here over the Rhdne. 

GfiNlus, a protecting spirit. The belief in such spirits existed 
both in Greece and at Home. The Greeks called them daemons 
(Salfjwrcs), and the poets . represented them as dwelling on earth, 
unseen by mortals, as the ministers of Zeus, and as the guardians 
of men and of justice. The Greek philosophers took up this idea, 
and taught that daemons were assigned to men at the moment of 
their birth, that they accompanied men through life, and after death 
conducted their souls to Hades. According to the opinion of the 
Romans, every human being at his birth obtained a genius, whom 
he worshipped as sanctus et sanctissimus deus, especially on his birth- 
day, with libations of wine, incense, and garlands of flowers. The 
bridal bed was sacred to the genius, on account of his connection 
with generation, and the bed itself was called lectus genialis. On 
other merry occasions, also, sacrifices were offered, to the genius., 
and to indulge in merriment was not unfrequently expressed "bygenio 
indulgere, genium curare or placare. Every place had also its genius. 
Under the empire the ' genius ' of Augustus was publicly worshipped. 
The genii are usually represented in works of art as winged 

GBNS&RIC, king of the Vandals, and the most terrible of all the 
barbarian invaders of the empire. In A.D. 429 he crossed over from 
Spain, and made himself master of the whole of N. Africa. In 455 
he took Rome and plundered it for 14 days. He died in 477, at a 
great age. He was an Arian, and persecuted his Catholic subjects. 
See Gibbon, Decline and Fall. 

Gsittitrs, king of the Ulyrians, conquered by Rome, 168 B.C. 

GjJNtfA (Genoa), commercial town in Liguria, situated on the 
Ligurian Gulf (Gulf of Genoa), subsequently a Roman munidpium. 

GSsSNlA, ancient town in Messenia, the birthplace of Nestor, 
who is hence called Gerenian, 


GBRMAN!A, a country bounded by the Rhine on the W., by the 
Vistula and the Carpathian mountains on the E., by the Danube on 
the S., and by the German Ocean and the Baltic on the N. It thus 
included much more than modern Germany on the N. and E., but 
much less on the W. and S. The N. and N.E. of Gallia Belgica were 
likewise called Germania Prima and Secunda under the Roman 
emperors [GALUA] ; and it was in contradistinction to these provinces 
that Germania proper was also called Germania Magna or G. Trans- 
rhenana or G. Barbara. The inhabitants were called Germani by 
the Romans. Tacitus says that Germani was the name of the 
Tungri, who were the first German people that crossed the Rhine; 
and as these were the first German tribes with which this Romans 
came into contact, they extended the name to the whole nation. 
The Germans were a branch of the great Indo-Germanic race, who, 
along with the Celts, migrated into Europe from the Caucasus and 
the countries around the Black and Caspian Seas, at a period long 
anterior to historical records. They are described as a people of 
high stature and of great bodily strength, with fair complexions, 
blue eyes, and yellow or red hair. Many of their tribes were nomad, 
and every year changed their place of abode. The men were war- 
like. The women were held in honour. Both sexes were equally 
distinguished for their unconquerable love of liberty. In each tribe 
we find the people divided into 4 classes: the nobles; the freemen; 
the freedmen or vassals; and the slaves. A king or chief was elected 
from among the nobles his authority was very limited, and in case 
of war breaking out was often resigned to the warrior that was chosen 
as leader. The Germani first 'appear in history in the campaigns of 
the Cimbri and Teutones (113 B.C.), the latter of whom were un- 
doubtedly a Germanic people. Campaigns against the Germans 
were carried on by Julius Caesar, 58-53 ; by Drusus, 12-9 ; by Varus, 
most unsuccessfully, A.D. 9; and by Gennanicus, who was gaining 
continued victories when recalled by Tiberius, 16. No further 
attempts were made by the Romans to conquer Germany. They had 
rather to defend their own empire from the invasions of the various 
German tribes, especially against the 2 powerful confederacies of the 
Alemanni and Franks; and in the 4th and 5th centuries the Germans 
obtained possession of some of the fairest provinces of the empire. 

GBRMiNlcus CAESAR, son of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia, 
daughter of the triumvir Antony, was born 15 B.C. He was adopted 
by his uncle Tiberius in the lifetime of Augustus, and was raised 
to the honours of the state. He assisted Tiberius in his war against 
the Pannonians and Dalmatians (A.D. 7-10), and Germans (xi, 12). 
He had the command of the legions in Germany, when the alarming 
mutiny broke out among the soldiers in Germany and Blyricum, 
upon the death of Augustus (14). After restoring order among the 
troops, he devoted himself to the conquest of Germany, and carried 
on the war with such success, that he needed only another year to 
reduce the whole country between the Rhine and the Elbe. But 
the jealousy of Tiberius saved Germany. He recalled Germanicus 
to Rome (17), and gave him the command of all the eastern pro- 


vinces; but at the same time he placed Cn. Piso over Syria, with 
secret Instructions to check and thwart Germanicus. Gennanicus 
died in Syria in 19, and it -was believed both by himself and by others 
that he had been poisoned by Piso. He was deeply lamented by the 
Roman people, and Tiberius was obliged to sacrifice Piso to the 
public indignation. By Agrippina he had g children, of whom 
the most notorious were the emperor Caligula, and Agrippina, the 
mother of Nero. Germanicus was an author of some repute. He 
wrote several poetical works, most of which are lost, 

GEROUSIA (council of the old men), the supreme legislative body 
in Sparta. Later in history, the Ephors absorbed much of the 
power of the 'Gerontes.' 

GBRRA, city of Arabia, and a great emporium for the trade of 
Arabia and India, stood on the N.E. coast of Arabia Felix. The 
inhabitants, called Gerraei, were said to have been originally Chal- 
deans, who were driven out of Babylon. 

GflRtfoN, or GfiRtfo'Nfis, monster with 3 heads, or with 3 bodies 
united together. [HBRCTTLBS. Labour, id] 

GTA, SEPrlMlus, brother of Caracalla, by whom he was assassi- 
nated, A.D. 212. [CARACALLA.] 

G&TAB, Thracian people, called Dad by the Romans. Herodotus 
and Thucydides place them S. of the Ister (Danube) near its 
mouths; and in the time of Alexander they dwelt beyond *hi> river. 

GlGANTBS, the giants, sprang from the blood that fell from Uranus 
upon the earth, so that Gre (the Earth) was their mother. They are 
represented as beings of a monstrous size, with fearful countenances 
and the tails of dragons. They attacked heaven, armed with rocks 
and trunks of trees; but the gods with the assistance of Hercules 
destroyed them all, and buried them under Aetna and other vol- 
canoes. It is probable that the story of their contest with the gods 
took its origin from volcanic convulsions. 

GLXBR!O, AcWus. z. Consul, 191 B.C., when he defeated Anti- 
ochus at Thermopylae. 2. Praetor urbanus in 70, when he presided 
at the impeachment of Verres, and consul in 67, and subsequently 
the successor of L. Lucullus in the command of the war against 
Mithxidates, in which, however, he was superseded by Cn. Pompey. 

GLADIATOR (swordsman). Up to 105 B.C. gladiatorial exhibitions 
were given by private individuals; possibly they were at first used 
by way of giving instruction in the art of swordsmanship. Later 
these inhuman shows became the delight of the Roman rabble. 
Schools and colleges of gladiators were started, and became a menace 
to society. Trajan provided no less than 10,000 after his Dacian 
triumph, and the Flavian amphitheatre at Rome was only one place 
among many where these exhibitions took place. Not tin A.D. 404 
were they suppressed. 

GLAUcfi. i. One of the Nereides, the name Glance being only a 
personification of the colour of the sea. 2. Daughter of Creon of 
Corinth, also called Creuaa. 


GLAUCUS. I. Son of Sisyphus and father of Bellerophontes, torn 
to pieces by his own mares, because he had despised the power of 
Aphrodite. 2. Son of Hippolochus, and grandson of BeUerophontes, 
who was commander of the Lycians in the Trojan war. He was 
connected with Diomedes by ties of hospitality; and when they 
recognized one another in the battle, they abstained from fighting, 
and exchanged arms. Glaucus was aia-fa by Ajax. 3. One of the 
of sons of the Cretan king Minos by Pasiphae'. When a boy, he 
fell into a cask full of honey, and was smothered. He was discovered 
by a soothsayer, who was pointed out by Apollo for this purpose. 
Minos then required him to restore his son to life. Being unable to 
do this he was buried with Glaucus, when a serpent revealed a herb 
which restored the dead body to life. 4. Of Anthedon in Boeotia, 
a fisherman, who became a sea-god by eating a part of the divine 
herb which Cronus had sown. It was believed that Glaucus visited 
every year all the coasts and islands of Greece, accompanied by 
marine monsters, and gave his prophecies. Fishermen and sailors 
paid particular reverence to him, and watched his oracles, which 
were believed to be trustworthy. 

'the sweet one,' a favourite name of courtesans. 

became emperor of the West, A.D. 473. He was 
dethroned by Julius Nepos [NEPOS] and compelled to become a 
priest. He was appointed bishop of Salona in Dalmatia. 

GLYCON, Athenian artist, flourished ist cent. B.C,; sculptor of 
the 'Farnese Hercules' statue (now at Naples). 

GOMPHI, town in Hestiaeotis in Thessaly, fortress on the confines 
of Epirus, commanding the chief pass, between Thessaly and Epirus. 
GoKDliNus> M. ANx6N*us, the name of 3 Roman emperors, 
father, son, and grandson. The father was a man distinguished by 
intellectual and moral excellence, and had governed Africa for many 
years, when he was proclaimed emperor at the age of 80. Hfe 
associated his son with him in the empire, but reigned only two 
months. His son was slain in battle, and he put an end to his own 
life, A.D. 238. His grandson was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers 
in Rome, AJX 238, after the murder of Balbinus and Pupienus 
although he was only 12 years old. He reigned 6 years, from 238 
to 244, when he was assassinated by Misitheus in Mesopotamia. 

GoRitfuM, ancient capital of Phrygia, situated on the Sangarius 
the residence of the kings of the dynasty of Gordius, and the scene 
of Alexander's exploit of 'cutting the Gordian knot.' 

GoKDlus, ancient king of Phrygia, and father of Midas, was 
originally a peasant. Internal disturbances having broken out in 
Phrygia, an oracle informed the inhabitants that a wagon would 
bring them a king, who would put an end to their troubles. Shortly 
afterwards Gordius appeared riding in his wagon, and the people 
at once acknowledged him as king. Gordius, out of gratitudef dedi- 
cated his chariot to Zeus, in the acropolis of Gordium. The pole 
was fastened to the yoke by a knot of bark ; and an oracle declared 


that whosoever should untie the knot should reign over Asia. 
Alexander cut the knot with his sword, and applied the oracle 
to himself. 

GORGE, daughter of Oeneus and sister of Delanira, both of whom 
retained their original forms when their other sisters were meta- 
morphosed by Artemis into birds. 

GORGIAS, of Leontini, in Sicily, rhetorician and sophist, born about 
480 B.C., and lived upwards of 100 years. In 427 he was sent as 
ambassador to Athens to solicit its protection against Syracuse. 
A dialogue of Plato bears his name. His works are lost, with the 
possible exception of two declamations. 

GORG&NBS, the name of 3 frightful maidens, Stheno, Euryale, 
and Medusa, daughters of Phorcys and Ceto, whence they are some- 
times called Phorcydes. Later traditions placed them in Libya. 
Instead of hair their heads were covered with serpents; and they 
had wings, claws, and enormous teeth. Medusa, who alone of the 
sisters was mortal, was at first a beautiful maiden, but her hair was 
changed into serpents by Athena, in consequence of her having be- 
come by Poseidon the mother of Chrysaor and Pegasus, in one of 
Athena's temples. Every one who looked at her head was changed 
into stone. [PBRSHUS.] 

GORTON, GoRTltoA, ancient city in Crete. The * Law of Gortyn ' 
an inscription dating from about 400 B.C. was discovered in 1884. 
This code reveals many legal and social matters. 


G6THI, GO'THO'NSS, GUTTO'NBS, German people, who originally 
dwelt on the coast of the Baltic at the mouth of the Vistula, but 
afterwards migrated S. At the beginning of the 3rd century they 
appear on the coast of the Black Sea, and in 272 the emperor 
Aurelian surrendered to them the whole of Dacia. About *>" time 
we find them separated into a great divisions, the Ostrogoths or E. 
Goths, and the Visigoths or W. Goths. The Ostrogoths settled in 
Moesia and Pannonia, while the Visigoths remained N. of the Danube. 
The Visigoths under their king Alaric invaded Italy, and took and 
plundered Rome (410). A few years afterwards they settled perma- 
nently in the S. W. of Gaul, and established a kingdom of which 
Tolosa was the capital. From thence they invaded Spain, where 
they also founded a kingdom, which lasted for more than 2 centuries, 
till it was overthrown by the Arabs. The Ostrogoths meantime 
extended their dominions almost up to the gates of Constantinople. 
[THEODORICTTS -II.] The Ostrogoths embraced Christianity; and 
it was for their use that Ulpnilas translated the sacred Scriptures 
into Gothic, in the 4th century. 

GRACCHUS, the name of a celebrated family of the .Sempronia 
gens. i. TIB, SBMPRONIUS GRACCHUS, a distinguished general in 
the 2nd Punic war. In 212 B.C. he fell in battle against Mago, at 
Campi Veteres, in Lucania. His body was sent to Hannibal, who 
honoured it with a magnificent buriaL a. TIB. SEMPRONIUS 
GRACCHUS, distinguished as the father of the tribunes Tiberius and 


Cains Gracchus. For public services rendered when tribune of the 
plebs (i$7) to P. Scipio Africanus, he was rewarded with the hand of 
Scipio s youngest daughter, Cornelia. He was twice consul and once 
censor. He had 12 children by Cornelia, all of whom died at an 
early age, except the 2 tribunes, and a daughter, Cornelia, who was 
married to P. Scipio Africanus the younger. 3. TIB. SBMPRONIUS 
GRACCHUS, elder son of No. 2, lost his father at an early age, and was 
educated, together with his brother Caius, by his illustrious mother, 
Cornelia. The distressed condition of the Roman people excited 
the sympathies of Tiberius. He had observed the deserted state 
of some parts of the country, and the immense domains of the 
wealthy, cultivated only by slaves; and he resolved to use every 
effort to remedy this state of things by endeavouring to create an 
industrious middle class of agriculturists. With this view, when 
tribune of the plebs, 133, he proposed a bill for the renewing and 
enforcing of the Licinian law, which enacted that no citizen should 
hold more than 500 jugera of the public land. He added a clause, 
permitting a father of 2 sons to hold 250 jugera for each; so that 
a father of 2 sons might hold in all 1,000 jugera. To this measure 
the aristocracy were opposed; nevertheless, through the energy of 
Tiberius, it was passed, and triumvirs were appointed for carrying 
it into execution. These were Tib. Gracchus; App. Claudius, his 
father-in-law; and his brother, C. Gracchus. About this time 
Attains died, and on the proposition of Gracchus his property was 
divided among the poor, that they might purchase farming imple- 
ments, etc. When the time came for the election of the tribunes 
for the following year, Tiberius again came forward; but he was 
publicly assassinated by P. Scipio Nasica. He was about 35 years 
of age at the tnne of his death. He was a friend of the oppressed, 
and acted from worthy motives. Much of the odium that has been 
thrown upon frfo" and his brother has arisen from a misunderstand* 
ing of the Roman agrarian laws. 4. C. SBMPRONITJS GRACCHUS, 
brother of the preceding, was tribune of the plebs, 123. His reforms 
were more extensive than his brother's, and such was his influence 
with the people that he carried all he proposed. His first measure 
was the renewal of the agrarian law of his brother. He also enacted 
that the judices, who had hitherto been elected from the senate, 
should in future be chosen from the equates ; and that in every year, 
before the consuls were elected the senate should determine the 
2 provinces which the consuls should have. Caius was elected 
tribune a second time, 122. The senate, resolved to destroy his 
influence with the people. They therefore persuaded M. Livius 
Drusus, a colleague of Caius, to propose measures more popular 
than those of Caius. The people were duped by the treacherous 
agent of the senate and the popularity of Caius waned. He failed 
m obtaining Hie tribuneship lor the following year (121) ; and when 
his year of office expired, -Ms enemies repealed several of his enact- 
ments. Cams appeared in the forum to oppose these proceedings, 
upon which, a riot ensued, and while his friends fought in his defence, 
he fled to Hie grove of the Furies, where he fell by the hands of his- 
slave, whom he had commanded to put him to death. About 3,000 


of his friends were aiafa, and many were thrown into prison, and 
there strangled. For 3 and 4 see Beesly's monograph, The Gracchi, 
Marius and Sulla. 

GRD!VUS, surname of Mars, who is called gradivus pater ^M rex 
gradivus. Numa appointed 12 Salii as priests of Mars. 

GRABAB, that is, 'the old women/ were 3 in number. They 
had grey hair from their birth; and had only one tooth and one eye 
in common. [PERSEUS.] 

GRABCIA or HBLLAS, a country in Europe, the inhabitants of 
which were called Graeci or Hellenes. Among the Greeks Hellas 
did not signify any particular country, bounded by certain geogra- 
phical limits, but was used in general to signify the abode of the 
Hellenes, wherever they might happen to be settled. Thus the 
Greek colonies of Cyrene in Africa, of Syracuse in Sicily, of Tarentum 
in Italy, and of Smyrna in Asia, were said to be in Hellas. In the 
most ancient times Hellas was a small district of Phthiotis in 
Thessaly. Peloponnesus was generally spoken of, during the 
nourishing times of Greek independence, as distinct from Hellas 
proper; but subsequently Peloponnesus and the Greek islands were 
also included under the general name of Hellas, in opposition to the 
land of the barbarians. The Romans called the land of the Hellenes 
Graecia, probably from their first becoming acquainted with the 
tribe of the Graeci, who appear at an early period to have dwelt on 
the W. coast of Epirus. The greatest length of Greece proper from 
Mt. Olympus to Cape Taenarus is about 250 English miles; its 
greatest breadth from the W. coast of Acarnania to Marathon in 
Attica is about 180 miles. Its area is somewhat less than that of 
Portugal. On the N. it was separated by the Cambunian and 
Ceraunian mountains from Macedonia and IHyria; and on the other 
3 sides it is bounded by the sea, namely, by the Ionian Sea on the 
W., and by the Aegaean on the E. and S. It is one of the most 
mountainous countries of Europe, and possesses few extensive 
plains and few continuous valleys. The inhabitants were thus 
separated from one another by barriers which it was not easy to 
surmount, and were naturally led to form separate political com- 
munities. At a later time the N. of Greece was generally divided 
or Peloponnesus was usually divided into 10 districts likewise: 


CYNURIA, ARGOLIS, and ARCADIA. The most celebrated of the 
original inhabitants of Greece were the Pelasgians, from whom a 
considerable part of the Greek population was, undoubtedly de- 
scended. IJPELASGI.] The Hellenes traced their origin to a mythical 
ancestor Hellen, from whose sons and grandsons they were divided 
into the 4 great tribes of Dorians, Aeolians, Achaeans and lonians. 
For a description of Greece by Pausanias, see Tozer, History of 
Ancient Geography, pp. 354 S 44> 

GRAEdtA MAGNA, a name given to the .districts in the S. of Italy, 
inhabited by the Greeks. This name was never used simply to 


indicate the S. of Italy; it was always confined to the Greek cities 
and their territories, and did not include the surrounding districts, 
inhabited by the Italian tribes. It appears to have been applied 
chiefly to the cities on the Tarentine Gulf, Tarentum, Sybaris, Croton, 
Caulonia, Siris (Heraclea), Metapontum, Locri, and Rhegium; but it 
also included the Greek cities on the W. coast, such as Cumae and 
Neapolis. Strabo applies it even to the Greek cities of Sicily. 

GRlNlcus, small river of Mysia, memorable as the scene of the 
victory of Alexander the Great over the Persians (334 B.C.), 


GRirliNUS, emperor of the Western Empire, A.D. 367-83, son 
of Valentinian I. He was slain by the usurper Maximus. 

GRArrfus FIuscus, contemporary of Ovid, and the author of an 
extant poem on the chase. 

GRAVISCAB, ancient city of Etruria, subject to Tarquinii, and 
colonized by the Romans, 183 B.C. Its air was unhealthy, whence 
Virgil calls it intdmpestae Grauiscae. 

GRBBK ART. The history of Greek art is the history of the in- 
tellectual and religious development of the Greek genius. In the 
main it is of native growth; but in art, as elsewhere, the Greeks 
were singularly receptive; what was useful in the art of other peoples 
ifcey seized and adopted. 

The remains of Greek artare comparatively scanty, yet enough has 
survived to enable us to form a fairly accurate estimate of the 
intellectual vigour and aesthetic charm of a highly gifted race. 
From the first to the last Greek art was ideal. The -Greeks were 
not content to copy nature; their art originated in a mental re- 
constmction, which has a basis of observation. Direct and simple 
in its ultimate appeal, it eschewed adventitious ornament, sub- 
ordinating mere craftsmanship to the test of pure beauty. 

The earliest remains of Greek art are those of the primitive and 
the Mycenaean periods; specimens have been discovered in Crete, 
Troy, Cyprus, Mycenae, and elsewhere. The primitive period lasted 
(roughly) from about 2500 to 1800 B.C. ; then followed the Mycenaean 
(i 800-1100); after that the geometrical period, and the period of 
Oriental influence. 

The age of transition took place during the first half of the 5th 
century. It was followed by the age of maturity, during which the 
greatest works were produced. The most celebrated of these works 
were the achievements of PHIDIAS and his school (e.g., the Parthenon; 
with its sculptured frieze fragments of which are toniay in London. 
It cannot be certain, however, that any of the surviving sculptures 
are by Phidias himself.) The sculptors of the 4th century include 
Scopas, Praxiteles, and Lysippus, It was not till early in the 
3rd century that the decline began ; and little of first-rate importance 
was produced after the Rhodian school ceased to be a creative 
centre. In the ist century B.C. Greek influences began to operate 
at Rome, 

Of the once celebrated paintings of Micon, Zeuxis, and Apelles, 


no specimens survive. In vase painting, however, both in the 
black-figure and red-figure styles, ample traces have been left; 
and the museums of Europe are filled with many fine examples of 
the work of the 6th- and 5th-century artists. Amphoras, lecythi, 
cylixes, and pottery of various shapes can be examined, and their 
technique studied. 

Many beautiful specimens of terra-cotta figures have also been 
preserved; and the student may see, in the British Museum, quite 
a number of the (so-called) Tanagra statuettes. [TANAGRA.] 

Greek coins, too, and engraved gems exhibit the work of Greek 
artists; the coins have not only an artistic but a historical and 
archaeological importance not to be overlooked. The culminating 
period is reached about 400 B.C., when the art of coin-engraving 
attained the highest pitch of excellence. Only the finest crafts- 
men were chosen to deal with these exquisite little works of art. 

Bronze reliels and metal-work of various sorts were produced in 
large quantitites; many of them (e.g. the Siris bronzes and heroic 
figure from Bracciano now in the British Museum) are of -great 
beauty and consummate workmanship. 

Few original Greek sculptures survive to-day. The statues we 
see in museums and galleries are almost all copies (more or less 
accurate) of the originals. As for the chryselephantine statues 
(like that of Athena in the Acropolis of Athens), they have utterly 
perished; and the thousands of bronzes, which once adorned the 
great cities of Greece and Asia Minor, have long since gone into the 
melting-pot. There is only one original statue as executed by one 
of the great Greek masters the world-famous Hermes of Praxiteles. 
The copies we possess were mainly taken during Roman times. 
As a result of excavation, however, examples of original Greek 
sculpture have been largely increased during the last 50 years. 
Even the sea has given its yield, as a bronze statue of Zeus or 
Poseidon has been (1928). salvaged from the Straits of Euboea. 
It probably dates from 450 B.C. 

Another point worth noting is that very few of the Greek marble 
statues were wrought out of a single piece of stone. As a rule the 
head was separate from the body, was made of a finer kind of marble, 
and afterwards joined on with extraordinary delicacy and care. 

A third point is that most of the best Greek marble statuary was 
tinted; the colour being laid on flat, not shaded, or graded. Mere 
stone/men, however well executed, would never have satisfied the 
Greek, with his love of wax ruth and colour. Traces of colour in 
Greek' sculpture are still to be seen. Nor was a colour-scheme 
confined to figure-work; for example, the exterior of the Parthenon 
was elaborately coloured. Bronze statues were mainly cast hoUow; 
those in the solid are nearly all archaic. See H. B. Walters, The 
Art of the Greeks (1906); E. A. Gardner, The Art of Greece (1925); 
Percy Gardiner, New Chapters in Greek Art (1926); J. D. Beadey 
and B. Ashmole, Greek Sculpture and Painting (193*)- 

GREEK DRAMA. The Greek drama arose from the songs and 
dances employed in the worship of Dionysus, the wine-god; but its 


early history is obscure, although its origin has been traced to the 
worship of the dead. The word ' tragedy T is commonly derived from 
a word meaning goat, the chorus in early times being composed of 
50 men dressed as satyrs (Greek rpiyoi, or 'goats'). Gradually, 
the early crudities were eliminated; the Subject of the drama no 
longer was confined to the adventures of Dionysus; the chorus 
ceased to be a 'goat' dance. The transformation of the dithyramb 
(the Dionysiac dance) into a simple form of drama is ascribed to 
Thespis, who introduced an interlocutor, or actor, who eiribodied 
in himself a number of characters. Aeschylus introduced a second 
actor, Sophocles a third. It was usual for dramatists to present 
their tragedies in the form of a trilogy (viz. three dramas), followed 
by a satyric piece (a survival of the old satyric chorus). Thus the 
Agamemnon, Choephori and Eumenides of Aeschylus formed one of 
these trilogies; these are extant; but the satyric pendant, the 
Proteus, is lost. At Athens, the custom was to produce new plays 
at the Great Dionysia (the annual spring festival in honour of 
Dionysus). 'Comedy' was developed from the mumming of the 
old vintage and harvest feasts. As the solemnity of Dionysiac 
religion is exemplified in tragedy, so in comedy we have the f arcial 
and extravagant aspects displayed. In form it was developed on 
the lines of tragic drama. Attic (or old) comedy began about 476 
B.C.; but it was reserved for Aristophanes to bring it to perfection 
IBs plays range over about 40 years (427-3*8). The Aristophanfc 
comedy is, mainly, a satirical commentary on everyday life in Athens 
See Haig> Tragic Drama of the Greeks; also Norwood, Greek Tragedv 
(1928) and Greek Comedy (1931); and A. W. Kcfca^-Cajnbridg 
Dithyramb, Tragedy and Comedy (1927). w 

GREEK FESTIVALS. Amongst the Greeks there was no political 
unity, as we understand it; butthere was a consciousness of national 
unity, and this feeling found expression in 4 great national 

M. , T 

*$S$ ; (3 > of fy**** A P o]l0 at Delphi; and ( 4 > of Poseidon on 
the Isthmus near Connth. Every true feeHeneliad a right to share 
in these J festivals. The Pvthian and Olympian festival? took place 
every 5th year, the other two every ^rd year. 

The festivals derived their chief feme from the great athletic 
*<* wfcch i took place at them. Valuable prWwere offered 
tofhe victor, the .most coveted of afl being tba croro of wifcj olive at 
Otympia, and the chaptet of bay at Delphi. The victors were 
escorted home with great triumph, and lilted at S pSSte 
e, while poeis ffl Pindar chanted their praises ' STacS ?S 

At Athens 6 chief festivals may be noted- 

t <* 


in September); (4) the Anthesteria, held in spring, in honour of 
Dionysus; (5) the Diasia, in honour of Zeus, the Gracious (petXixw), 
in his role as god of placation: Murray, Five Stages, p. 27, Thucyd. 
i. 1 26 ; (6) the Thesmophoria, in honour of Demeter and her daughter 
Core", the two great queens. This was celebrated by women alone, 
towards the end of October, when a sacrifice of pigs was made. Cf. 
Murray, op. dt., pp. 29, 30; B. Bickley Rogers, Intro, to the Tkesmo- 
phoriazuxae of Aristophanes. 

GREEK PHILOSOPHY. The original home of Greek philosophy 
must be sought for not in Greece proper but in the Greek colonies 
of Magna Graetia (S. Italy) and Asia Minor. As early as 600 B.C. 
the Greeks of Ionia began to ask themselves the questions 'What is 
the world in which we live? What is its origin ?' A hundred years 
later we find the same questions being asked in S. Italy; and it was 
not till half a century later that speculative inquiry truly began in 
Greece itself. 

The first important name in Greek philosophy was THALES of 
Miletus (a contemporary of Solon). His speculations mark the 
transition from myth to science; and his theory was that water 
is the substance of things. Next ANAXIMANDBR (also of Miletus), 
a younger contemporary of Thales, took as his principle (d^pf) not 
water, but 'the infinite' a material 'something' out of which 
were produced the four elements. He was followed by ANAXTMBNES 
(also of Miletus), who chose air for his principle; to this he gave the 
name God. But the greatest of these Ionian physicists was HERA- 
CLITUS of Ephesus, who preferred to regard fire as the primordial 
principle, and established the famous proposition, 'All things are in 
a state of flux.' 

After Anaximenes came two Eastern Greeks who settled in Italy, 
Pythagoras and Xenophanes. PYTHAGORAS of Samos may be 
looked upon as the founder of a mystical theory of the world; a 
special feature of his system was that the key of the universe was 
to be found in the doctrine of numbers. He taught not only the 
immortality of the soul ((fvx^) but its pre-existence ; and he believed 
in transmigration. XBNOPHANES, the founder of what is known as 
the Eleatic School, came originally from Asia Minor; he was famous 
for his opposition to polytheism and anthropomorphism, posited 
the antithesis of the One and the Many, and laid stress on the 
distinction between Opinion and Knowledge. 

But a far greater figure than any of these was PARMENIDES of 
Elea, a scientific man inspired by religious enthusiasm and moral 
passion. He believed that the world was a sphere, identified thought 
and being, and opposed himself to Heraclitus with his doctrine 
that all things exist for ever. The One is imperishable, immutable, 
indivisible; it is Matter (solid), but it is also Thought. Greekspecnla- 
tion thus reaches a point where two opposite conclusions emerge' 
the unchangeable Being of Parmenides versos the ceaseless Becoming 
of Heraditus. 

Parmenides' pupil ZBNO (the father of dialectic) defended the para- 
doxes of the master. He is chiefly celebrated as the author of certain 


puzzles relating to space and motion (e.g. Achilles and the tortoise), 
which are still unsolved. 

After frfo came EMPEDOCLBS of Sicily, who rejected the theory of 
the One, and discovered in the universe four eternal elements, 
separated and combined by Hatred and Love. He believed in the 
existence of fal/uwe* (daemons) intermediate between gods and men, 
thus in some degree anticipating certain notions of the later Gnostics. 
One of the most remarkable of these earlier philosophers was 
ANAXAGORAS of Gazomenae, the friend of Euripides and Pericles, 
His doctrine was that of a divine NoOs (intelligence), the " 
of order into the chaos of things; but he did not fully < 

ff" principle, nor did he work out any consistent doctrine of ; 

causes (teleology). Like his younger contemporary, Diogenes, he 
was expelled from Athens on a charge of atheism. 

To DBMOCRITUS of Abdera is due the exposition of the ' atomic ' 
theory of matter (originated by Leucippus). Whereas Anaxagoras 
ascribed the creative impulse to external mind, Democritus ascribed 
the mating tiniverse to the undesigned combination of atoms falling 
in space. This was materialism pure and simple, and earned for 
him the whole-hearted opposition of Plato. Mental impressions 
he regarded as being caused by images (rfSwXa) thrown off from 
external bodies, and impinging on the senses. 

Philosophy was now to be superseded for a time by the Humanism 
of the Sophists; the most distinguished .of, whom were PROTAGORAS 
of Abdera, and GQRGIAS of Leontini. The Sophists did not care 
for philosophy; they professed 'culture* a liberal education. 
They became unpopular m Athens, and nowadays.the word ' sophist ' 
has an evil sound; but with all their shortcomings they were the 
precursors of a genuine intellectual movement in society. 

By far the greatest name in Greek history and philosophy was 
SOCRATES (470-399 B.C.). A systematic philosopher he was not; 
what he did was to bring down philosophy from heaven to earth, 
and to teach men how to reason inductively by persistent cross- 
examination. His teaching was ethical. Conduct and character 
were the things he stressed : on questions of metaphysics he main- 
tained a reasoned scepticism. 

Of the Cynic (and indirectly of the Stoic) School, ANTISTHBNBS 
was the founder. The teaching of the Cynics was simple and direct : 
most men are fools; only the wise man can lead them aright; and the 
wise man alone is happy because perfectly self-sufficient (afrrapicAt) 
There is no good but virtue; no evU but vice. The Cynics (and 
especially DIOGENES) were famous for their caustic wit. The Cynics, 
witii an their faults, did much to awaken men to better ideals; 
bat their intellectual arrogance and scorn for mankind (saeva 
indi&iatid) prejudiced their fellows against them. 

ARISTIPPUS of Cyrene, founder of the Cyrenaic School, held that, 
objective knowledge being unattainable, the one thing that mattered 
was whether our feelings were agreeable or the reverse. Hence the 
only sound rule of life was to enjoy the present (carpe dfan). 
EinaQylfce Cyrenaic doctrine became blendecf with the Cynic. 
Of PLATO, the pupil of Socrates, and Aristotle, the disciple of 


Plato, it must suffice to say that their example and writings have 
influenced the thought of all subsequent ages. To Plato we owe 
the word idea; and in the widest sense his philosophy is the philoso- 
phy of idealism. Everything we see here, said Plato, is a copy or 
image of a perfect original in the supra-sensual world : the perfect 
archetype alone exists; the earthly copy only seems. And the 
supreme idea of all is the idea of Good (i.e. God). From God, the 
first cause, proceed all 'ideas.' Plato taught the reincarnation of 
the soul; and his doctrine of recollection is closely allied to that 
teaching. Plato was poet, artist, philosopher in one. 

ARISTOTLE, the Macedonian (384-322 B.C.)* offers a different 
problem to the reader; he is a strictly scientific inquirer, an analytic 
systematizer, a profound thinker, with none of Plato's aesthetic 
charm. The opera majora of the 'Stagyrite' are the Ethics, the 
Politics, the Rhetoric. Of those books the world prizes the Ethics as 
wholly unique in its kind. Aristotle took all human knowledge as 
his province, and, mapping it out, sought to show the principles 
underlying each separate 'science/ and what questions each should 
answer. Tftie end of all action, he believed, was happiness; and 
man's 'happiness consists in the harmonious exercise of his best 
powers according to their own law of excellence ' (4pm}) . Virtue is a 
state of the will, not of the reason. In the Politics he sketches his 
ideal State; in the Rhetoric he undertook to display the available 
means of persuasion,, treating it as a branch of dialectic. In Meta- 
physics, Aristotle reaches by way of induction to the Supreme Cause 
of all beings God, whom he describes as * the First Moving Principle 
Itself Unmoveel' (Primum M ovens Immobile). 

With the death of Aristotle a new epoch began. The two most 
important developments of post -Aristotelian philosophy were 
Stoicism and Epicureanism. The founder of the Stoic School was 
ZENO of Cyprus; he was succeeded by CLEANTHES. deanthes by 
CHRYSIPPUS (sometimes called the second founder). The founder 
of Epicureanism was the Athenian EPICURUS, whose greatest -dis- 
ciple was LUCRETIUS. If a single word could indicate, even approxi- 
mately, the standpoint of each system, one might say that Duty 
was the watchword of the Stoic, Pleasure of the Epicurean. But 
pleasure was not necessarily ignoble. There was something at 
times almost ascetic about Epicurus* attitude to 'pleasure/ Epicurus 
regarded the world as created by a fortuitous concourse of atoms, 
defined pleasure as consisting of &rapa#a (freedom from passion), 
and believed that, though gods existed, they cared nothing about 
mankind. The Stoics held that (i) the world was duo to rfy Tcxrucfo 
a fiery vapour out of which lihe universe was evolved by successive 
stages; (2) virtue was alone desirable, and that virtue itself consisted in 
' living conformably to nature ' (&fu>\oyovp4vut ft*) ; (3) all other things 
are 'indifferent' (Midfapa) ; (4) God is a living force immanent in 
Nature There was something fine about Stoicism, with its spiritual 
frugality, which appealed to all that was best in the noblest Romans: 
hence the prevalence of Stoidsm in the early empire. 

Nothing need be said at any length of subsequent developments: 
the tendency in later tfcougnt was- to combine and recombine 


systems or portions of systems 'eclecticism, * as it came to be called. 
It -was not till long after the establishment of the Roman empire 
that the last great school of philosophy arose the Nee-Platonic. 
The most impressive figure in those later times was undoubtedly 
PLOTENUS. The Stoic philosophy as a living system had ended with 
the death of the emperor Marcus Aurelius; henceforward we may 
trace Oriental influences. Christianity was already a power in the 
West. In Plotinus can be discerned portions and parcels of a 
Gnosticism which had its source in the East. The diffusion of Neo- 
Platonism is -seen in the writings of PORPHYRY and IAMBLICHUS. 
The master-thought of Plotinus is that all things proceed from the 
One, and hunger for reabsorption into that One. The paths of 
goodness, truth, beauty, all lead up to the mount of God : it is the 
merit of Plotinus that he shows us afl three. See J. Buraet, Early 
Greek Philosophy (4th ed. 1930); H. D. Oakeley, Greek Ethical 
Thottght (19^5)- 

GRfiGfiRftrs. z. Sumamed NAZXANZ&NUS (usually called GREGORY 
NAZL&NZEN), was born near Narianzus in Cappadocia about 
A.D. 329. He studied at Athens for 6 years, where he made the 
friendship of Basil. He returned home in 356, was ordained, and 
remained at Nazianzus, helping his father who was bishop there. 
In 379 he went to Constantinople to contest with the Arians, and 
was made bishop of Constantinople in 380. In 381 he retired and 
died-at Nazianzus in 389. He wrote in Greek; his extant works are 
orations (ed. Mason, 1899), poems, and letters. 2. NYSSBNUS, 
bishop of Nyssa in Cappadocia, was the younger brother of Basil, 
and was born at Caesarea in Cappadocia about 331. He died soon 
after 394. He defended orthodoxy. See his Catechetical Oration 
(ed.Srawley, 1903). .3. Sumamed tnaumaturgus, from his miracles. 
He was converted by Origen in 234, and became bishop of Neo- 
caesarea in Cappadocia. He died about 265. . 

GRYIXUS, elder son- of Xenophon, fell at the battle of Mantxnea, 
362 B.C., after he had given Epaminondas his mortal wound. 

GRYNIA or -*UM, ancient city in the- S. of Mysia, celebrated for 
its temple and oracle of Apollo, who is called Grynaeua Apollo. 

GRYPS or GRYPHUS, a griffin, a fabulous animal,, with the body of 
a lion and the head and wings of an eagle, dwelling in the Rhipaean 
mountains, between the Hyperboreans and the one-eyed Anmas- 
pians, and guarding the gold of the north. The Arimaspians 
mounted on horseback, and attempted to steal the gold, and hence 
arose the hostility between the horse and the griffin. The belief in 
griffins came from the East. 

GUI.USSA, a Nmnidian, 2nd son of "MAim'gaq 

GYXRUS or GYRA, one of the Cyclades,. a small island S.W. 
of Ahdros. Under the Roman emperors it was a place of 

GY!S or GY&S, or Gyofis. [AEGABON.] 

GYGAIXTS L&cua, small lake in Lydia, N. of Sardis. 


S, king of Lydia, first of the dynasty of the Mermnadae, 
dethroned Candaules. and succeeded to the kingdom, as related 
under CANDAULBS. He reigned 716-678 B.C. He sent magnificent 
presents to Delphi, and 'the riches of Gyges* became a proverb. 

G$XIPPUS, a Spartan, sent as the Spartan commander to Syracuse, 
to oppose the Athenians, 414 B.C. Under his command the Syra- 
cnsans annihilated the great Athenian armament, and took De- 
mosthenes and Nicias prisoners, 413. In 404 he was commissioned 
by Lysander, after the capture of Athens, to carry home the treasure, 
part of which he stole by opening the seams of the sacks underneath. 
The theft was discovered, and Gylippus went into exile. 

GwDfis, river of Assyria; celebrated through the story that 
Cyras the Great drew off its waters by 360 charm e>1s. 

HADES (orig. Aides), the god of the nether world. In ordin 
life he was usually called Pluto (the giver of wealth), because ] 
did not like to pronounce the dreaded name of Hades or . 
The Romanpoets use the name Dis, Orcus, and Tartarus, as synony- 
mous with Huto. Hades was son of Cronus and Rhea, and brother 
of Zeus and Poseidon. His wife was PersephSne or Proserpina, 
the daughter of Demeter, whom he carried off from the upper world. 
In the division of the world among the 3 brothers, Hades obtained 
the nether world, the abode of the shades, over which he ruled. 
His character is described as fierce and inexorable. The sacrifices 
offered to Hm and Persephone consisted of black sheep; and the 
person who offered the sacrifice had to turn away his face. The 
ensign of his power was a staff, with which, like Hermes, he drove 
the shades into the lower world. There he sat upon a throne with 
his consort Persephone, He possessed a helmet which rendered the 
wearer invisible. Lake the other gods, he was not a faithful husband ; 
the Furies are called his daughters, the nymph Mintho, whom he 
loved, was metamorphosed by Persephone into the plant called 
mint; and the nymph Leuce, whom he likewise loved, was changed 
by him after death into a white poplar. Being the king of the lower 
world, Pluto is the giver of all the blessings that come from the 
earth: hence he gives the metals contained in the earth, and is catted 
Pluto. For the Eleusinian legend of Hades, see Dyer, The Gods in 
Greece, pp. 58 sag., 176 sq^\ Lawson, Modern Greek Folklore and 
Ancient Greek Religion, chap. vi. 

JLJL^XV^V^X,-^ (Adrianople), town in Thrace on the right bank 
of the Hebrus, founded by the emperor Hadrian, 

HADRXINUS, P. AELlus, usually called Hadrian, Roman emperor, 
A.D. 117-38, was born at Rome; A.D. 76. He enjoyed the favour of 
Plotina, the wife of Trajan, and mainly through her influence 
succeeded to the empire. He spent the greater part of his reign in 
travelling through the provinces of the empire. He resided for some 
time at Athens, which was his favourite city. &* b& reign the Jews 


revolted, and were not subdued till after a fierce struggle, which 
lasted 3 years. Hadrian was succeeded by Antoninus Pius, whom he 
had adopted a few months previously. The reign of Hadrian was 
one of the happiest periods in Roman history. His policy was to 
preserve peace with foreign nations, and .to promote the welfare of 
the provinces. He erected many magnificent works, particularly 
at Athens. There are still extensive remains of his magnificent 
villa at Tibur, where numerous works of ancient art have been 
discovered. His mausoleum, which he built at Rome, forms the 
groundwork of the present castle of St. Angelo. See Gregorovius, 
The Emperor Hadrian (E.T.). 

HABMON, son of Creon of Thebes, was in love with Aiitigone, 
and killed Tifanarf-f on hearing that she was condemned by his father 
to be entombed alive. See the Antigone of Sophocles. 

HABMUS (Balkan), range of mountains in Thrace. [THRACIA.] 
The name is connected with the Greek %;6p and the Latin Moms; 
and the mountains were so called on account of their cold climate. 
The pass over them most used in antiquity was in the W. .part of 
the range, called Succi or Succorum Angustiae, also Porta Trajani, 
between PMlippopolis and Serdica. 


HlzJtsus, a chief of the Auruncans and Oscans, the son of a 
soothsayer, and an ally of Turnus, slain by Evander. 

HiLlACMCN (Vistriga), river in Macedonia, rising in the Tym- 
phaean mountains, forming the boundary between Eordaea and 
Plena, and falling into the Thermaic Gulf. Caesar incorrectly makes 
it the boundary between Macedonia and Thessaly. 

HXilARTUS, ancient town in Boeotia, S. of the lake Copais, 
destroyed by Xerxes in his invasion of Greece (480 B.C.), but after- 
wards rebuilt. Under its walls Lysander lost his life (395). 

HiLlcARNASsus (Budrum), city of Asia Minor, stood in the S.W. 
part of Caria, opposite to the island of Cos. It was founded by 
Dorians from Troezen. With the rest of the coast of Asia Minor, 
it fell under the dominion of the Persians, at an early period of whose 
rule Lygdamis made himself tyrant of the city, and founded a 
dynasty. Hia-daughter Artemisia assisted Xerxes in his expedition 
against Greece. Halicarnassus was celebrated for the Mausoleum, 
a magnificent edifice which Artemisia II built as a tomb for her 
husband Mausolus (352 B.C.), and which was adorned with the works 
of the most eminent Greek sculptors of the age: Scopas, Bryaxis, 
Leochares, and Timotheus. Fragments of these sculptures are now 
in the British Museum. Halicarnassus was the birthplace of the 
historians HERODOTUS and DIONYSIUS. 

HAT.TOjtH&TBius, son of Poseidon and Euryte, attempted to 
violate Alrippe, daughter of Ares, but was slain by Ares. Ares was 
brought to tnal by Poseidon for this murder, on the hill at Athens, 
which was hence called. Areopagus, or the Hill of Ares. 

HXz*tsus, island of the Aegaean Sea, oS the coast of Thessaly. 


The possession of this island occasioned great disputes between 
Philip and the Athenians: there is a speech on this subject among 
the extant orations of Demosthenes. 

(KizU-Irmak, i.e. the Red River), the greatest river of Asia 
Minor, rising in the Anti-Taurus range of mountains, faTiing into 
the Erm'ne Sea between Sinope and Amisus. 


HXMTT.C.XR, the name of several Carthaginian generals, of whom 
the most celebrated was Hamilcar Barca, the fe-ther of Hannibal. 
The surname Barca (Heb. Barak) signified 'lightning.' It was 
merely a personal appellation, and is not to be regarded as a family 
name, though from the great distinction that **ig Hamilcar obtained, 
we often find the name of Barcine applied either to his family or to 
his party in the state. He was appointed to the command of the 
Carthaginian forces in Sicily, in the i8th year of the ist Punic war, 
247 B.C. At this time the Romans were masters of Sicily; but he 
maintained himself for years, notwithstanding all the efforts of the 
Romans to dislodge him, first on a mountain named Hercte", in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Panormus, and subsequently on the 
still stronger position of Mt. Eryx. After the great naval defeat of 
the Carthaginians by Lutatius Catulus, 241, which brought the 
ist Punic war to an end, he had to cany on war in Africa with the 
Carthaginian mercenaries, whom he subdued after a struggle of 
3 years (240-238). Hamilcar then crossed over into Spain, .in order 
to establish a new empire for the Carthaginians in that country. 
In the course of nearly 9 years he obtained possession of a con- 
siderable portion of Spain, partly by force of arms and partly by 
negotiation. He fell in battle against the Vettones in 229. He 
was succeeded in the command by his son-in-law HasdrubaL 
He left 3 sons, Hannibal, Hasdrubal, and Mago. See Bosworth 
Smith, Carthage and the Carthaginians. 

HANN!BL, a common name among the Car^h a-gfn i an t signifying 
'the grace or favour of Baal ' ; the final syllable, bal, having reference 
to tutelary deity of the Phoenicians. The most celebrated 
person of *hi name was the son of Hamilcar Barca. He was born 
247 B.C. He was only 9 years old when his father took him with 
hfm into Spain, and made him swear upon the altar eternal hostility 
to Rome. Child as he then was, Hannibal never forgot his vow, and 
his whole life was one continual struggle against Rome. Though 
only 1 8 years old at the time of his father's death (220), he had 
already displayed so much courage and capacity for war, that he 
was entrusted by Hasdrubal (the son-in-law and successor of Hamil- 
car) with the chief command of most of the military enterprises 
planned by that general. He secured to himself the devoted attach- 
ment of the army under his command; and, accordingly, on the 
assassination of Hasdrubal (221), the soldiers unanimously pro- 
claimed their youthful leader commander -in -chief, which the 
government of Carthage forthwith ratified. Hannibal was at this 
time in the 26th year of his age. In 2 campaigns he subdued all 
the country S. of the Iberus, with the exception of the wealthy town 


of Sagnntum. In the spring of 2x9 he proceeded to lay siege to 
Saguntum, which he took after a desperate resistance, which lasted 
nearly 8 months. Saguntum lay S. of the Iberus, and was therefore 
not included under the protection of the treaty which had been made 
between Hasdrubal and the Romans; but as it had concluded an 
alliance with the Romans, the latter regarded its attack as a violation 
of the treaty between the 2 nations. On the fall of Saguntum, the 
Romans demanded the surrender of Hannibal ; when thfe demand was 
refused, war was declared; and thus began the 2nd Punic war. In 
the spring of 218 Hannibal quitted Ms winter quarters at New 
Carthage and commenced his march for Italy, across the Pyrenees, 
and through Gaul to the foot of the Alps. He probably crossed 
the Alps by the pass of th6 Little St. Bernard, -called in antiquity 
the Graian Alp. 1 Upon reaching the N. of Italy he encountered the 
Roman army under the command of the consul P. Scipio. He 
defeated the latter, first on the river Ticinus, and secondly in a 
more decisive engagement upon the Trebia. After passing the 
winter in the N. of Italy among the Gaulish tribes, fie marched 
early in 217 into Etruria through the marshes on the banks of the 
Arao. In struggling through these marshes, his army suffered 
severely, and he himself lost the sight of one eye by an attack of 
ophthalmia The consul Flaminius hastened to meet him, and a 
battle was fought on the lake Trasimenus, in which tiie Roman 
army was destroyed, and the consul himself was slain. The Romans 
had collected a fresh army, and placed it under the command of 
the dictator Fabius Maarimus, who avoided a general action, and 
only attempted to harass the Carthaginian army. Meanwhile the 
Romans had made preparations for the campaign of the following 
year (216). The 2 new consuls, L. Aemflius Paulus and C. Teren- 
tius Varro, marched into Apulia, at the head of an army of little 
less than 90,000 men. To this mighty host Hannibal gave battle 
in the plains on the right bank of the Aufidus, just below the 
town of Cannae. The Roman army was again annihilated. This 
victory was followed by the revolt from Rome of most of the nations 
in tite S. of Italy. Hannibal established his army in winter quarters 
in Capua, which had espoused his side. Capua was celebrated for 
its wealth and luxury, and the enervating effect which tiiese produced 
upon the army of Hannibal became a favourite theme of rhetorical 
exaggeration in later ages. The experiment of what he could effect 
with his single army had now been fully tried, and, notwithstanding 
all nis victories, it had failed; for Rome was still unsubdued. From 
tfcis time the Romans in great measure changed their plan of opera- 
tions, and, instead of opposing to Hannibal one great army in the 
field, they hemmed in his movements on all sides. In the subse- 
quent campaigns, Hannibal gained several victories; but his forces 
gJttduaBy became more and more weakened ; and his only object now 
was to maintain his ground in the S. until his brother Hasdrubal 
should appear in the N. of Italy, an event to which he had long 
1 This Is disputed by modern historians. Se 

. (Hama>al Onct Uo "' 


looked forward -with anxious expectation. In 207 Hasdnibal at 
length crossed the Alps, and descended into Italy; but he was de- 
feated and slain on the Metaurus. HEIASDRUBAL.] The defeat and 
death of Hasdrubal was decisive of the fate of the war in Italy 
From this time Hannibal abandoned all thoughts of offensive opera- 
tions, and collected together his forces within the peninsula of 
Bruttipm. In tixe fastnesses of that wild and mountainous region 
he maintained his ground for nearly 4 years (207-203). He crossed 
over to Africa towards the end of 203 in order to oppose P. Seipio. 
In the following year (202) the decisive battle was fought near 
Zama. Hannibal was completely defeated with great loss. All 
hopes of resistance were now at an end. The treaty between Rome 
and Carthage was not finally concluded until the next year (201). 
By this treaty Hannibal saw the object of his whole life frustrated. 
Some years afterwards he was compelled, by the jealousy of the 
Romans, and by the enmity of a powerful party at Carthage, to 
flee from his native city. He took refuge at the court of Antiochus 
III, king of Syria, who was at this time (193) on the eve of war 
with Rome. On the defeat of Antiochus (190), the surrender of 
Hannibal was one of the conditions of the peace granted to the 
king. Hannibal, however, foresaw his danger, and fled to Prusias,. 
king of Bithynia. The Romans could not be at ease so long as he 
lived; and T. Quintius Flamininus was at length dispatched to the 
court of Prusias .to 4emand the surrender of the fugitive. The 
Bithynian king was unable to resist; and Hannibal, perceiving that 
flight was impossible, took poison, to avoid falling into the hands 
of his enemies, about the year 183. In comparing Hannibal with 
other great leaders of antiquity, we must bear in infl the circum- 
stances in which he was placed. Feebly and grudgingly supported 
by the government 'at home, he stood alone, at the head of an army 
composed of mercenaries of many nations. Yet not only did he 
retain the attachment of these men, TmshaTran by any change of 
fortune, for a period of more than 15 years, but he trained up army 
after army; and long after the veterans that had followed Mm over 
the Alps had dwindled to an inconsiderable remnant, his new levies 
were still as invincible as their predecessors. See Arnold's Second 
Punic War, and Mommsen's History of Rome, vol. ii. 

HANNO, a name common among the Carfo st {' n * fl r r> ? > Tne 
persons of this name were: I. Suraamed the Great, apparently 
for Ms success in Africa, thougfr we have no details of his achieve- 
ments. He was the leader of the aristocratic party, and, as such, 
the chief adversary of Hamilcar Barca and his family. For 35 years 
(i.e. from the landing of Barca in Spain till Hannibal's return from 
Italy) Hanno is represented as thwarting the measures of that able 
and powerful family, and taking the lead in 1 opposition to the war 
with Rome. 2. A Carthaginian navigator, of uncertain date, under 
whose name we possess a Periplus, originally written in the Punic 
language, and afterwards translated into Greek. It contains as 
account of a voyage undertaken beyond the Pillars of Hercules, in 
order to found libyphoeniciatt. towns. 


and AmsrSGlTON, two noble Athenians, murderers 
of Hipparchus, brother of the tyrant Hippias, in 514 B.C. Aristo- 
giton was strongly attached to Harmodius, who returned his affection 
with equal warmth. Hipparchus endeavoured to withdraw the 
youth's love to himself, and, failing in this, resolved to avenge the 
slight by putting upon hi a pubfic insult. Accordingly, he took 
care that the sister of Harmodius should be summoned to bear one 
of the sacred baskets in some religious procession, and when she 
presented herself for the purpose, he caused her to be dismissed and 
declared unworthy of the honour. This insult determined the 2 
friends to slay both Hipparchus and his brother Hippias as well. 
They communicated their plot to a few friends, and selected for 
their enterprise the day of the festival of the great Panathenaea, 
the only day on which they could appear in arms without exciting 
suspicion, when the time arrived, the 2 conspirators observed one 
of their accomplices in conversation with Hippias. Believing, 
therefore, that they were betrayed, they slew Hipparchus. Har- 
modius was immediately cut down by the guards. Aristogiton 
escaped, but was afterwards taken, and died by torture; but he 
died without revealing any of the names of the conspirators. Four 
years after this Hippias was expelled, and thenceforth Harmodius 
and Aristogiton obtained among the Athenians of all succeeding 
generations the character of patriots, deliverers, and martyrs. To 
be born of their blood was esteemed among the highest of 
honours, and their descendants enjoyed an immunity from public 

HARMN!A, daughter of Ares and Aphrodite, given by Zeus to 
Cadmus as his wife. [CADMUS.] 

HABP!GUS, a noble Median, who is said to have preserved the 
infant Cyrus. He was afterwards one of the generals of Cyrus. 

HARPLUS, a Macedonian, appointed by Alexander the Great 
superintendent of the royal treasury, with the administration of the 
satrapy of Babylon. Having embezzled large sums he crossed over 
to Greece in 325 B.C., and bribed the leading men at Athens to 
support him against Alexander and his vicegerent, Antipater. He 
is said to have corrupted Demosthenes himself. 

daughter of Harpalycus, long in Thrace, brought 
up by her father as a warrior, 

, Greek lexicographer, flourished at Alexandria, 
2nd cent. A.D. 

HARF^EAB, the Harpies, that is, the 'Robbers/ described by Homer 
as Lrrying off persons, who had utterly disappeared. . they 
are said to have carried off the daughters of Pandareos, which is 
represented on one of the Lytian monuments, now in the British 
Museum. Hesiod represents them as fair-locked and winged 
maidfffrs; but subsequent writers describe them as disgusting 
monsters, being birds with the heads of maidens, with long claws 
and with faces pale with hunger. They were sent by the gods to 
torment the Wind Phineus. [PHnnsus, 2,} Virgil places them 


in the islands called Strophades, in the Ionian Sea, where they took 
up their abode after they had been driven away from Phineus. 

HASDRCBXL, a Carthaginian name, probably signifying one 
whose help is Baal. The chief persons of this name are: i. The son- 
in-law of Hamilcar Barca, on whose death, in 229 B.C., he succeeded 
to the command in Spain. He founded New Carthage, and con- 
cluded with the Romans the celebrated treaty which fixed the 
Iberus as the boundary between -the Carthaginian and Roman 
dominions. He was assassinated by a slave, whose master he had 
put to death (221), and was succeeded in the command by HANNIBAL. 
2. Son of Hamilcar Barca, and brother of Hannibal, when Hanni- 
bal set out for Italy (218), Hasdrubal was left in the command in 
Spain, and there fought for some years against the 2 Scipios. In 
207 he crossed the Alps and marched into Italy, in order to assist 
Hannibal; but he was defeated on the Metaurus, by the consuls 
C. Claudius Nero and M. Livius Salinator, his army was destroyed, 
and he himself fell in the battle. His head was cut off. and thrown 
into Hannibal's camp. 3, Son of Gisco, one of the Carthaginian 
generals in Spain during the 2nd Punic war, who mnst be dis- 
tinguished from the brother of Hannibal. 

HfiBfi, called Juventas by the Romans, the goddess of youth, 
was a daughter of Zeus and of Hera. She waited upon the gods, 
and filled their cups with nectar, before Ganymedes obtained tnis 
office. She married Hercules after he was received among the gods, 
and bore to him 2 sons. Later traditions represent her as a divinity 
who had it in her power to make aged persons young again. At 
Rome there were several temples of Juventas. 

HBBRUS (Maritxa), chief river in Thrace. 'On its banks Orpheus 
was torn to pieces by the Thracian women; and it is frequently 
mentioned in connection with the worship of Dionysus. 

Hfic&Lfl, a poor old woman, who hospitably received Theseus, 
when he had gone out to hunt the Marathonian bull. 

HficXTABUS, of Miletus, early Greek historian and geographer. 
In 500 B.C. he endeavoured to dissuade his countrymen from re- 
volting from the Persians. Previous to this he had visited Egypt 
and many other countries. His works have perished. 

HftdTfl, a mysterious divinity, probably a moon goddess (or, as 
Farnell thinks, an earth goddess), commonly represented as a 
daughter of Persaeus or Perses, and hence called Persels. She was 
one of the Titans, and the bnly one of this race who retained her 
power under the rule of Zeus. The extensive power possessed by 
her was probably the reason that she was subsequently identified 
with Selene or Luna in heaven, Artemis or Diana in earth, and 
Persephone or Proserpina in the lower world. Being thus, as it 
were, a threefold goddess, she is described with 3 bodies or 3 heads. 
Hence her epithets Urgemlna, Mformis, triceps, etc. She took 
part in the search after Proserpina, and when the latter was found, 
remained with her as .her attendant and companion. She thus 
became a deity of the lower world. She was supposed to send* 


at night demons and phantoms from the lower world. She taught 
sorcery and witchcraft, and dwelt at places where 2 roads crossed, 
on tombs, and near the blood of murdered persons. She herself 
wandered about with the souls of the dead, and her approach was 
announced by the whining and howling of dogs. At Athens, at the 
close of every month, dishes with food were set out for her at the 
points where 2 roads crossed; and this food .was consumed by poor 
people. The sacrifices offered to her consisted of dogs, honey, and 
black female lambs. See Faraell, Cvlts of the Greek States, vol. ii. 

HECATOMB (Greek) sacrifice of a hundred oxen. 

HficiTOMpSxos, city in Parthia, enlarged by Seleucus, and 
afterwards the residence of the Parthian longs. , 

HBCTOR, hero of the Trojans in their war with the Greeks, was 
the eldest son of Priam ana Hecuba, the husband of Andromache, 
and lather of Scamandrius. He fought with the bravest of the 
Greeks, and at length slew Patroclus, the friend of Achilles. The 
death of his friend roused Achilles to the fight. The other Trojans 
fled before him into the city. Hector alone remained without the 
walls, though his parents implored him to return; but when he 
saw Achilles, his heart failed him, and he took to flight. Thrice did 
he race roand the city, pursued by the swift-footed Achilles, and 
then fell pierced by Achilles' spear. [AcnnxBs.] At the com- 
mand <5f Zeus, Achilles surrendered the body to the prayers of Priam, 
who buried it at Troy with great pomp. Hector is one of the 
noblest conceptions of the poet of the Iliad. He has a presentiment 
of the fall of his country, but he perseveres in his heroic resistance, 
See Murray, The Rise cf the Greek Epic, pp. 106 sat/.; Taylor 
Ancient Ideals, vol. i, chap. vii. (See Pig. 31.) 

HfictJBA. and Hftctfsfi, daughter of Dymas in Phrygia, or of 
Casseus, king of Thrace. She was the wife of Priam, THng of Troy, 
to whom she bore Hector, Paris, and many other children. After 
the fall of Troy, she was carried away as a slave by the Greeks. On 
the coast of Thrace she avenged her son POLYDORUS. She was 
metamorphosed into a dog, and leapt into the sea at a place 
called^ Cynossema, or 'the tomb of the dog.' See the Hecttoa of 

HfiGfislis, of Magnesia, one of the biographers of Alexander the 
Great, and a representative of the Asiatic school of, oratory. He 
affected a Jerky style, which was parodied by acerb. 

Hftcflsliros, of Pergamum, the immediate predecessor of Car- 
neades in the chair of the Academy, flourished about 185 B.C. 

HftoSsiPPus, Athenian orator, and a contemporary of Ite- 
mosthenes to whose political party he belonged. 

daughter of Zeus and Leda, and sister of 



When -nwseus was absent in Hades, Castor and Pollux undertook 
anpedpai to Attica, to liberate their sister. Athens was Seen 
HdendaUveaed, and Aethra, the mother of Theseus, made pritoS; 


and carried as a slave of Helen, to Sparta, On hjer return home 
she was sought in marriage by the noblest chiefs from all parts of 
Greece. She chose Menelaus for her husband, and became by him 
the mother of Hermione. She was subsequently seduced by Paris 
and carried off to Troy. The Greek chiefs who had been her suitors, 
resolved to revenge her abduction, and accordingly sailed against 
Troy, Hence arose the celebrated Trojan war, which lasted 10 
years. After the death of Paris she married his brother Deiphobus 
On the capture of Troy, which she is said to have favoured, she 
betrayed Deiphobus to the Greeks, and became reconciled to 
Menelaus, whom she accompanied to Sparta. Here she lived with 
him for some years in peace and happiness- The accounts of 
Helen's death differ. According to the prophecy of Proteus in the 
.Qdyssey, Menelaus and Helen were not to die, but the gods were to 
-conduct them to Elysium. Others relate that she and Menelaus 
were buried at Therapne in Laconia. Others, again, relate that 
after the death of Menelaus she was driven out of Peloponnesus by 
the sons of the latter, and fled to Rhodes, where she was tied to a 
tree and strangled fbjf-Polyxo: the Rhodians expiated the crime by 
dedicating a temple to her under the name of Helena Dendrrtis. 
According to another tradition she married Achilles in the island of 
Leuce, and T?ofe hifn a son, Euphorion. 

HfiLfiNA, FtlylA. JtJLlA, mother of Constantino the Great, was a 
Christian, antf. is said to have discovered at Jerusalem the sepulchre 
of our Lord, together with the wood of the true cross. 

HftLfimjs, son of Priam and Hecuba, celebrated for his prophetic 
powers. He deserted his countrymen and joined the Greeks. Ac- 
cording to-some he did this of has own free will; according to others, 
he was. ensnared by Ulysses, who was anxious to obtain, his prophecy 
respecting the fall of Troy. Others, again, relate that, on the death 
of Paris, Helenus and Deiphobma contended for^the possession, of 
Helena, and that Helenus, being conquered, fled to Mt. Ida, where 
he was taken prisoner by the Greeks. After the fatt of Troy, he feH 
to the share of Pyrrhus. He foretold to Pyrrhus the. sufferings which 
awajted the Greeks who returned home by sea, and prevailed tpon 
him to return by land to Epims. After the death of Pyrrhus he 
received a portion of that country, and married Andromache. When 
Aeneas in his wanderings arrived in Epirus, he was hospitably 
received by Helenus. See Virgil, Aen. iii. 295 sqq. 

and HL!DBS, the sons abet daughters of Helios (the 
Sun). The name Heliades is given especially to the daughters of 
Helios and Qymene, and the sisters of Phaethon. [PHAETHON.] 
H&LXAST, another name for a DICAST. 

HfcJfcfi, daughter of Lycaon, beloved by Zeus. Hera, out of 
jealousy, metamorphosed her into a she-bear, whereupon Zeus 
placed her among the stars* under the name of the Great Bear. 

HftLfc&N, range of mountains in Boeotia, between the lake 
Copais and the Corinthian Gulf, covered with snow the greater part 
of the year, sacred to Apollo awl the Muses; the latter are. hence 


called H5Hc6nttdes and HfiEconldes. Here sprung the celebrated 
fountains of the Muses, AGANIPPE and HIPPOCRBNE. 

HELI8D6RUS, Greek writer of romance, flourished 3rd century 
B.C. His Aeihiopica is still extant 


HfiilOPo'Lis ('City of the Sun'), i. (Heb. Baalath ; Baalbek), city 
of Syria, seat of the worship of Baal, one of whose symbols was the 
Sun, Hence the Greek name of the city. It was situated in the 
middle of Coele-Syria, at the W. foot of Anti-Libanus, and was 
of commercial importance, being on the direct road from Egypt and 
the Red Sea, and also from Tyre to Syria, Asia Minor, and Europe. 
Its ruins, which are very extensive and magnificent, are of the 
Roman period. 2. (O.T. On), city of Lower Egypt, seat of the 
Egyptian worship of the Sun. 

Hstlos, called S61 by the Romans, god of the sun. He was the 
son of Hyperion and Thea, and a brother of Selene (the Moon) and 
Eos (Dawn). Homer describes Helios as rising in the E. from 
Oceanus, traversing the heaven, and descending in the evening into 
the darkness of the W. and Oceanus. Later/poets embellished this 
simple notion. They tell of a magnificent palace of Helios in the E., 
from which he starts in the morning in a chariot drawn 'by 4 
horses. They also assign him a second palace in the W., and 
describe his horses as feeding upon herbs growing in the Islands of 
the Blessed. Helios is described as the god who sees and hears 
everything. The island of Thrmacia (Sicily) was sacred to Helios 
and there he had flocks of sheep and oxen, which were tended bv 
his daughters Phaetusa and Lampetia. . He . was^worshipped in 
many parts of Greece, and especially in the island of Rhodes, where 
the famous colossus was a representation of the god. The sacrifices 
offered to him consisted of white rams, bears, bulls, goats lambs 


, , , ams 

and especially white horses, and honey. Among the 'animals 
sacred to him, the cock is especially mentioned. 

HELLS, daughter of Athamas and Nephele, and sister of Phrixus 
The Hellespont was named after her. [Pnnixus.] 

HELLBN, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha, and father of Aeolus 
Dorus, and Xuthus. He was lHTi g O f Phthia in Thessalv Ha TO 
the mythical ancestor of an theHellenes. " B *y- ^e was 

H*LijBsrarrus (^ 

ing the Propontis (Sea of Marmora) with the Aegaean Sea Th^ 
length of the strait is abW 50 miles, andVffi^ fa 
6 miles at the upper end to 2 at the lower, and in some places it te 
only,imge wide, or even less. The narrowest part is between the 
ancient cities of SBSTUS and ABYDOS, where the legend related that 
Leander swainacross to visit Hero and where xlrxea 
Ms bridge of boats 480 B.C. Tne name of the 
Jtieiie-j was oeixved from the story of Helle's b 
The HeBespont was the boundary of Europe and 


HBLOTS, the original inhabitants of Laconia, who lost their 
independence at the Dorian conquest, and were enslaved by the 
Spartans. They amounted to half the Spartan population. 

HBLvSTfc, a Celtic people, who dwelt between Mt. Jurassus (Jura), 
the Lacus Lemannus (Lake of Geneva), the Khdne, and the Rhine as 
far as the Lacus Brigantimis (Lake of Constance). Their country, 
called Acer Helvetiorum (but never Helvetia), thus corresponded 
to the W. part of Switzerland. In 107 B.C. the Tigurini, a tribe of 
the Helvetii, defeated and killed the Roman consul L. Cassius Lon- 
ginus, on the lake of Geneva, while another division of the Helvetii' 
accompanied the Cimbri and Teutones in their invasion of Gaul. 
Subsequently the Helvetii invaded Italy along with the Cimbri; and 
returned hbme in safety, after the defeat of the Cimbri by Minus 
and Catulus in 101. About 40 years afterwards, they resolved, upon 
the advice of Orgetorix, one of their chiefs, to migrate and seek a 
new home in the more fertile plains of Gaul. In 58 they endeavoured 
to carry their plan into execution, but they were defeated by Caesar, 
and driven back into their own territories. The Romans now 
planted colonies and built fortresses in their country, and the Helvetii 
gradually adopted the customs and language of their conquerors. 

HitLvlA, mother of the philosopher Seneca. 



HfiPHABSTtCN. i. A Macedonian, celebrated as the friend of 
Alexander the Great. He died at Ecbatana, 325 B.C., to the great 
grief of Alexander. A. A writer on prosody, in the 2nd century A.D. 

HEPB^ESTUS, called VULCANUS by the Romans, the god of fire. 
He was, according to Homer, the son of Zeus and of Hera. Later 
traditions state that he had no father, and that Hera gave birth 
to him independent of Zeus, as she was 1 ealous of Zeus having given 
birth to Athena independent of her. lie was born lame and weak, 
and was in consequence so much disliked by his mother, that she 
threw him down from Olympus. The marine divinities, Thetis and 
Eurynome, received him, and he dwelt with them for 9 years. He 
afterwards returned to Olympus, and he appears in Homer as the 
great artist of the gods of Olympus. He always showed his mother 
respect and kindness; and on one occasion took her part, when 
she was quarrelling with Zeus, which so much enraged the father 
of the gods that he seized Hephaestus by the leg and hurled hi 
down from heaven. Hephaestus was a whole day. -failing but in the 
evening he alighted in the island of Lemnos, where he was kindly 
received by the Sintians. Later writers describe his lameness as 
the consequence of this fall, while Homer makes him lame from 
his -birth: He again returned to Olympus, and subsequently acted 
the part o| Mediator between Ms parents. Hephaestus appears to 
have been originally the god of fire; but as fire is indispensable in 
working metals, he was afterwards regarded as an artist. His 
palace in Olympus contained his workshop, with the anvil and 20 
bellows, which worked spontaneously at his bidding. AH th*> 


palaces in Olympus were his workmanship. He made the armour of 
Achilles; the fatal necklace of Harmoma; the fire-breathing bulls 
of AeStes, of Colchis, etc. In later accounts, the Cyclopes are 
his workmen, and his workshop is no longer in Olympus, but in some 
volcanic island. In the Iliad, the wife of Hephaestus is Charis; in 
Headed, Aglaia, the youngest of the Charites; but in the Odyssey, 
as well as in later accounts. Aphrodite appears as his wife. The 
favourite abode of Hephaestus on earth was the island of Lemnos; 
but other volcanic islands also, such as Lipara, Hiera, Imbros, and 
Sicily, are called his abodes or workshops. The Greeks frequently 
placed small dwarf-like statues of the god near the hearth. During 
the best period of Grecian art, he was represented as a vigorous man 
with a beard, and is characterized by his hammer or some other 
instrument, his oval cap, and the chiton, which leaves the right 
shoulder and arm uncovered. His temple at Athens is described by 
Bausanias (ed. Frazer, vol. ii, pp. 126 $qq.}. 

HfiRA. or HflRfi, identified by the Romans with JUNO. Hera was 
a daughter of Cronos and Rhea, and sister and wife of Zeus. Ac- 
cording to Homer, she was brought up by Oceanus and Tethys, and 
afterwards became the wife of Zeus, without the knowledge of 
her parents. Later writers add that she, -Hke the other children of 
Cronos, was swallowed by her father, but afterwards restored. In 
the Iliad, Hera is treated by the Olympian gods with the same 
reverence as her husband. She is, notwithstanding, far inferior to 
Zeus in power. She is not, like Zeus, the queen of gods and men, but 
simply the wife of the supreme god. The idea of her being the 
queen of heaven, with regal wealth and power, is of much later, date. 
Her character, as described by Homer, is jealous and quarrelsome. 
Hence arise frequent disputes between Hera and Zeus; and on one 
occasion Hera, in conjunction with Poseidon and Athena, con- 
templated putting Zeus into chains. Zeus, in such cases, not only 
threatens, but beats her. Once he even hung her up in the clouds, 
with her hands chained, and with two anvils suspended from her 
feet. By Zeus she was the mother of Ares, Hebe, and Hephaestus. 
Hera was, properly speaking, the only really married goddess among 
the Olympians, for the marriage of Aphrodite with Hephaestus can 
scarcely be taken into consideration. Hence she is the goddess of 
marriage {<?/. Lawson, Modern Greek Folklore and. Ancient Greek 
Religion, p. 591] and of the birth of children, and is represented as 
the mother of the Uithyiae. She is represented in the Iliad riding in 
a chariot drawn by 2 horses, in the harnessing and unharnessing of 
which she is assisted by Hebe and the Horae. Owing to the judg- 
ment of Paris .she was hostile to the Trojans, and in the Trojan war 
she sided with the Greeks. She persecuted all the children of Zeus 
by mortal mothers, and hence appears as the enemy of Dionysus 
Hercules, and others. Hera was worshipped especially at ATROS 
in the neighbourhood of which she has a splendid temple, on the 
road to Mycenae. She had also a temple in Samos. Hera was 
represented as a majestic woman of mature age, with a beautiful 
forehead, laige and widely opened eyes, and with a grave expression 


commanding reverence, Her h^ was adorned "with, a crown or a 
diadem. A veil frequently hangs down the back of her head, to 
characterize her as the bride of Zeus, and the diadem, veil, sceptre, 
and peacock are her ordinary attributes. In art, the ideal type of 
the goddess was found in the statue by Polyclitus in the great 
temple at Argos: Frazer's Pausanias, vol. iii, pp. 183 sqq. (Fig. 62.) 

HflRAdJ&A, that is, the city of Heracles, was the name of several 
cities. I. In Europe, i. In Lucania, on the river Siris, founded 
by the Tarentines. 2. In Acarnania, on the Ambracian Gulf. 
3. The later name of Perinthus in Thrace. jPERttfrnus.] 4. H. 
LYNCBSHS, also called Pelagonia, in Macedonia, W. of the Engon, 
the capital of one of the 4 districts into which Macedonia was 
divided by the Romans. 5. H. MINOA, on the S. coast of Sicily, 
at the mouth of the river Halycus, between Agrigentum and Selinus. 
Traditionally it was founded by Minos, and it may have been an 
ancient colony of the Cretans. It was colonized by the inhabitants 
of Selinus, and its original name was Minoa, which it continued to 
bear till about 500 B.C., when the town was taken by the Lacedae- 
monians, under Euryleon, who changed its name into that of 
Heraclea. It fell at an early period into the hands of the Cartha- 
ginians, and remained in their power till the conquest of Sicily by the 
Romans. 6. H. SiftncA, in Macedonia, a town of the Sinti, on the 
left bank of the Strymon, founded by Amyntas, brother of Philip. 
7. H. TRACHINIAK, in Thessaly. [TRACHIS.] II. In Asia. i. H. 
PONTICA, a city on the S. shore of the Pontus Euxinus, on the coast 
of Bithynia, founded about 550 B.C. by colonists from Megara and 
from Tanagra, in Boeotia. 2. H. AD LATMUM, a town of Ionia, 
S.E. of Miletus, at the foot of Mt. Latmus, and upon the Sinus 
Latmicus; formerly called Latmus. Near it was a cave, with the 
tomb of Endymion. 


the descendants df Heracles or Hercules, who, 

conjunction with the Dorians, conquered Peloponnesus 80 years 
after the destruction of Troy, or 1104 B.C., according to mythical 
chronology. This legend represents the conquest of the Achaean 
population by Dorian invaders. Bury, History of Greece, pp. 80 sq$. 

HfiRACLlBfls PONTlctfS, born at HeraclSa Pontica, a Greek 
philosopher, and disciple of Plato and Aristotle. Almost an his 
works are lost. 

HBRACLTTUS, of Ephesus, philosopher of the Ionian School, 
flourished about 513 B.C. He considered knowledge to be based on 
perception by tne senses, and fire to be the primary form of all 
matter. According to him, everything is id a state of fltrx; (rdyra /&). 
See Burnett, Early Greek Philosophy, chap, iii, where a complete 
translation of the extant fragments is given in English. 


, ancient city in Campania, near the coast, between 
NeapoHs and Pompeii. It was tstten by the Romans in the Social 
war (89, 8 B.C.), and was coldnized. In A.B. 63 a great part E it 


was destroyed by an earthquake; and in 79 it was overwhelmed, 
along with Pompeii and Stabiae, by the great eruption of Mt. Vesu- 
vius. It; was buried tinder showers of ashes and streams of lava, 
from 70 to 100 feet beneath the present surface of the ground. 
The ancient city was accidentally discovered by the .sinking of a well 
in 1720. (See Fig. 32.) 

HERCULES, called Heracles by the Greeks. According to Homer, 
Hercules was the son of Zeus by Alcmene, the wife of Amphitryon, 
of Thebes in Boeotia. [ALCMBNB.] On the day on which Hercules 
was to be born, Zeus boasted of becoming the father of a hero destined 
to rule over the race of Perseus, wfco was the grandfather both of 
Amphitryon and of Alcmene. Hera prevailed upon him to swear 
that the descendant of Perseus, born that day, should be the ruler. 
Thereupon she hastened to Argos, and there caused the wife of 
Sthenems, the son of Perseus, to give birth to Eurystheus; whereas 
she delayed the birth of Hercules, and thus robbed him of the 
empire which Zeus had destined for him. Zeus was enraged, 
but could not violate his oath. Alcmene brought into the world 
2 boys, Hercules, the son of Zeus, and Iphicles, the son of Amphi- 
tryon, who was one night younger than Hercules. As he lay in his 
cradle, Hera sent 2 serpents to destroy him, but the infant hero 
strangled them with his own hands. As he grew up, he was in- 
structed by Amphitryon in driving the chariot, by Autolycus in 
wrestling, by Eurytus in archery, by Castor in fighting in heavy 
armour, and by Linus in singing and playing the lyre. Linus was 
killed by his pupil with the lyre, because he had censured him; and 
Amphitryon, to prevent similar occurrences, sent him to feed his 
cattle. In this manner he spent his life till his i8th year. His 
first great adventure happened while he was watching 'the oxen of 
his father. A lion, which haunted Mt. Cithaeron, made havoc 
among the nocks of Amphitryon and Thespius, king of Thespiae. 
Hercules promised to deliver the country of the monster; and 
Thespius, who had 50 daughters, rewarded Hercules by making 
him his guest, so long as the chase lasted, and by giving up his 
daughters to him. Hercules slew the lion, and henceforth wore its 
skin as his ordinary garment, and its month and head as his helmet. 
Others related that the lion's skin of Hercules was taken from the 
Nemean lion. He next defeated and killed Erginus, king of Orcho- 
menos, to whom the Thebans used to pay tribute. In this battle 
Hercules lost his father Amphitryon; but Creon rewarded him with 
the hand of his daughter, Megara, by whom he became the father 
of several children. The gods made hrm presents of arms, and he 
carried a huge club, which he had cut for himself in the neighbour- 
hood of Nemea. Soon afterwards Hercules was driven mad by 
Hera, and in this state he killed his Own children by Megara and 2 
of Mricles. In Ms grief he sentenced himself to exile, and went 
to Thespias, who purified him. He then consulted the oracle of 
Delphi as to where he should settle. The Pythia first called him 
by the name of Heracles for hitherto his name had been Altides 
or Alcaeos^ and ordered "him to live at Tiryns, and to serve 


Eurystheus for the space of 12 years, after which, he should become 
immortal. Hercules accordingly went to Tiryns. The accounts of 
the 12 labours which Hercules performed at the bidding of Eurys- 
theus are found only in the later writers. The only one of the 12 
labours mentioned by Homer is his descent into the lower world to 
carry off Cerberus. We also find in Homer the fight of Hercules 
with a sea-monster; his expedition to Troy to fetch the horses which 
Laoniedon had refused him; and his war against the Pylians, when 
he destroyed the whole family of their king Neleus, with the ex- 
ception of Nestor. The 12 labours are usually arranged in the 
following order: i. The fight with the Nemean lion. The valley 
of Nemea, between Qeonae and Phlius, was inhabited by a monstrous 
lion, the offspring of Typhon and Echidna. Eurystheus ordered 
Hercules to bring Mm the THn of this monster. After using in vain 
his club and arrows against the lion, he strangled the animal with 
his own hands. 2. Fight against the Lernean hydra. This monster, 
like the lion, was the offspring of Typhon and Echidna, and was 
brought up by Hera. It ravaged the country of Lerna, near Argos, 
and dwelt in a swamp near the well of Amymone. It had 9 heads, 
of which the middle one was immortal. Hercules struck off its 
heads with his club; but in the place of the head he cut off, 2 new 
ones grew forth each time. However, with the assistance of his 
faithful servant lolaus, he burned away the heads of the hydra, and 
boned the 9th, or immortal one, under a rock. Having thus con- 
quered the monster, he poisoned his arrows with its bile, whence the 
wounds inflicted by them became incurable. 3. Capture of the Ar- 
cadian stag. This animal had golden antlers and brazen feet. Hercules 
was ordered to bring the animal alive to Eurystheus. He pursued 
it in vain for a year; at length he wounded it with an arrow, caught 
it, and carried it away on his shoulders. 4. Destruction of the Ery- 
manthian boar. This aynimal, . which Hercules was also ordered to 
bring alive to Eurystheus, had descended from Mt. Erymanthus 
into Psophis. Hercules chased it through the deep snow, and 
having thus worn it out, he caught it in a net, and carried it to 
Eurystheus. Other traditions place the hunt of the Erymanthian 
boar in Thessaly. It must be observed that this and the subse- 
quent labours of Hercules are connected with subordinate labours, 
called Parerga. The first of these is the fight of Hercules with the 
centaurs. In his pursuit of the boar he came to the centaur Pholus, 
who had received from Dionysus a cask of excellent wine. Hercules 
opened it, contrary to the wish of his host, and the delicious fragrance 
attracted the other centaurs, who besieged the grotto of Pholus. 
Hercules drove them away; they fled to the house of Chiron; and 
Hercules, eager in his pursuit, killed Chiron, his old friend, with one 
of his poisoned arrows. [CHIRON.] 5. Cleansing of the stables of 
Augeas. Eurystheus imposed upon Hercules the task of cleansing 
in one day the stalls of Augeas, king of Elis. Augeas had a herd 
of 3,000 oxen, whose stalls had not been cleansed for 30 years; 
Hercules, without mentioning the command of Eurvstheus, went to 
Augeas, and offered to cleanse his stalls in one day, if he would give 
him the loth part of his cattle. Augeas agreed to the terms; and 


Hercules, after taking Phyleus, the SOB of Aageas, as his -witness, 
turned the rivers Alpheus and Peneus through the stalls, which 
were thus cleansed in a single day. But Augeas, who learned that 
Hercules had undertaken the work by the command of Eurystheus, 
refused to give him the reward. His son Phyleus then bore witness 
against his father, who exiled him from Elis. At a later time 
Hercules invaded Elis, and killed Augeas and his sons. After this 
he is said to have founded the Olympic games. 6. Destruction of 
the Stympkalian birds. These voracious birds had been brought up 
by Ares. They had brazen claws, wings, and beaks, used their 
feathers as arrows, and ate human flesh. They dwelt on a lake near 
Stymphalus in Arcadia, from which Hercules was ordered by Eurys- 
theus to expel them. When Hercules undertook the task, Athena 
provided Mm with a brazen rattle, by the noise of which he startled 
the birds; and, as they attempted to fly away, he killed them with 
his arrows. 7. Capture tf the Cretan bull. The bull had been sent 
tut of the sea by Poseidon, that Minos might offer it in sacrifice. 
But Minos was so charmed with the beauty of the a-m'tn^ that 
he kept it, and sacrificed another in its stead. Poseidon punished 
Minos by driving the bull mad. Hercules was ordered by Eurys- 
theus to catch the buH. He brought the bull home on his shoulders ; 
but he then set the animal free again. The bull roamed through 
Greece, and at last came to Marathon, where we meet it again in the 
stories of Theseus. 8. Capture of the maresofihe Thradan Diomedes. 
Diomedes, king of the BSstones in Thrace, fed his horses with human 
flesh. Eurystheus ordered Hercules to bring him these animals. 
With a few companions, be seized the animals, and conducted 
them to the sea-coast. But here he was overtaken by the Bistones. 
During ^tibe fight he entrusted the mares to Jus friend Abderus, who 
was devoured by them. Hercules defeated the Bistones, killed 
Diomedes, whose body he threw before the mares, built the town 
of Abdera in honour of -his unfortunate friend, and then returned 
to Eurystheus with the mares, which had become tame after eating 
the flesh of ijiedr master. The mares were afterwards set free, and 
destroyed on Mt. Olympus by wild beasts. 9. Seizure of the girdle 
of the queen of the Amaxons. Hippolyte, the queen of tke Amazons, 
possessed a girdle, which she had received from Ares. Admete, the 
daughter of Eurystheus, wished to obtain this girdle; and Hercules 
was therefore sent to fetch it. After various adventures in Europe 
and Asia, he at length reached tiie country of the Amazons. Hippo- 
lyte at first received him kindly, and promised him her girdle; but 
Hera having excited the Amazons against him, a contest ensued 
in which Hercules killed their queen. He then took her girdle! 
On his way home Jie landed in T*oae, where he rescued Hesione 
from the monster sent against her by Poseidon ; in return for which 
service her father, Laomedbn, promised him the horses he had 
received from Zeus as -a, compensation for Ganymedes. But as 
I^omedon did not keep his word, Hercules on leaving threatened 
to make wa* against Troy, a threat which he afterwards carried into 
eowcutlon. *o. Capture of the oxen of Gsryones in Erythia. Gery- 
ones, the monster trith 3 bodies, lived in tiie febafcras island of 


Erythla (the 'reddish'), so called because it lay in the W., under the 
rays of the setting snn. This island was originally placed off the 
coast of Epirus, but -was afterwards identified either with Gades or 
the Balearic Islands. The oxen of Geryones were guarded by the 
giant Eurytion and the 2 -headed dog Orthns; and Hercules was 
commanded by Eurystheus to fetch them. After traversing various 
countries, he reached at length the frontiers of Libya and Europe, 
where he erected 2 pillars (Calpe and Abyla) on title 2 sides of the 
straits of Gibraltar, which were hence called the Pillars of Hercules. 
Being annoyed by the heat of the sun, Hercules shot at Helioa (the 
Sun), who so much admired his boldness that he presented him with 
a golden cup or boat, in which he sailed to Erythia. He there slew 
Eurytion and his dog, as well as Geryones, and sailed with his booty 
to Tartessus, where he returned the golden cup (boat) to Helios. On 
his way home he passed through Gaul, Italy, JQlyricum, and Thrace. 
Many attempts were made to deprive "him of the oxen, but he at 
length brought them in safety to Eurystheus, who sacrificed them 
to Hera. xx. Fetching the golden apples of the Hesperides. This 
was particularly difficult, since Hercules did not know where to 
find them. They were the apples which Hera had received at her 
wedding from Ge (the Earth), *"iH which she had entrusted to the 
keeping of the Hesperides and the dragon Ladon, on Mt. Atlas, in 
the country of the Hyperboreans. [HESPERIDES.] On arriving at 
Mt. Atlas, Hercules sent Atlas to fetch the apples, and in the mean- 
time bore the weight of heaven for him. Atlas returned with the 
apples, but refused to take the burden of heaven on his shoulders 
again. Hercules, however, contrived by a stratagem to get tiie 
apples, and hastened away. On his return Eurystheus made him 
a present of the apples; but Hercules dedicated them to Athena, 
who restored them to their former place. Some traditions add that 
Hercules killed the dragon Ladon. 12. Bringing Cerberus from the 
lower world. This was the most difficult of the 1 2 labours of Hercules. 
He descended into Hades, near Taenarum in Laconia, accompanied 
by Hermes and Athena. He delivered Theseus and Ascalaphus 
from their torments. He obtained permission from Pluto to carry 
Cerberus to the upper world, provided he could accomplish it 
without force of arms. Hercules succeeded in seizing the monster 
and carrying it to the upper world; and after he had shown it to 
Eurystheus, he carried it back again to the lower world. Besides 
these 12 labours, Hercules performed several other feats without 
being commanded by Eurystheus. After Hercules had performed 
the 12 labours, he was released from the servitude of Eurystheus, 
and returned to Thebes. He there gave Megara in marriage to 
lolaus; and lie wished to gain in marriage for himself Me, the 
daughter of Eurytus, M"g of Oechalia. Enrytus promised his 
daughter to the man who should conquer him and his sons in shoot- 
ing with the bow, Hercules defeated them; but Eurytus and his 
sons, with the exception of Iphitus, refused to give lole to him, 
because he had murdered his own children. Shortly afterwards 
he killed his friend Iphitus, in a fit of madness. Though purified 
from his murder, he was, nevertheless, attacked by a severe illness. 


The oracle at Delphi declared that he would be restored to health, 
if he would serve 3 years for wages, and surrender his earnings to 
Eurytus, as an atonement for the murder of Iphitus. Thereupon 
he became a servant to Omphale, queen of Lydia, and widow oi 
Tmplus. Later writers describe Hercules as living effeminately 
during his residence with Omphale: he spun wool, it is said, and 
sometimes put on the garments of a woman. According to other 
accounts he performed great feats during this time. He undertook 
an expedition to Colchis, which brought him into connection with 
the Argonauts ; he took part in the Calydonian hunt, and met Theseus 
on his landing from Troezen on the Corinthian isthmus. When the 
time of his servitude had expired, he sailed against Troy, took the 
* y, and killed Laomedon, its king. It was about this time that the 
~ 3 sent for him in order to fight against the Giants. [GIGANTBS.] 
i after his return to Argos, he marched against Augeas, as has 
been related above. He then proceeded against Pylos, which he 
took, and killed the whole family of Neleus, with the exception of 
Nestor. He then proceeded to Calydon, where he obtained Delanira, 
the daughter of Oeneus, for his wife, after fighting with Achelous 
for her. [DEIANIRA ; ACHELOUS.] After Hercules had l>een married 
to Deianira nearly 3 years, he accidentally killed at a banquet in 
the house of Oeneus the boy Eunomus. In accordance with the law, 
Hercules went into exile, taking with him his wife Deianira. On 
their road they came to the river Evenus, across which the centaur 
Nessus carried travellers for a small sum of money. Hercules' him- 
self forded the river, but gave Deianira to Nessus to carry across. 
Nessus attempted to outrage her- Hercules heard her screaming, 
and shot an arrow into the heart of Nessus. The dying centaur 
called out to Deianira to take his blood with her, as it was a sure 
means of preserving the love of Hercules. After this he took 
up his abode at Trachis, whence he marched against Eurytus of 
Oechalia, He took Oechalia, kflled Eurytus and his sons, and 
carried off his daughter lole as a prisoner. On his return home he 
landed at Cenaeum, a promontory of Euboea, erected an altar to 
Zeus, and sent his companion, Lichas, to Trachis, in order to fetch 
him a white garment, which he intended to use during the sacrifice. 
Deianira, afraid lest lole should supplant her in the affections of 
her husband, steeped the white garment he had demanded in the 
blood of Nessus. This blood had been poisoned by the arrow with 
which Hercules had shot Nessus; and the poison penetrated into all 
his limbs. He wrenched off the garment, but it stuck to his flesh, 
and with it he tore away whole pieces from his body. In this state 
he was conveyed to Trachis. Deianira, on seeing what she" had 
done, hanged herself.. Hercules commanded Hyllus, his eldest son 
by Deianira, to marry lole as soon as he should arrive at the age 
of manhood. He then ascended Mt Oeta, raised a pile of wood, 
on which he placed himself, and ordered it to be set on fire 
when Hie pile was burning, a cloud came down from heaven and 
amid peals olithunder carried him to Olympus, where he was 
honoured with immortaJity, became reconciled to Hera, and married 
her daughter Hebe, He was in course of time wc^hrpped.through- 


out all Greece. His worship prevailed more extensively among 
the Dorians than among any other of the Greek races. The sacrifices 
offered to him consisted of bulls, boars, rams, and lambs. The 
finest representation of the hero that has come down to us is the 
so-called Farnese Hercules (now in the Naples Museum; probably 
a copy of the statue by Lysippus). The hero is resting, leaning on 
his right arm, and his head reclining on his left hand: the whole 
figure is a most exquisite combination of peculiar softness with the 
greatest strength. The worship of Hercules at Home and in Italy 
is connected by Roman writers with the hero's expedition to fetch 
the oxen of Geryones. They stated that Hercules, on his return, 
visited Italy, where he abolished human sacrifices among the Sabines, 
established tiie worship of fire, and slew Cacus, a robber, who had 
stolen his oxen. The aborigines, and especially Evander, honoured 
Hercules with divine worship; and Hercules entrusted the care of 
hid worship to 2 distinguished families, the Potitii and Pinarii. 
At Rome Hercules was connected with 'the Muses, whence he is 
called Musagetes. For further information see Introductions to 
the Hercules Furens of Euripides, edited by E. H. Blakeney (1904), 
Jebb's Trackiniae of Sophocles, and FamelTs Cults of the Greek 

HBRC&LBS, son of Alexander the Great by Barsine, the widow of 
the Rhodian Memnon, murdered by Polysperchon, 310 B.C. 


SILVA, extensive range of mountains in Germany, 
covered with forests. 

HBRMAB, 'herms' or pillars, surmounted by the head of Hermes. 

HBRMPHRO'DITTJS, son of Hermes and Aphrodite. He had 
inherited the beauty of both his parents, and thus excited the love 
of the nymph of the fountain of Salmacis, near Halicamassus, As 
he was one day bathing in the fountain, she embraced him, and 
prayed to the gods that she might be united with him for ever. The 
gods granted the request; and the bodies of the youth and the nymph 
became united together, but retained the characteristics of, each 
sex. Figures of hermaphrodites are common in ancient art 

HBRMARCHUS, rhetorician of Mytilene, became a disciple of 
Epicurus, who appointed frfo" his successor, about 270 B.C. 

HBRMBSX&NAX, Greek elegiac poet (4th cent. B.C.) ; one consider- 
able fragment of his Leontion is extant. 

HsRMfls, called MBRCttenrs by the Romans. Hermes was a 
son of Zeus and Maia, the daughter of Atlas, and was bom in a cave 
of Mt. Cyllene in Arcadia, whence he is called Atlanta ad es or Cyllenius. 
A few hours after his birth he displayed his natural propensities; 
escaping from, his cradle, he went to Pieria, and carried off some of 
the oxen of Apollo, which he drove to Pylos. He then returned to 
Cyllene, and finding a tortoise at the entrance of his native cave, 
he placed strings across its shell, and thus invented the lyre. Apollo, 
by his prophetic power, discovered the thief, and went to Cyllene to 


charge Heroes with the crime. His mother, Maia ; showed to the 
god the child in its tsadle; but Apollo carried the boy before Zeus, 
who compelled him to restore the oxen. But when Apollo heard the 
sounds of the lyre, he was so charmed that he allowed Hermes to keep 
the animals, and became his friend. Zeus made Hermes his heral(L 
and he was employed by the gods, and more especially by Zeus, 
on various occasions which are recocted in legend, He also con- 
ducted the shades of the dead from the upper into the lower world 
(Vug. A*n. iv. 343 sqq m ). Being the herald of the gods, he is the 
god of eloquence. He was also the god of prudence and cunning, 
and even of fraud, perjury, and theft. Being endowed with this 
shrewdness and sagacity, he was regarded as the author of a variety 
conventions, such as the lyre and syrinx, the alphabet, numbers 
astronomy, music, the art of fighting, gymnastics, the cultivation of 
t&e olive tree, measures, and weights. Ha was regarded as the god 
11*?% wtl0 P^t 6046 * 1 travellers; and numerous statues of him 
called Hermes, were erected on roads j and at doors and gates! 
He was also the god of commerce, also of riches, and of good luck 
and as such presided over ifce game of dice. Hermes was believed 
to have been the inventor of sacrifices, and hence was the protector 
^ sa f^ TT animals. For this reason he was worshipped^ 
shepherds. Hermes was likewise the patron of all the gymnastic 
games of tte Greeks, The most ancient seat of Ifce 

ltad of 


to Athens, and spread through all Greece. Hie festivals 
m his honour were called Hermaea. Among the things sacxedto 

55JS*? 6 P ??i. twe ' "S 6 t rtoise ' tte numberTaad several 
kmds of fish; and the sacrifices offered to him consisted of incense 
honey, cakes, pigs, and especially lambs and young goats 
of ***** = *- A traveling h!f 
jW* I* War times was adorned with 

A , 

Appflp. In late works of art the white 
the herald's staff were changed into 

which survives. 
and Latin writins that contain 

to expand wet the RcW Empire^ 


presuppose, as a basis of speculation, the Timaeus of Plato, and 
frequently appeal to the theory of the domination of this lower 
(sensible) world by astrological influences. There are few, if any 
traces of Jewish or Christian teaching in the Hermetica; and their 
value, from a philosophical standpoint, is small. The best things 
in the collection are the four thanksgiving ' Hymns/ which strike a 
high note of mystical devotion (see Angus, The Mystery Religions 
and Christianity, 1925). The Hermetica have been edited with 
translation and notes by Professor W. Scott (4 vols., 1925-6). 

HERMANS, daughter of Menelaus and Helena. She had been 
promised to Orestes before the Trojan war; but Menelaus after his 
return married her to NEOPTOLEMUS. After the murder of the 
latter, Hermione married Orestes, and bore M-m a son, Tisamenus. 

HERMBGENSS, Greek rhetorician, a native of Tarsus, lived in the 
reign of M. Aurelius, A.D. 161-80. Several works are extant. 

M. TfeELLlus, a notorious detractor of Horace, 
who calls him, however, optimus cantor et modulator. 

HBRMSLAUS, a Macedonian youth, and a page of Alexander the 
Great, formed a conspiracy against the king's life* 327 B.C., but the 
plot was discovered, and Hermolaus was stoned to death. 

HERMO'PO'US MAGNA (Eshmounem), one of the oldest Egyptian 
cities, stood on the W. bank of the Nile, a little below the confines 
of Upper Egypt. It was the chief seat of the worship of Anubis 
(Cjrnocephalus). Egyptian papyri discovered here have resulted 
in important additions to Greek literature. 

HERNlci* people in Latium, belonging to the Sabine race. They 
were a brave and warlike people, and offered a formidable resistance 
to the Romans. They were finally subdued by the Romans, 306 B.C. 


HERS, mathematician, was a native of Alexandria, and lived in 
the reigns of the Ptolemies Philadelphia and Euergetes (285-222 B.C.) 
He is celebrated for his inventions. Several works are extant. 

S, a writer of mimes (short dialogues in verse describing 
a scene from real life); born 300 B.C. Until 1891 his name was 
scarcely known; but in that year Dr. Kenyon published the editia 
princeps of 7 mimes. Best ed. by Headlam (1922) ; there is a good 
English version by R. T. Scott (1909), and by H. Sharplcy in A 
Realist of the Aegaean (1906), and in the Loeb Library. Some 
elegies have been discovered since 1921 on Egyptian papyri at 
Oxyrhynchus; also in Loeb Library. 

HftRODSs, commonly called Herod, i. HBRODES THE GREAT, Trfng 
of the Jews, was the son of Antipater. He received the kingdom. 
of Judaea, from Antony and. Octavian, in 40 B.C. He put to death 
his beautiful wife Mariamne, whom he suspected without cause of 
adultery, and whom he loved; and later he also put to death his 
two sons by Mariamne* Alexander and Aristobulus. His govern- 
ment, though tyrannical, was vigorous. In the last year of his 
reign Jesus Christ was bom ; and it must have been on his deathbed 


that he ordered the massacre of the children at Bethlehem. He 
died in the yoth year of his age, 4 B.C. 1 2. HERODES ANTIPAS, son 
of Herod the Great, by Malthace, a Samaritan, obtained the tetrarchy 
of Galilee and Peraea, on his father's death, while the kingdom of 
Judaea devolved on his elder brother Archelaus. He married 
Herodias, the wife of his half-brother, Herod Philip, she having, 
in defiance of the Jewish law, divorced her first husband. He was 
deprived of his dominions by Caligula, and sent into exile at Lyons, 
A.r>. 39. It was this Herod Antipas who imprisoned and put to 
death John the Baptist. It was before him also that Christ was 
sent by Pontius Pilate at Jerusalem, as belonging to his jurisdiction, 
on account of his supposed Galilean origin. See The Herods by 
ATTICUS, the rhetorician. [ATTICUS.] 

HBRo'Dttiros, author of an extant history, in Greek, of the 
Roman empire in 8 books, from the death of M. Aurelius to the 
commencement of the reign of Gordianus III (A.D. 180-238). 

HfiRO'DSrus, Greek historian, was born at Halicarnassus, a 
Doric colony in Caria, 484 B.C. He belonged to a noble family at 
Halicarnassus. He was the son of Lyxes and Dryo. Herodotus 
left his native city at an early age, in order to escape from the 
oppressive government of LygdanSs, the tyrant of Halicarnassus. 
He settled at Samos for some time, and there became acquainted 
with the Ionic dialect; "but he spent years in his travels in Europe, 
Asia, and Africa. At a later tim* he returned to Halicarnassus, 
and took part ip. expelling Lygdamis from his native city. Subse- 
quently lie again left Halicarnassus, and settled at Thurii, where 
he died. It is disputed where Herodotus wrote his history. 
Lutian relates that Herodotus read his work to the assembled Greeks 
at Olympia, when it was received with such applause that the 9 
books of the work were in consequence honoured with the names of 
the 9 Muses. The same writer adds that the young Thucydides 
was present at this recitation and was moved to tears. But this 
celebrated story, which rests "upon the authority of Lucian alone, 
must be rejected. Nor is there sufficient evidence in favour of the 
tradition mat Herodotus read his work at the Panathenaea at. 
Athens in 446 or 445, and received from the Athenians a reward of 
10 talents. It is more probable that he wrote his work at Thurii, 
when he was advanced in years; though he appears to have been 
collecting materials for it during a great part of his travels. There 
was scarcely a town of any importance in Greece Proper and on the 
coast of Asia Minor with which he was not familiar. In the N 
of Europe he visited Thrace and" the Scythian tribes on the Black 
Sea. In Asia he travelled through Asia Minor and Syria, and visited 
the cities of Babylon, Ecbatana, and Susa. . He spent some time in 
Egypt, anil travelled as far S. as .^Elephantine. The object of -his 
work is to give an account of the struggles between the Greeks and 

^ 1 35^* ath * of Hcrod *?* Pk** ta &* sameysar with the actual birth 
of Christ, as is mentioned above, but it is well known that this is tobe 
placed 4 year* before. the date in general use as the Christian era. 


Persians. He traces the enmity between Europe and Asia to the 
mythical times. In order to form a fair judgment of the historical 
value of the work of Herodotus, we must distinguish between those 
parts in which he speaks from ids own observations and those in 
which he merely repeats what he was told by priests and others. 
In the latter case he was undoubtedly often deceived; but whenever 
he speaks from his own observations, he is a real model of truthfulness 
and accuracy; and the more the countries which he describes have 
been explored by modern travellers, the more firmly has his authority 
been established. The dialect in which he wrote is the Ionic, inter- 
mixed with epic or poetical expressions, and sometimes even with 
Attic and Doric forms. The excellences of his style consist in its 
antique and epic colouring, its transparent clearness, and the lively 
flow of the narrative. Rawlinson's translation -.of Herodotus has 
been reprinted (with introduction and added notes by E. H. Blake- 
ney) in Everyman's Library. A complete revision of Rawlinson 
by A. W. Lawrence has been published by the Nonesuch Press, 1935. 
Another translation by Godley is in the Loeb Library. See How 
and Wells, Commentary on Herodotus, 1912; and Wells, Studies in 
Herodotus t 1923. 

HfiRCSptfus or HttRd, city in Lower Egypt, on the border of the 
Desert E. of the Delta, by the canal connecting the Nile with the 
W. head of the Red Sea, which was called Sinus Herodpoliticus. 

HfiROSTRlras, an Ephesdan, who set fire to the temple of Artemis 
at Ephesus on the same night that Alexander the Great was born, 
356 B.C., in order to immortalize him. self. 

HsRSfi, daughter of Cecrops. [AGRAULOS, 2.] 

HERTHA ('Nerthus' in Tacitus, Germ. t xl, 4), the 'Earth- 
goddess' of N. German mythology. 

HfisIBous, early Greek poet. As Homer represents the Ionic 
school of poetry in Asia Minor, so Hesiod represents the Boeotian 
school of poetry. The only points of resemblance between the 
2 schools consist in their versification and dialect. In other respects 
they differ. The Homeric school takes for its subject the activity 
of the heroic age, while the Hesiodic turns its attention to the pursuits 
of ordinary life, to the origin of the world, the gods and heroes. 
Hesiod lived about a century later than Homer, and is placed about 
735 B.C. We learn from his own poem on Works and Days, that he 
was born in the village of Ascra in Boeotia, whither his father had 
emigrated from the Aeolian Cyme in Asia Minor. After the death of 
his father, lie was involved in a dispute with his brother Perses about 
his small patrimony, which was decided in favour of his brother. He 
then emigrated to Orchomenus, where he spent the remainder of his 
life. Tnis is all that can be said with certainty about the life of 
Hesiod. The two principal works of Hesiod, which have come dowja. 
to us, are his Works and Days, containing ethical, political, and 
economical precepts, and a Theogony, giving an account of the 
origin of the world and the birth of the gods. [The best editions 
of Hesiod are that of Paley; Wilamowitz - Mdllendorf (1928); 


and T. A. Sinclair (1932); and the best English version that by A. 
W. Mair (in the Oxford Translations library, 1908). This volume 
contains a good Introduction. Other translations are by Evelyn- 
White in the Loeb Library, which includes the new pieces found on 
Egyptian papyri at Oxyrhynchus, and by A. S. Way (1934).] 

HfisIoNfl, daughter of Laomedon, Tnrig of Troy, was chained to 
a rock, in order to be devoured by a sea-monster, that he might 
thus appease the anger of Apollo and Poseidon. Hercules promised 
to save her, if Laomedon would give him the horses which he had 
received from Zeus as a compensation for Ganymedes. Hercules 
killed the monster, but Laomedon broke his promise. Hercules 
took Troy, killed Laomedon, and gave Hesione to Telamon, to whom 
she bore Teucer. Her brother Priam sent Antenor to claim her, 
and the refusal of the Greeks was one of the causes of the Trojan war. 

Sj the guardians of the golden apples which Ge (Earth) 
gave to Hera at her marriage with feus. According to some they 
were tiie daughters of Atlas and Hesperis (whence their names, 
Atiantides or Hesperides), but their parentage is differently related 
by others. Some traditions mentioned 3 Hesperides, viz. Aegle 
Arethusa, and Hesperia; others, 4, Aegle, Crytheia, Hestia, and 
Arethusa; and others, again, 7. In the earliest legends, they are 
described as living on the river Oceanus, in the extreme W. ; but they 
were afterwards placed near Mt. Atias. They were assisted in 
watching the golden apples by the dragon Ladon. fHBRCTJXES 
Labour nj 

HSSP^RUS, the evening star, son of Astraeus and Eos, of Cephalus 
and Eos, or of Atias, 

HBsrlA, called VESTA by the Romans, the goddess of the hearth, 
or rather of the fire burning on the hearth, was one of the la great 
divinities of the Greeks, She was a daughter of Cronos and Bhea, 
and, according to tradition, was the first-born of Rhea, and the 
first of the children swallowed by Cronos, She was a maiden 
divinity; and when Apoflo and Poseidon sued for her hand, she 
swore by the head of Zeus to remain a virgin. As the hearth was 
looked upon as the xntre of domestic life, so Hestia was the goddess 
of domestic life. As she was the goddess of the sacred fire! of the 
attar, the first part of every sacrifice was presented to her. Solemn 
cams were sworn by the goddess of *&e hearth; and the hearth itself 

S* 8 ** 3 ? Sff^* 8 ? 1 ,? 111 whflro ^PPfcaats implored the protection of 
the inhabitants of tfie house. A town or city is only 1m extended 
family, and therefore had likewise its sacred hearth, This public 
aaarjfc usnaily existed in the prytaneum of a town, where the goddess 
^h^Mncteaiy, There, as at a private hearth, Hestia protected 
the snpphants. When a colony was sent out, the emigrants took 

!^^J!^^ to 
at toe inotner-town. 



Creek grammarian of Alexandria (4th cent. A.IX). 
His chief literary work was a Grtek lexicon. 

HETAIRA (<h-alpa), a woman-companion or concubine. In Attic, 
opp. to the legal Wife, but with Various shades of meaning. These 
women were sometimes accomplished (Aspasia, for example), and 
had mote liberty than wives, who were required to live a secluded life. 

HBTRICT&I.UM, town of the BruttaL 

HBXAMETER ('six measure'), a line of verse consisting of six 
metrical feet, each one of which is either a spondee or a dactyl, 
the fifth foot being almost invariably a dactyl, and the sixth foot 
a spondee. 

HiBERNlA, also called Xerne, the island of Ireland. It is mentioned 
by Caesar; but the Romans never attempted to conquer the island, 
though they obtained knowledge of it from th" commercial inter- 
course which was carried on between it and Britain. 

HXBMPSAL. i. Son of Micipsa, king of tfumidia, and grandson 
of Masmissa, murdered by Jugitttha, soon after the death of Micipsa, 
118 B.C. 2. King of Numidia, grandson or great-grandson of 
Masinissa, and father of Jfuba, received the sovereignty of part of 
Numidia after the Jugurthine waf. He was expelled from his 
kingdom by Cn. Domftfus Ahenobarbus, the leader of the Marian 
party in Africa, but was restored by Pompey in 81. Hiempsal 
wrote some works in the Punic language, which are cited by Sal&st. 

HE&RXFO'LTS, city of Great Phrygia, near the Maeander, was an 
early seat of Christianity. (Colossiarts iv 13.) 

HlftROw. i. Tyrant of Syracuse (478-467 B.C.), and brother of 
Gelon, whom he succeeded. He gained a victory over the Etruscan 
fleet near Cumae,.474 B.C. He was a patron of literature; and the 
poets Aeschylus, Pindar, .and Simonides took up their residence at 
his court. 2. King of Syracuse (270-216 B.C.), a noble Syracusan, 
descended from the great Gelon, was voluntarily elected king by 
his fellow-citizens, after his defeat of the Mamertines, in 270 B.C. 
He sided with the Carthaginians at tEte commencement of the first 
Punic war (264 B.C.), but in 263 he concluded a peace with the' 
Romans; and from this time till his defath, a period of little less 
than half a century, he continued the ally of the Romans. He- died 
in 216, at the age of 92. 

HifcRQ'NifMTJS., z. Of Cardia, accompanied Alexander the Great 
to Asia, and after the death of that monarch (323 B.C.), served under 
Eumenes. He afterwards fought under Antigonus>. his* son Deme-- 
trius, and grandson Antigonus Gonatas. He survived Pyrrhus, 
and died at the age of 104. Hieronytnus wrote a history from the 
death of Alexander to that of Pyrrhus, which is. Ibet. 2. Better 
known as Saint Jerome; one of the most celebrated of the Latin. 
Fathers, born A.D. 340. His most famous work was the translation 
of the Bible into Latin. [VTTLGATB.] SeeFarrar's tivrtoff 



, Greek city on the N. coast of Sicily, W. of the moutfr of 
the river Himera, was founded 648 B.C., and afterwards received 
Dorian settlers. In 409 B.C. it was taken by the Carthaginians, 
and levelled to the ground. It was never rebuilt ; but on the opposite 
bank of the river Himera the Carthaginians founded a new town, 
which, from a warm medicinal spring in its neighbourhood, was 
called Thermae. The poet Stesichorus was born at the ancient 
Himera, and the tyrant Agathocles at Thermae. 

HippARcros. i. "Son of Pisistratus. [PISISTRATUS.] 2. Greek 
astronomer, a native of Nicaea, in Bithynia, who flourished 160-145 
B.C., and resided both at Rhodes and Alexandria. The catalogue 
which Hipparchus constructed of the stars is preserved by Ptolemy. 

Hippl&s, son of Pisistratus. [PISISTRATUS.] 

HIPPO, city on the coast of Numidia, once a royal residence, and 
afterwards celebrated as the bishopric of St. Augustine. 

HrpPOcrJEDBS, an Athenian, one of the suitors of Agariste, 
daughter of Qisthenes, king of Sicypn. At the feast, where the 
kiTig was entertaining the guests, Hippoclides, the chosen suitor, 
who had taken too much wine, mounted the table and' danced so 
shamelessly that Qistitenes said, 'You have danced your wife 
away/ whereupon Hippoclides retorted, 'Hippoclides doesn't care* 
($ fparrls *lT-<wcXeJ$0) . And hence the proverb arose. The story is 
given in Herod, vi. 129. 

Hrpp8c56N, son of Oebalus and Batea. [TYNDARETIS.] 
HrppocJtlTfts, the physician, .was born in the fcWd of , Cos, about 
460 B.C. He wrote, taught, and practised his profession at home; 
travelled on the continent of Greece; and died at Larissa in Thessaly, 
about 357, at the age of 104. The best known of ; his works is the 
Aphorisms. The, first of these, aphorisms is justly famous ; it runs : 
'Life is short, and Art is long; the occasion fleeting, experience 
deceitful, and judgment difficult.' His extant works arc translated 
with text, by W. H. S. Jones in Loeb Library. 

HrppocRfiNfi, the 'Fountain of the Horse/ was a fountain in Mt 
Helicon in Boeotia, sacred to the Muses; [PEGASUS.] 

Hrppo'DlMlA. i. Daughter of Oenomaus, king of Pisa in Elis 
2. Wife of Pirithous. [PIRITHOUS.] 

i. Daughter of Ares and Otrera, was queen of the 
Amazons, and sister of Antiope and Melanippe. She wore a girdle 
given to her by her father; and when Hercules caine to fetch this 
girdle, he slew her. [HBRCXJLES.] According to another tradition, 
Hippolyte, with an army of Amazons, marched into Attica, to 
take vengeance on Theseus for having carried off Antiope; but 
being conquered by Theseus, she fled to Megara, where she died of 
grief. . a. Wife of ACASTUS. - 

s, son oiTheseus by Hippolyte,, queen of the Amazons 
or by her sister Antiope. Theseus afterwards married Phaedra' 
who fell in love with Hrppolytus; but as her offers were rejected bv 
her stepson, she accused him to his father of having attempted Jier 


S&2ttSK 9 tttt and devoted him 

honoured 4lb ffi, wST Ita^ foZ^*"!? 1 ' *lw. 


flwt of the histories of the Alexandrian udA4fcu 


d Tartessls (Tapr^irb). It iS anSfc 

apr^r. i afctolta 
name usuany derived from the river Iberas MH >T<* 5 en ^ * 


crossed the Pyrenees* and became mingled with the Iberi, whencq 
arose the mixed race of the Celtjberi, who dwelt chiefly in the centre 
of the country. ' [CELTJBERI.] But there were also several tribes, 
both of Iberians and Colts, who were never united with one another. 
The unmixed Iberians, from whon* the modern Basques are de- 
scended, dwelt in the Pyrenees and on, the coasts, and their tribes 
were the ASTTCBS, CANTABRI, VACCAEJ, etc. The unmixed Celts 
dwelt chiefly on the river Anas, and in the N, W. corner of the country 
or GaUaecia. Besides these inhabitants, there were Phoenician and 
Carthaginian settlements on the coasts, of which the most important 
were GADBS and CAKTTTAGO NOVA; there were .Greek colonies, such 
as Emporiae and SAGUNTTTM; and lastly the conquest of the country 
by the Romans introduced many Romans, Under the empire some 
TJatin writers were natives of Spain, such as the two Senecas, Lucan, 
Martial, QuintiHan, Silius Italious, Pomponius Mela, Prudentius, 
and others. The ancient inhabitants of Spain were a proud and 
warlike race, ready at all times to sacrifice their lives rather than to 
submit to a foreign master. The history of Spain begins with the 
invasion of the country by the Caithaginians, 238 B.C. Under the 
command of Hamilcar (238-229), and that of his son-in-law and 
successor, Hasdrubal (228-231), the (^xthaginians conquered the 
greater part of the S.E. oi the peninsula as far as the Iberus, and 
Hasdrubal founded the important city of Carthago Nova. These 
successes' of the Carthaginians excited the jealousy of the Romans; 
and .a treaty was, made between the 2 nations about 228. The 
capture bf Saguntum, however, by Hannibal in 219 was the cause 
of the second Punic war. [HANNIBAL.] The Romans drove the 
Carthaginians out of the peninsula, and became masters of their 
possessions in the S. of the country. But many tribes in the 
centre retained their independence; and those in the N. and N.W. 
of the country had been hitherto unknown. It was nearly two 
centuries before the Romans succeeded in- subduing the whole 
country. The Celtiberians were conquered by the elder Cato (105) 
and Tib. <^racchus, the father of the 2 tribunes (179). The Lusita^ 
sians, who long resisted the Romans under their brave leader 
Yraathus, were obliged to.subnrit, about the year 137, to D. Brutus 
who penetrated as- far as Gallaecia; but it was not till Numantia 
was taken by Stipio Africanus the Younger, in 133, that the Romans 
obtained the sovereignty over the centre and over the Lusitanians, 
S, of the Tagus. Julius Caesar, after his praetorship, subdued the 
Lusitanians N.. of the Tagus (60) . The Caniabri, Astures, and other 
tribes in the mountains of the N., were finally subjugate4 by 
Augustus. The Romans had, as early as tl^e end-o the second 
Puin> war,, divided Spain/into * provinces: (i) titspanfa CiUnor, 
E. of the Iberus; (a) Hispapia Ulterior, W. of the Iberus. In conse^ 
quence of there, being 2 provinces, we frequently *M t!he country 
called Hispaniae. The provinces were governed by 2 proconsuls or 
a propraetors, tfce latter of wljpm also frequently bore the title' ol 
proconsuls.. Augustas made a new division of the country and 
formed. 3 provinces: <r) Tanracane*$is t -whjch derived its nam* from 
Tarracp, tji$ capital of the province, was by ^r the largest of the 3, 


and comprehended the whole of the N., W., and centre; (2) Baetica, 
which derived its name from the river Baetis. was separated from 
Lusitania on the N. and W. by the river Anas, and from Tarra- 
conensis on the E. by a line drawn from the river Anas to the 
promontory Charidemus in the Mediterranean; (3) Lusitania 
corresponded very nearly to the modern Portugal. In Baetica, 
Hispafis was the seat of government; in Tarraeonensis, Tarraco; 
and in Lusitania, Augusta Emerita. On the fall of the Roman 
empire Spain was conquered by the Vandals, AJ>. 409. 

HisrlABus, tyrant of Miletus, was left with the other lonians to 
guard the bridge of boats over the Danube, when Darius invaded 
Scyfhia (513 B.C.) . He opposed the proposal of Miltiades, the Athrfn- 
lan, to destroy the bridge, and leave the Persians to their fete, and 
was in consequence rewarded by Darius with a district in Thrace, 
where he built a town called Myrcinus, apparently with the view of 
establishing an independent kingdom, this excited the suspicions 
of Darius, who invited Histiaeus to Susa and prohibited him from 
returning. He induced his Trinsman Aristagoras to persuade the 
lonians to revolt, hoping that a revolution in Ionia might lead to 
his release. His design succeeded. Darius allowed Histiaeus to 
depart (496) on his engaging to reduce Ionia. Here Histiaeus carried 
on war against .the Persians. He was at length taken prisoner, 
and put to death' by Artaphernes, satrap of Ionia. 

HOnteus, the great epic poet of Greece. His poems formed 
the basis of Greek literature and education. The date and birth- 
place of Homer, however, were matters of dispute. Seven crtaes. 
claimed Homer as their countryman (Smyrna, Siodus, Colophon, 
Salamis, Chios, Argos, Athenae) ; but the claims of Smyrna and 
Chios are the most plausible. Modern writers place his date about 
850 B.C. With the exception of the simple fact of his being an 
Asiatic Greek, all other- particulars respecting his life are fabulous. 
Tradition related that he was the son of Maeon (hence called Mdeon- 
ides votes), and that in his old age he was blind and poor. Homer 
was universally regarded by the ancients as the author of the 2 
great poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Such continued to be tne 
prevalent belief till the year 1795, when the German professor, 
F. A. Wolf, wrote his Prolegomena, in which he endeavoured to show 
that the Iliad and Odyssey were not two complete poems, but amai^ 
separate epic songs, celebrating single exploits of the heroes, and 
that these lays were for the first time written down and united, 
as the Iliad and Odyssey, by Pisistratus. This opinion gave rise 
to a controversy respecting the origin of the Homeric p6ems, which 
is not yet settled, and which probably never will be. The f oHowing, 
however, may be regarded as the most probable <x>ncluskHi. An 
abundance of heroic lays preserved the tales of the Trojan war. 
These unconnected songs were, for the first time, united by a great 
genius, called Homer, and he was the one individual who conceived 
the poetical unity which we must acknowledge in the Iliad and 
Odyssey, But as waiting was little practised in the age in which 
Homer lived; it naturally followed that in such long works many 


interpolations were introduced, and that they gradually became 
dismembered, and thus retained into their original state of separate 
songs. They were preserved by the rhapsodists, who sang lays at 
the banquets of the great and at public festivals. Solon directed 
the attention of his countrymen towards the unity of the Homeric 
poems; but to Pisistratus belongs the merit of having collected the 
disjointed poems of Homer, and committed them to writing. > The 
ancients attributed other poems to Homer besides the Iliad and the 
Odyssey; but the claims of none of these can stand investigation. 
The hymns, which still bear the name of Homer, probably owe their 
origin to the rhapsodists. The Batrachomyomachia, or 'Battle of 
the Frogs and Mice/ an extant poem, and the Margites, a poem 
which, is lost, and which ridiculed a man who was said to know many 
things and who knew all badly, were ascribed to Homer, but are 
clearly of later origin. The Odyssey was composed after the Iliad; 
and many nn^in-fa"' that they are the works ox 2 different authors. 
The- Alexandrine grammarians, paid great attention to the text of 
the Homeric poems. [ARISTARCEUS.] Editions and translations 
of Homer are legion; for students the best editions of the Greek 
text are (i) of the Iliad, by Dr. Leaf, in 2 vols., with English com- 
mentary, and of T. W; Allen (1931) ; (2) of the Odyssey, by W. W. 
Merry. The edition by Dr. Hayman is also worth consulting. 
Of translations the best verse-renderings are, perhaps, that of the 
Earl of Derby for the Iliad, and that of Worsley for the Odyssey. 
The version of the latter poem by William Morris is also interesting. 
Of prose-renderings of both epics those by Butcher and T.ang and 
by Samuel Butler are the best; for the Iliad the student may also 
use Purves's version, and of the Odyssey Mackail's (1932); there is 
also a rendering (with Introduction and Notes) by E. H. Blakeney, 
vol. I (bks. i-adi), 1909; voL ii (xiii-xxiv), 1913. There is no better 
handbook for Homeric study than Andrew Lang's Homer and the 
Epic. Prof. Gilbert MiirrayVrAa Rise of the Greek Epic (4th ed., 
1934) k brilliant, but scarcely suited for those who do not know 
Greek. (See Fig. 34.) 

H&NOR or HotfOs, the personification of honour at Rome, to 
whom temples were built both by Marcellus and by Marina, close 
to the temple of Virtus. . 

HoNORlus FLIVTDS, Roman emperor of the West, A.p. 395-423, 
was the 2nd son of Theodosius the Great. In his reign Alaxic took 
and plundered Rome. 

HOPLTTES, heavy-armed foot soldiers among the Greeks; they 
fought in serried ranks (the phalanx formation). 

H6RAB, daughters of Zeus and Themis, the goddesses of the 
order of nature and of the seasons, who guarded the doors of Olym- 
pus, and promoted the fertility of the earth by the varied weather 
which they gave to mortals. In works of art the Horae are repre- 
seated as maidens or youths, carrying the products of the seasons. 

HfelrtA. GENS, ancient patrician gens at Rome. 3 brothers of 
tiiis race fought with the Curiatii, 3 brothers from Alba, to determine 


whether Rome or Alba was to exercise the supremacy. The 
battle was long undecided; 2 of the Horatii fell; but the 3 Curiatii, 
though alive, were severely wounded. Seeing this, the surviving 
Horatius, who was still unhurt, pretended to fly, and vanquished 
his wounded opponents by encountering them severally. He re- 
turned in triumph, bearing his threefold spoils. As he approached 
the Capene gate, his sister. Horatia met him, and recognized on his 
shoulders the mantle of one of the Curiatii, her betrothed lover. 
Her importunate grief drew on her the wrath of Horatius, who 

stabbed her, exclaiming, ' So perish every Roman woman who bewails 
a foe.' For this murder he was adjudged by the duumviri to be 
scourged with covered head, and hanged on the accursed tree. 
The populus, however, acquitted Horatius, but prescribed a form 
of punishment. With, veiled head, led by his father, Horatius 
passed under a yoke or gibbet tigillum sororium, 'sister's gibbet.' 


H6RlxIus FIACCUS, O., the poet, was born 8th Dec., 65 B.C., 
at Venusia in Apulia. His father was a libertinus or freedman. 
He had received his manumission before the birth of the poet, who, 
however, did not escape the taunt which adhered to persons even 
of remote servile origin. His father's occupation was that of tax 
collector (coactor). He had purchased a small farm in the neigh- 
bourhood of Venusia, where the poet was born. The father devoted 
his whole time and fortune to the education of the future poet. 
Probably about his i2th year, his father carried him to Rome. He 
frequented the best schools in the capital. One of these was kept 
by Orbilius. [ORBILIUS.] In his iSth year Horace proceeded to 
Athens. When Brutus came to Athens after the death of Caesar, 
Horace joined his army. He was present at the battle of Phflippi, 
and shared in the flight of the republican army. In one of his poems 
he alludes to his flight. Having obtained his pardon, he ventured 
at once to return to Rome. His paternal estate had been swept 
away; but he was enabled to obtain sufficient money to purchase a 
clerkship in the quaestor's office. Meantime some of his poems 
attracted the notice of Varius and Virgil, who introduced him to 
Maecenas (39 B.C,). Horace soon became the friend of Maecenas. 
In a year or two after the commencement of their friendship (37), 
Horace accompanied his patron on that journey to Brnndtisium 
described in the 5th satire of the ist book. About the year 34 
Maecenas bestowed on TIITI a Sabine farm, sufficient -to Tnajq-fanTi 
"Him in ease, comfort, and even in content (satis beatus unicis Sabiriis). 
The situation of this Sabine farm was in the valley of Ustica, about 
15 miles from Tfbur (Tivofy . A site answering to tie villa of Horace, 
and on which were found ruins of buildings, has been discovered 
in modern times. Besides this estate, his admiration of the beauti- 
ful scenery in ' the neighbourhood of Tibur inclined h* either to 
hire or to purchase a small cottage in that romantic town. His 
friendship with Maecenas introduced Horace to other great men. of 
his period, and at length to Augustus himself, who bestowed upon 
the poet substantial, marks of his favour. Horace died on 1 7th. 


Nov., 8 B.C., aged nearly 57. Horace has described his own person. 
He was of short stature, .with 3 ark eyes and dark hair, but early 
tinged with grey. In his youth he was robust, but suffered from, a 
complaint in his eyes. In more advanced life he grew fat, and 
Augustus jested about his protuberant belly. His health was not 
always good, -"<* he seems to have inclined to be a valetudinarian. 
His habits, even after he became richer, were generally frugal and 
abstemious; though on occasions he seems to have indulged in 
conviviality. He was never married. The philosophy of Horace 
was that of a man of the world. He playfully alludes to his Epi- 
cureanism. The Odes of Horace want the higher inspirations of 
lyric verse. But as works of refined art, of the most skilful felicities 
of language and of measure, they are unrivalled. In the Satires it 
is the folly rather Hia.'n the wickedness of vice on which he touches. 
In the Epod&s there is bitterness provoked, it should seem, by some 
personal hatred, or sense of injury, and the ambition of imitating 
Archflochus; but in these he seems to have exhausted all the 
malignity of his temper. But the Epistles are the most perfect of the 
Horatian poetry, the poetry of manners and society. The title of 
the Art of Poetry for the Epistle to the Pisos is as old as Qumtilian, 
but it is now agreed that it was not intended: for a complete theory 
of the poetic art. The best edition of Horace (for EngHsh readers) is 
that by Dean Wickham (in 2 vols.); but scholars will always betake 
them to Bentley's (1726) and Orelli's {1850), Conington's verse 
translation is good. Of prose renderings that by Dean Wickham 
is very useful. Good criticisms of Horace are by W. Y. Sellar (1899) 
and T R. Glover (1932). Among recent works on Horace, special 
attention is drawn to Prof. J F. D* Alton's Horace and his Age (1917). 
HoRTENsius. i. Q., Roman orator, born in 114 B.C. At the 
early age of 19 he spoke with great applause in the forum, and at 
once rose to eminence as an advocate. In the civil wars he joined 
Sulla, and was afterwards a constant supporter of the aristocratical 
party. His professional, labours were in defending men of this 
party, when accused of maladministration in their provinces, or of 
bribery in canvassing for public honours. He had no rival in the 
Forum tin he encountered Cicero. In 81 he was quaestor; in 75 
aedile; in 72 praetor; and in 69 consul with Q. Caecflius MeteOns. 
He died in; 50. The eloquence of Hortensius was of the florid or 
(as it was termed) 'Asiatic' style, fitter for hearing than for reading. 
He possessed immense wealth, and had several splendid villas. 
2. Q. HORTENSIUS HORTALTJS, son of the 'above, was put to death by 
M. Antony after the battle of Phflippi. 

Hoitps, son of Osiris and Isis, the Egyptian god of the sun, who 
was also worshipped in Greece, and at Rome. 

HUNNI, Asiatic people who dwelt for some centuries in the plains 
of Taxtary, and were formidable to the Chinese empire. A portion 
of the nation crossed into Europe, and. were allowed by Valens to 
settfe m Thrace, A.D. 376. Under their king Attfla (A.D. 434-^53) 
they devastated the fairest portions of the empire; but alter Atfcfla's 
death their empire was completely destroyed. 


S, son of the Spartan king Amyclas, was a beautiful 
youth, beloved by Apollo and Zephyrus. He returned the love of 
ApoHo; but as he was playing at quoits with the god, Zephyrus, out 
of jealousy, caused the quoit of Apollo to strike the head of the youth 
and inn him on the spot. Exoni the blood of Hyadnthus there 
sprang the flower, hyacinth, on the leaves of which appeared the 
exclamation of woe AI, AI, or the letter T, being the initial of 
'Td/a*0of . According to other traditions, the hyacinth sprang from 
the blood of Ajax. Hyacinthus was worshipped at Amyclae as a 
hero, and a festival, Hyacinthia, was celebrated in his honour. 

HtflDBS, that is, 'the Rainers,' the name of nymphs forming a 
group of 7 stars in the head of Taurus, Their names were- Ambrosia, 
Eudora, Pedile, Coronis, Polyxo, Phyto, and Thyene or Dione, 
Their number, however, is differently stated by the ancient writers. 
They were entrusted by Zeus with the care of his Infant son Dionysus, 
and were afterwards placed by. Zeus among the stars. 

HS-BLA, 3 towns in Sicily, i. MAJOR, on the S. slope of Mt. 
Aetna and on the river Symaethus, was originally a town of the 
Siculi. 2. MINOR, afterwards called Megara, 3. HSRAEA, in the 
S. of the ialand, on the road from Syracuse to Agrigentum, It ia 
doubtful from which of these 3 places the Hyblaean honey came. 

HvccXRA, a town of the Sicani on the N. coast of Sicily, W. of 
Panormus", taken by the Athenians, and its inhabitants sold as 
slaves, 415 B.C. Among the captives was the beautiful Tiinandra, 
the mistress of Alcibiades and the mother of Lais. 

H^DASPBS (Jhtlwrn}, the northernmost of the 5 great tributaries 
of the Indus. The epithet, 'fabulosus,' which Horace applies to 
the ,-Hydaspes, refers to the marvellous stories current among the 
Romans, 'who knew next to nothing about India; and the 'Medus 
Hydaspes' of Virgil is an example of the vagueness regarding tiie 
countries beyond the eastern Kmit of the empire. 

HYGfflA, goddess of health, and a daughter of Aesculapius, though 
some traditions make her the wife of the latter. 

HYGlNUS, Roman scholar, and writer of immense versatility; 
made librarian of the Palatine library by the emperor Augustus. 

HffULBUS, that is, 'the Woodman/ the name of an Arcadian 
centaur, who was T"n by Atalante, when he pursued her. According 
to some legends, Hylaeus fell in the fight against tiie Lapithae, and 
according to others he was one of the centaurs slain by Hercules'. 

HSxAs, a beautiful youth, beloved by Hercules, whom he accom- 
panied in the Argonautic expedition. Having gone on shore/ on 
the coast of Mysia, to draw water, he was carried off by the Naiads. 
The story is exquisitely told in Theocritus. 

H*Lfi, a small town in Boeotia, situated on the lake Hyflce. 

HYLLTTS, son of Hercules by Deianlra, and husband of Ide. 
With the other sons of Hercules he was expelled from Peloponnesus 
byEurystheus. He was slain in battle by Ecbfoms, Jong of Arcadia, 
when he attempted afterwards to enter " 1 --------- 


or H-SicttNABtTS, god of marriage, was conceived as a 
handsome youth, and invoked in the hymeneal or bridal song. 
The name originally designated the bridal song itself, which was 
subsequently personified. He is usually called the son of Apollo 
and a Muse. He is represented in works of art as a youth, carrying 
in fri? hand a bridal torch g-*>d nuptial veiL 

HYMBXTUS, a mountain in Attica, about 3 miles S. of Athens, 
celebrated for its marble and its honey. 

HYPATIA, daughter of Theon, by whom she was instructed in 
philosophy and mathematics. She presided over the Neo-Flatonic 
school of Flotmus at Alexandria. She appears to have been grace- 
ful, modest, and beautiful, but she was a victim of slander. She 
was accused of familiarity with Orestes, prefect of Alexandria, and 
the clergy believed she interrupted the friendship of Orestes with 
their archbishop, Cyril. In consequence, a number of them seized 
her in the street, and dragged her into one of the churches, where 
they tore her to pieces, A.D. 415. 

HYPBRBO'LUS, Athenian demagogue in the Peloponnesian war, 
of servile origin. To get rid either of Nicias or Alcibiades, Hyper- 

' bolus called for the exercise of the ostracism. But the parties 
endangered combined to defeat him, and the vote of exile fefi on 
Hyperbolus himself: an application of that dignified punishment 
by which it was thought to have been so debased that the use of it 
was never recurred to. He was murdered by theohgarchs at Samos, 
411 B.C. 

HYPERBo'Rfii or -fti, a fabulous people, supposed to live in a land 
of perpetual sunshine, beyond the N. wind; whence their name 
(tore/j^peot, from fat? and Bopfaf). The poets use the term Hyper- 
borean to mean only most northerly, as when Virgil and Horace 
speak of the Hyptrborea* orae and Hyperborei campi. 

HypERBoitifcx MONTBS, originally the name of an imaginary range 
of mountains in the N, of the earth, and was afterwards applied 
to the Caucasus, the Rhipaei Montes, and others. 

Hvpfetofis, one of the 10 Attic orators, a friend of Demosthenes, 
and one of the leaders of the popular party. He was slain by the 

. emissaries of Antipater, at the end of the ^mian war, 322 B.C. 
In 1847 and again in 1856 extensive portions of speeches were found 
in Egypt. Oxford text by F. G. Kenyon (1907). See Jebb's Attic 

,, Orators, voL ii. 

a Titan, son of Uranus (Heaven), and Ge (Earth), 
and father of HeHos (the Sun), Selene (the Moon), and Eos (the 
Dawn). HeHos himself is also called Hyperion in Homer. 

HYPBKHNBSTRA, one of the daughters of Danaus and wife of 
Lynceufr. [DANAUS; LYNCHUS.] ' . 

HYPNUs(fcnw), god of sleep. (See Fig. 35,) . 

HYPSlPYLfi, daughter of Thoas, king of Lemnos, saved her father, 
when the Lemnian women killed all the men in the iaismri When 
the Argonauts landed tiiere, she bore twin *ons to Jason. When 


the Lexnnian women discovered Thoas was alive, they compelled 
Hypsipyle to quit the island. On her flight she was taken prisoner 
by pirates and sold to the Nemean king, Lycurgus, who entrusted 
to her care his son Archemorus or Opheltes. [ARCHE^ORITS.] 

HYRCAN!A, a province of the ancient Persian Empire, on the S. 
and S.E. shores of the Caspian. It flourished most under the 
Parthians, whose kings often resided in it during the summer, 

HYRCANUS. i. JOANNES, prince and high-priest of the Jews, 
was the son of Simon Maccabaeus, the restorer of the independence 
of Judaea. He succeeded to his father's power 135 B.C., and died 
in 106. Although he did not assume the title of king, he was the 
founder of the monarchy of Judaea. 2. High priest and king of the 
Jews, was the eldest son of Alexander Jannaeus; and was frequently 
engaged in war with his brother Aristobulus. He was put to death 
by Augustus, 30 B.C. He was succeeded by Herod. 

HYRTACUS, a Trojan, to whom Priam gave his first wife Arisba, 
when he married Hecuba. Homer makes him the father of Asius, 
called Hyrtatides. In Virgil, Nisus and HippocoOn are also repre- 
sented as sons of Hyrtacus. 

HvsxASPfis, father of the Persian king Darius I. 

IACCHTJS, the solemn name of Bacchus in the Eleusinian mysteries. 
In these mysteries lacchus was regarded as the son of Zeus and 
Demeter, and was distinguished from the Xheban Bacchus. 

lAMBLfcHUS, Neo-Platonic philosopher, in the reign of Constantino 
the Great. His life of Pythagoras is extant. 

IAMBUS, a metrical foot consisting of a short syllable followed 
by a long (e.g. dm&nt). An iambic line contained, in its strictest 
form, six iambi; but a pure iambic line is the exception, not the 

IAMUS, a prophet, son of Apollo and Evadne, was- regarded as 
the ancestor of the family of seers, the lamidae at Olympia. 

lApfixtTs, one of the Titans, son of Uranus (Heaven) and Ge 
(Earth), and father of Atlas, Prometheus, and Epimetheus. 

lipfolA, a country in the N. of Ulyricum, between the rivers 
Arsia and Tedanins, inhabited by the lapydes, a warlike race mixed 
Celtic and Blyrian. They were subdued by Augustus. 

t&F&GlA, the name given by the Greeks to the S. of Apulia. 

IAPYX, son of Lycaon and brother of Daunius and Peucetius, 
who went as leaders of a colony to Italy. According to others, he 
was a Cretan, and a son of Daedalus. 

IAPYX, the W.N.W. wind, blowing off the coast of lapygia 
(Apulia), in the S. of Italy, and consequently favourable to persons 
crossing over to Greece. 

IARBAS, king of the GaetuUans, and son of Jupiter Ammon 
by a Libyan nymph, sued in vain for the hand of Dido. [Dnx>.] 


king of Lydia, and father of Omphale, who is hence 
called lardanis. 

N, lislus, or l&sus, son of Zens and Electra, beloved by 
Demeter, who became by fri the mother of Pluton or Plutus in 
Crete. For this he was slain by the bolt of Zens. 

llZYGfis, a powerful Sarmatian people, who originally dwelt on 
the coast of the Pontns Euxinus and the Palus Maeotis, but in the 
reign of Claudius settled near the Quad! in Dacia. 

IBSRU. i. The name given by the Greeks to Spain. [HISPANIA.] 
2. (Part of Georgia), a country of Asia, in the centre of the isthmus 
between the Black and Caspian Seas, bounded on the N. by the 
Caucasus, on the W. by Colchis, on the . by Albania, and on the 
S. by Armenia. It was surrounded on every side by mountains, 
and was famed for fertility. Its inhabitants, Iberes or Iberi, were 
more civilized than their neighbours in Colchis and Albania. The 
Romans first became acquainted with the country through the 
expedition of Pompey, in 65 B.C. No connection can be traced 
between the Iberians of Asia and .those of Spain. 
IsfiRUS (Ebro), the principal river in the NJE. of Spain. 
IBYCUS, Greek lyric poet of Rheghun, lived at Samos, at the court 
of Polycrates, about 540 B.C. It is related that, travelling through 
a desert place near Corinth, he was murdered by robbers, but before 
he died he called upon a flock of cranes that happened to fly over 
him to avenge his death. Afterwards, when the people of dorinth 
were assembled in the theatre, the cranes appeared; and one of the 
murderers cried out involuntarily, 'Behold the avengers of Ibycus' : 
and thus were the authors of the crime detected. Ibycus has long 
been celebrated as the author of some passionate lyric peoms, still 
extant, and these have now been supplemented by a poem in honour 
of Polycrates, some 50 lines of which are contained in a papyrus 
found at Oxyrhynchus. See J. U. Powell, tf* Chapters in the History 
of Greek Literature (1933) ; also for a notice of his life with specimens 
of his work see the earlier Greek Melic Poets t by Smyth. 

IciRlus, i. An Athenian, who hospitably received Dionysus 
in Attica, and was taught in return the cultivation of the vine. 
Icarius was slain by peasants, who had become intoxicated by his 
wine and thought that they had been poisoned by hi, His daughter 
Erigone, after a long search, found his grave, to which she was con- 
ducted by his faithful dog Maera. From grief she hung herself on the 
tree under which he was buried. 2. A Lacedaemonian, son of Oebalus 
of Sparta. He promised to give his daughter Penelope to the hero 
who should conquer in a foot-race; but when Ulysses won the prize, 
hetriedtopersiMuifthertoremamwithhini. Ulysses allowed her to 
choose, whereupon she covered her feuce with her veil to hide her 
blnshes, thus intimating that she would follow her husband. 
IcXsus, son of Daedalus. [DABDJLLUS.] 

IcJteus or IcXslA., an island of the Aegaean Sea. Its common 
name, and tiiat of the surrounding sea, Icfirfum Mare, were derived 
from the myth, of Icarus. 


IcfiNi, a powerful people in Britain, dwelling N. of the Trino- 
bantes, in the modern counties of Suffolk and Norfolk. Their r-Mgf 
town was Venta Icenorum (Caister), about 3 miles from Yarmouth. 


('Fish-eaters') was a name given by the ancients 
to various peoples in Asia and Africa, of whom they knew little. 

IciLlus, the name of a plebeian family, the most distinguished 
member of which was Sp. IciLius, tribune of the plebs, 456 and 455 B.C. 
He was one of the leaders in the outbreak against the decemvirs, 
449* Virginia having been betrothed to him. [VIRGINIA.] 

Ic&rfuM (Koniyeh), the capital of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor, was, 
when visited by St. Paul, a nourishing city. 

IcrlNus, Greek architect (5th cent. B.C.), contemporary of Phidias 
and Pericles; architect of the PARTHENON at Athens. 

IDA. i. A mountain range of Mysia, in Asia Minor, celebrated 
in mythology as the scene of the rape of Ganymede (hence called 
Idaeus piter), and of the judgment of Paris (hence called Idaeus 
judex). In Homer the summit of Ida is the place from which the 
gods watch the battles in the plain of Troy. It is an ancient seat 
of the worship of Cybele, who was given the name of Idaea Mattr. 
2. A mountain in the centre of Crete,. connected with the worship 
of Zeus, who is said to have been brought up in a cave in this 


IDAL!UM, a town in Cyprus, sacred to Venus Idalia. 

IDAS, son of Aphareus and Arene, and brother of Lynceus. 
Apollo was in love with Marpessa, the daughter of Evenus, but Idas 
carried her off in a winged chariot which Poseidon had given him. 
The lovers fought for her possession, but Zeus separated them, and 
left the decision with Marpessa, who chose Idas, from fear lest 
Apollo should desert her if she grew old. The brothers Idas and 
Lynceus also took part in the Calydonian hunt, and in the expedi- 
tion of the Argonauts. [DIOSCURI.] 

IDM&N, son of Apollo and Asteria, or Cyrene, was a soothsayer, 
and accompanied the Argonauts, although he knew beforehand that 
death awaited him. 

ID&IC&NBUS, son of the Cretan Deucalion, and grandson of Minos 
and Pasiphae, was Tring of Crete. He led the Cretans against Troy. 
He vowed to sacrifice to Poseidon whatever he should first meet on 
his landing, if the god would grant him a safe return. This was his 
own son, whom he sacrificed. As Crete was thereupon visited by a 
plague, the Cretans expelled Idomeneus, who went to Italy, where 
he settled in Calabria. Of. Vlrg. Aen. iii. 122. 

lotJitABA (O.T. Edom). In the O.T., Edom is the district of 
Mt. Stir, that is, the mountainous region extending from the Dead 
Sea to the E. head of the Red Sea. The decline of the kingdom of 
Judaea enabled the Edomites to extend their power over the S. part 
of Judaea as far as Hebron, while their original territory was taken 


possession of by the Nabathaean Arabs. Thus the Idumaea of 
the later Jewish and of the Roman history is the S. part of Judaea, 
-and a small portion of the N. of Arabia Petraea, extending from the 
Mediterranean to the W. side of Mt. Seir. Antipater, the father of 
Herod the Great, was an Idumaean. The Roman writers of the 
Augustan and of later ages use Idumaea and Judaea as equivalent 

IDUS (Ides), the I3th or i5th day of the Roman month. 

ID YIA, wife of AeStes, king of Colchis, and mother of Medea. 

IGNATIUS, one of the Apostolic Fathers, became bishop of Antioch 
in A.D. 69. He was condemned by Trajan and martyred at Rome. 
He wrote several epistles in Greek to various churches. There are 
extant 15 epistles ascribed to him but of these only 7 are considered 
genuine. Greek text published by Jacobson, Pokes Apostolici; 
translated in Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers (1908); also in the Loeb 

louvfcjM (Gubbio or Eugubio), town in Umbria, on the S. slope of 
the Apennines. On a mountain near this town was a temple of 
Jupiter, in the ruins .of which were discovered 7 brazen tables, 
covered with Umbrian inscriptions, and which are still preserved 
at Gubbio. These tables, frequently called the Eugubian Tables, 
are of great importance for a knowledge of the ancient languages of 

ILAIRA, daughter of Leucippus and Phflodice, and sister of Phoebe 
The 2 sisters are frequently mentioned by the poets under the name 
of Leutippidae.. Both were carried off by the Dioscuri, and Haira 
became the wife of Castor. 

ILEKDA, town of the HergBtes in Hispania Tarraconensis, situated 
above the river Sicoris (Segre). It was here that Afranius and 
Petreius, the legates of Pompey, were defeated by Caesar (49 B.C.). 

LtfA or RHA SiLvU. [ROMULUS.] 

ILSKSNA, daughter of Priam and Hecuba. [POLYDORUS.] 

liJto NBUS, a son of Niobe, whom Apollo would have liked to save 
because he was praying ; but could not stop the arrow. 

ILISSUS, small river in Attica, rising on the N. slope of Mt. 
Hymettus, flowing through the E. side of Athens. 

litanriA, tiie goddess of the Greeks who aided women in child- 
birth. In tiie Iliad the Hithyiae (in the plural) are called tae 
daughters of Hera; but in the Odyssey and in the later poets there 
only one goddess of this name. 


i. (Tech), called Tichis or Techum by the Romans 
1 Narbonensis, rising in the Pyrenees and felling into 

the MareGallicum. 2. (fife), .town of the Santones, on ttel&ove- 
mentioned nver, at the foot of the Pyrenees. Constantjne changed 
its name into Helena, whence the modern Etoe. ^u*ugca 

*as, in its widest signification, all the land W. of 


Macedonia and E. of Italy and Rhaetia, extending S. as far as 
Epirus, and N. as far as the valleys of the Savus and Dravus, and 
the junction of these rivers with the Danube. The country was 
divided into two parts : I. ILL VMS BARBARA or ROMANA, the Roman 
province of Ulyncum, extended along the Adriatic Sea from Italy 
(Istria), from which it was separated by the Arsia, to the river 
Drilo, and was bounded on the E. by Macedonia and Moesia Superior, 
from which it was separated by the Drinus, and on the N. by Pan- 
nonia, from which it was separated by the Dravus. It thus compre- 
hended a part of the modern Croatia, the whole of Dahnatia, almost 
the whole of Bosnia, and a part of Albania. It was divided in 
ancient times into 3 districts: IAPYDIA; LIBURNIA; DALMATIA. 
The Liburmans submitted at an early time to the Romans; but it 
was not till after the conquest of the Dalmatians in the reign of 
Augustus that the entire country was organized as a Roman pro- 
vince. II. ILLYRIS GRAECA, or Ulyria proper, also called Epirus 
Nova, extended from the Drilo, along the Adriatic, to the Ceraunian 
mountains, which separated it from Epirus proper: it was bounded 
on the E. by Macedonia. It thus embraced the greater part of 
the modern Albania. Its inhabitants were subdued by Philip, the 
father of Alexander the Great; but after the death of the latter 
they recovered their independence. At a later time their queen 
Teuta was defeated by the Romans, and compelled to pay an annual 
tribute, ^29 B.C. The Ulyrians were again conquered by the consul 
Aemilius Paulus, 219. Their king Gentius formed an alliance with 
Perseus, king of Macedonia, against Rome ; but he was conquered by 
the praetor L. Anicius, in the same year as Perseus, 168 ; whereupon 
Ulyria, as well as Macedonia, became subject to Rome. The Uly- 
rian tribes were probably of the same origin as the Thracians, but 
some Celts were mingled with them. 

ILUS, son of Xros and Callirrhoe', great-grandson of Dardanus; 
whence he is called Dardanides. He was the father of Laomedon 
and the grandfether of Priam. He was believed to be the founder 
of Hion, which was also called Troy, after his father. 

IMAGINES, wax portrait-masks of deceased ancestors. 

InXus, mountain range of Asia, a name which the ancient geo- 
graphers appear to have used indefinitely, for want of exact know- 
ledge. In its most definite application it appears to mean the W. 
part of the Himalaya; but when it is applied to some great chain, 
extending much farther to the N. and dividing Scythia into 2 parts, 
Scythia intra Imaum and Scythia extra Imaum, it must either be 
understood to mean the Moussovr or Altai mountains, or else some 
imaginary range. 

IMPBRATOR commander-in-chief . A title of the Roman emperors. 

IN&CHIS, a surname of lo, the daughter of Inachus. The goddess 
Isis is also called Tnarihfa, because she was identified with lo: and 
sometimes TTiarfrifa means an Argive or Greek woman. Inachides 
was used as a name of Epaphus, a grandson of Inachus, and also of 
Perseus, because he was born at Argos, tiie city of Inachna. 


IN! CHUS, son of Oceanus and Tethys, was the first king of Argos, 
and said to have given his name to the river Inachus. 

IN&ROS, son of Psammitichus, a Libyan, the leader of a revolt 
of the Egyptians against the Persians, 461 B.C. He was at first 
successful, but was defeated by the Persians and crucified, 455. 

IND!A was a name used by the Greeks and Romans to describe 
the whole of the S.E. part of Asia. The direct acquaintance of 
the western nations with India dates from the reign of Darius, the 
son of Hystaspes. The expedition of AJLEXANDBR into India first 
brought the Greeks into contact with the country; but the conquests 
of Alexander only extended as far as the river Hyphasis, a tributary 
of the Hydaspes, down which he sailed into the Indus, and down the 
Indus to the sea. Seleucus Nicatpr crossed the Hyphasis, and made 
war with the Prasii, a people dwelling on the banks of the upper 
Ganges, to whom he afterwards sent ambassadors, who had the 
opportunity of obtaining information respecting the parts of India 
about the Ganges. 

iNDteftTBs, the name of those indigenous gods and heroes at Rome 
who once lived on earth as mortals. Thus Aeneas, after his dis- 
appearance on the banks of the Numicus, became a deus Indiges, 
pater Indiges, or Jupiter Indiges; and in like manner Romulus be- 
came Quirinus, and Latlnus Jupiter Latiaris. 

INDUS, i. River of India, rising in the table-land of Tibet, 
and flowing through the great plain of the Punjab, into the Ery- 
thraeum Mare (Indian Ocean), which it enters by several mouths. 
The ancient name of India was derived from tbe native n*nq o f the 
Indus (Sind). 2. River of Asia Minor, rising JQ Phrygia, and flowing 
through Caria into the Mediterranean, opposite to Rhodes. 

iNDunoMARUS, one of the leading chiefs of the Treviri in Gaul 
defeated and slain by Labienus, 54 B.C. 

INFAMXA=!OSS of political rights (Roman term). 

INF&RI, the gods of the nether world, in contradistinction from 
the Superi, or the gods of heaven. But the word inferi is also 
frequently used to designate the dead. 

INO", daughter of Cadmus and wife of ATHAMAS. 

INSUBRES, a Gallic people, who settled in the N. of Italy. Their 
chief town was MBDIOLANUM. They were conquered by the 
Romans shortly before the second Punic war. 

INTBRAMNA, the name of several towns in Italy, so called from 
their lying between 2 streams, i. (Terni), in Umbria, situated on 
fJie Nar, and surrounded by it, whence its inhabitants were called 
Interamnates Nartes. It was the birthplace of the historian Tacitus 
a. In Latram, at the junction of the Casinus with the Liris, whence 
its inhabitants are called InteramnaUs Urinates. 

INTEBNUM 3S1ARB (Mediterranean Sea), extending on ihe W. from 
the Straits of Hercules to the coasts of Syria and Asia Minor on 
^ 1L ^^^^ ^^ Romans Mare Internum or Intestinum; 
by the Greeks $ fro aiXrm or ^ &rk ddXarro, or, more fully 4 


*HpajcXefai> ffnj\Qv IdXarr*, and by Herodotus, fj& ^ 
and from its washing the coasts both of Greece and Italy, it was 
also called, both by Greeks and Romans, 'Our Sea.* The term 
Mare Mediterrcmtum occurs first in Solinus. The ebb and flow of 
the tide are perceptible in only a few parts of the Mediterranean. 

1C, daughter of Inachus, first king of Argos, beloved by Zeus, 
and metamorphosed, through fear of Hera, into a heifer. The 
goddess, who was aware of the change, placed her under the care 
of hundred-eyed Argus, who was, however, slain by Hermes, at the 
command of Zeus. Hera then tormented lo with, a gad-fly, and 
drove her in a state of frenzy from land to land, until at length, she 
found rest on the banks of the Nile. Here she recovered her original. 
form, and bore a son to Zeus, called Epaphus. The wanderings of 
lo were very celebrated in antiquity, and the Bosporus (i.e. Ox-ford) 
is said to have derived its name from her swimming across it. 

ISslTES, king of Lycia. [BELLBROPHON.] 

I&LAUS, son of Iphicles and Automedusa. Iphicles was the half- 
brother of Hercules, and lolaus was the companion and charioteer 
of the hero. Hercules sent him to Sardinia at the head of his sons 
by the daughters of Thespius; but he returned to the hero shortly 
before his death, and was the first who offered sacrifices to him as 
a demigod. lolaus after his death obtained permission from the 
gods of the nether world to come to the assistance of the children 
of Hercules. He slew Eurystheus, and then returned to the shades. 

IOLCUS, ancient town in Magnesia in Thessaly. It was celebrated 
as the residence of Pelias and Jason, and as the place from which 
the Argonauts sailed in quest of the golden fleece. 

lOLS, daughter of Eurytus of Oechalia, beloved by HERCULES. 
After the death of Hercules, she married his son Hyllus. 

I&N, the son of Apollo and Creusa, grandson of Helen. 

I&NlA, district on the W. coast of Asia Minor, c^onized by the 
Ionian Greeks at a time earlier fha-n any distinct historical records. 
The mythical account of 'the great Ionic migration' relates that in 
consequence of the disputes between the sons of Codrus, king of 
Athens, about the succession to his government, his younger sons, 
Neleus and Androclus, crossed the Aegaean Sea in search of a new 
home, 140 years after the Trojan war, or 1044 B.C. In the historical 
times we frn5 12 great cities on the coast claiming to be of Ionic 
origin, and united into one confederacy. The district formed a 
narrow strip of coast, extending between the mouths of the rivers 
Meander on the S., and Hermus on the N. The names of the 12 
cities, going from S. to N., were Miletus, Myus, Priene, Samos (city 
and island), Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos, Erythrae, Chios 
(city and island), Clazomenae, and Fhocaea; the city of Smyrna, 
which lay within this district, but was of Aeolic origin, was after- 
wards (about 700 B.C.) added, to the Ionian confederacy. The 
common sanctuary of the league was the Pan ionium, a sanctuary 
of the god . Posei4on, on the promontory of .Mycale, opposite to 
Samos; and here was held the great national assembly of the 


confederacy, called Panionia. At an early period these cities attained 
prosperity. They were first conquered by Croesus, king of Lydia; 
a second time by Harpagus, the general of Cyrus, 545 B.C.; and 
having revolted from the Persians, they were reconquered by the 
latter, 496. In no country inhabited by the Hellenic race, except 
at Athens, were the refinements of civilization, the arts, and litera- 
ture more highly cultivated than in Ionia. Out of the long list of 
the authors and artists of Ionia, we may mention the poets, Mim- 
nermus of Colophon, and Anacreon of Teos; the philosophers, 
Xhales of Miletus, and Anaxagoras of dazomenae; the early 
annalists, Cadmus and Hecataeus of Miletus; and the painters, 
Zeuxis, Apelles, and Parrhasius. The importance of the chief cities 
of Ionia in the early history of Christianity is attested by the Acts 
of the Apostles, and by the epistles of .St~ Paul to the Ephesians and 
of St, John to the 7 churches of Asia. 

I&rtuM MARK, the sea between Italy and Greece S. of the Adriatic, 
beginning on the W. at Hydruntum in Calabria, and on the E. at 
Oricus in Epirus, or at the Ceraunian mountains. In more ancient 
times the Adriatic was called the Ionian Gulf; while at a later time 
the Ionium Mare itself was included in the Adriatic. In its widest 
signification the Ionium Mare included the Mare Siculum, Creticum, 
and Icarium. Its name was derived by the ancients from the 
wanderings of lo, but it was more probably so called from 'the 
Ionian colonies which settled in the islands oft the W. coasts of 

18PHOX son of Sophocles, a distinguished tragic poet. For the 
story of his charge against his father, see SOPHOCLES. 

IpnUs, a name for EVADNB, daughter of Iphis. 

IpHlcLfis, or IPHlcxus. x. Son.of Amphitryon and Alcmene of 
Thebes, was one night younger than his half-brother Hercules. He 
was first married to Automedusa, the daughter of Alcathous, by 
whom he became the father of lolaus, and afterwards to the youngest 
daughter of Creon. 2. Son of Phylacus, or Cephalus, one of the 
Argonauts, and celebrated for his swiftness in running. 

IPHECRATBS, Athenian general, son of -a shoemaker, introduced 
into titie Athenian army the pettastae, or targeteers, a body of troops 
possessing the advantages of heavy and light-armed forces. He 
substituted a small target for the heavy shield, adopted a longer 
sword and spear, and replaced the old coat of Tnati by a linen corslet. 
At the head of his targeteers he defeated and nearly destroyed a 
Spartan Mora, 1 in 392 B.C. He married the daughter of Cotys, T*g 
of Thrace, and died shortly before 348. 

IpHlcfiNlA, daughter of Agamemnon and Qytemnestra, according 
to the common tradition; but daughter of Theseus and Helena, 
according, to others. Agamemnon once killed a hart in the grove 
of Artemis, and the goddess in anger produced a calm, which pre- 
vented' the Greek fleet in Aulis from sailing agajnst Troy. "Upon 

' * Greek M^ a military division into which all Spartans of military age 


the advice of the seer Calchas, Agamemnon proceeded to sacrifice 
Iphigenia, in order to appease the goddess; but Artemis put a hart 
in her place, and earned her to Tauris, where she became the 
priestess of the goddess. Here she afterwards saved her brother 
Orestes, and fled with him to Greece. [Ojussr&s.] Iphigenia was 
worshipped both in Athens and Sparta. Consult Verrall, Euripides 
the Rationalist, pp. 166-216. 

IpHiMfolA or IPHfoffoS, wife of Aloeus. [ALOEUS.] 

IPHIS. i. A youth in love with Anaxarete (Ovid, Met. xiv. 
748). 2. A Cretan girl, metamorphosed by Isis into a youth. 

IpHtrus, son of Eurytus, one of the Argonauts. [HERCTJLBS.] 

IPSUS, in Phrygia, the scene of that battle (301 B.C.) which ended 
the struggle between ANTIGONTJS and his rivals. 

IRA, mountain fortress in Messenia. Aristomenes defended 
himself here for n years against the Spartans. Its capture by the 
Spartans in 668 B.C. put an end to the second Messenian war. 

IR&NABUS, one of the early Christian fathers, probably born at 
Smyrna between A.D. 120 and 140. In 177 he became bishop of 
Lugdunum (Lyons) in Gaul. He wrote a refutation of the Gnostics, 
which has come down to us only in a TA-^H version. See F. R. M. 
Hitchcock, Irenaeus of Lugdunum (1914). 

IRENE, called Pax by the Romans, the goddess of peace, was, 
according to Hesiod, a daughter of Zeus and Themis, and one of 
the Horae. [HORAB.] She was worshipped at Athens and Rome. 
In Rome a magnificent temple was built to her by Vespasian. 
Nothing now remains of this building. Pax is represented on coins 
as a girl, holding in her left arm a cornucopia, and in her right hand 
an olive branch or the staff of Mercury. (See Fig. 36.) 

IRIS, daughter of Thaumas (whence she is called Thaumantias) 
and of Electra, and sister of the Harpies. In the Iliad she appears 
as the messenger of the gods; but is never mentioned in the Odyssey. 
Iris was the personification of the rainbow, which was regarded as 
the messenger of the gods. In the earlier poets, Iris appears as a 
virgin goddess; but in the later, she is the wife of Zephyrus, and the 
mother of Eros. Iris is represented dressed in a long tunic, over 
which hangs a light upper garment, with, wings attached to her 
shoulders, carrying the herald's staff in her left hand. ' 

IRIS (Ytshil Irmak), river. of Asia Minor, rising on the N. side of 
the Anti-Taurus, ana flowing through Pontus into the Sinus. Ami- 
senus in the Euxine. 

IRUS, a beggar in the house of Ulysses, became proverbial. 

Is (H#), city in the S. of Mesopotamia, 8 days' journey from 
Babylon, on the W. bank of the Euphrates, and upon the river Is. 
In its neighbourhood were the springs of asphaltus Whence came 
the bitumen used in the walls of Babylon. *~\ 

ISABUS, one of the 10 Attic orators, was born at Chalcis. He 
wrote judicial orations for others, and established a rhetorical 
school at Athens, in which Demosthenes may have been his -pupil. 


He lived between 420 and 348 B.C. Eleven of his orations are 
extant, all relating to questions of inheritance. See Jebb's Attic 
Orators, voL ii, pp. 263 sqq. The orations have been edited by Wyse. 
See also text, -with translation by E. S. Forster, in Loeb Library. 

ISAGORAS, leader of the oligarchical party in Athens, opposed to 

ISARA (Isere), river in Gallia Narbonensis, descending from the 
Graian Alps, and flowing into the Rhone N. of Valentia. 

IsAUBlA, district of Asia Minor, on the N. side of the laurus, 
between Pisidia and Cflitia, whose inhabitants, the Isauri, were 
daring robbers. They were defeated in 75 B.C. by the Roman 
consul, L. Servflius, who received the surname of Isauricus. 

Isis, Egyptian deity, wife of Osiris and mother of Horns. She 
was originally the goddess of the earth, and afterwards of the moon. 
The Greeks identified her both with Demeter and with lo. Her 
worship was introduced into Rome towards the end of the republic, 
and became very popular among the Romans under the empire. 
The most important temple of Isis at Rome stood in the Campus 
Martius, whence she was called Isis Campensis. The priests and 
servants of the goddess wore linen garments, whence she herself is 
called linigera. Cf. Frazer, Adonis, Attis, Osiris, pp. 271 sqq., 
348 sqq., where she is represented as a corn goddess. See the same 
writer's Golden Bough (2nd ed.), vcL ii. pp. 137 sqq. For the worship 
of Isis in Rome, see DEI, Roman Society, chap, v; Reinach, Orpheus, 
chap, iii; Mommsen's Rome, vol. v, p. 446. 

ISMARUS or ISMARA, town in Thrace, near MaronSa, situated on 
a mountain of the same name, which produced excellent wine. It 
is mentioned in the Odyssey as a. town of the Cicones. The poets 
use the adjective Ismarius as equivalent to Thracian. 
, daughter of Oedipus and Jocasta. 
S, a small river in Boeotia. 

IsScRATfis, one of the 10 Attic orators, was born at Athens, 
436 B.C. Among his teachers were Gorgias, Frodicus, and Socrates, 
He first taught rhetoric in Chios, and afterwards at Athens. He 
had IQO pupils, every one of whom paid hi-m 1,000 drachmae. He 
also derived a large income from the orations which .he wrote for 
others; but he did not come forward as a public speaker himself. 
He was an ardent lover of his country; and, accordingly, when the 
battle of Chaeronea had destroyed the last hopes of freedom, he 
put an end to his life, 338 B.C., at the age of 98. Twenty-one of his 
orations have come down to us: of these the most celebrated is the 
Panegyrte oration, in which he shows what services Athens had 
rendered to Greece in every period of her history. Isocrates hat) 
distinct merits as a popular educator; his views w.ere large, his 
moral tone elevated, and his methods thorough. See Jebb, Attic 
Orators* voL ii, pp. 1-258. .. See also text, with translation by 
G. B. Ncdin, in Loeb Library. 

ISSA (*$$*), small island in the Adriatic Sea, with a .town of 


Issa, off the coast of Dalmatia, said to have derived its name from 
Issa, daughter of Macareus of Lesbos, beloved by Apollo. 

Issus, city in the S.E. extremity of Cilicza; memorable for the 
battle in which Alexander defeated Darius Codomannus (333 B.C.). 

ISTHMIAN GAMES, one of the 4 festivals of the Greeks, held, on 
the Isthmus of Corinth, in the 2nd and 4th years of each Olympiad. 

ISTX&A or HiSTRlA, peninsula at the N. extremity of the Adriatic, 
separated from Venetia by the river Timavus, and from Ulyricum 
by the river Arsia. Its inhabitants, the Istri or Histri, were a war- 
like Ulyrian race, finally subdued by the consul C. Claudius Pulcher, 
177 B.C. Their chief towns were I^RGBSTE and POLA. 

ITAL!A and IxXilA, signified, from the time of Augustus, the 
country S. of the Alps, which we call Italy. The name Italia was 
originally used to indicate a much more limited extent of country. 
Most of the ancients derived the name from an ancient king, I talus; 
but there can be no doubt that Italia, or Vitalia, as it was also called, 
was the land of the Itali, Vitali, Vitelli, or Vitiili, an ancient race 
who are better known under the name of SiculL This race was 
widely spread over the S. half of the peninsula. The Greeks were 
ignorant of this wide extent of the name. According to them Italia 
was originally only the S.-most part of what was afterwards called 
Brnttium. They afterwards extended the name to signify the whole 
country S. of Posidonia on the W. and Tarentum on the E. After 
the Romans had conquered Tarentum and the S. part of the penin- 
sula, about 272 B.C., the name Italia then signified the whole country 
subject to the Romans, from the Sicilian straits as far N. as the 
Arnus and the Rubico. The country N. of these rivers continued 
to be called Gallia Cisalpina and Liguria down to the end of the 
republic. Augustus was the first who extended the name of Italia 
so as to comprehend the country from the Maritime Alps to Pola in 
Istria, both inclusive. Besides Italia, the country was called by 
various other names, especially by the poets. These were Hes- 
peria, a name which the Greeks gave to it because it lay to the W. 
of Greece, or Hesperia Magna, to di'fltingm'sh it from Spain, and 
Saturnia, because Saturn was said to have once reigned in Latium. 
The names of separate parts of Italy were also applied by the poets 
to the whole country. Thus it was called Oenotria, originally the 
land of the Oenotri, in the country afterwards called Bruttium and 
Lucania: Ausonia, or Opica, or Opitia, originally the land of the 
Ausones or Ausonii, Opici, or Osci, on the W. coast in the country 
afterwards called Campania; Tyrrhenia, properly the land of the 
Tyrrheni, also on the W. coast, N. of Ausonia or Opica, and more 
especially in the country afterwards called Etruria' [ETRURIA]; 
lapygia, properly tfcte land of the lapyges on the E. coast, in the 
country afterwards called Calabria: and Ombrica, the land of th 
Umbri on the E. coast, alongside of Etruria. Italy contained a 
great number of different races, who had migrated into the country 
at a very early period. The most ancient inhabitants were Pelas- 
gians or Oenotrians, a branch of the race who original y inhabited . 
Greece and the coasts of Asia Minor. They were also called 


Aborigines and Sicnli. At the time when Roman history begins, Italy 
was inhabited by the f oHowing races. From the month of the Tiber, 
between its right bank and the sea, dwelt the Etruscans, who ex- 
tended as far N. as the Alps. Alongside of these, between the left 
bank of the Tiber and the Adriatic, dwelt the Umbrians. To the 
S. of the Etruscans were the SacranL Casci, or Prisci, Oscan tribes, 
who had been driven out of the mountains by the Sabines, had over- 
come the Pelasgian tribes of the Sicnli, Aborigines, or- Latins, and, 
uniting with these conquered people, had formed the people called 
Prisci Latini, subsequently simply Latini. S. of these again, as 
far as the river Laus, were the Opici, who were also called Ausones or 
Aurunci, and to whom the Volsti; Sidicini, Saticuli, and Aequi also 
belonged. The S. of the peninsula was inhabited by the Oenotrians, 
who were subsequently driven into the interior by the numerous 
Greek colonies founded along the coasts. S. of the Umbrians, 
extending as far as Mt. Garganus, dwelt the various Sabellian or 
Sabine tribes, the Sabines proper, the Peligni, Marsi, . Marrucini, 
Vestini, and Hernici, from which tribes the Samnites subsequently 
sprung. From Mt. Garganus to the S.E. extremity of the peninsula, 
the country was inhabited by the Daunians or Apulians, Peucetii, 
Messapii, and Sallentini. An account of these peoples is given in 
separate articles. They were all eventually subdued by the Romans, 
who became the masters of the whole of the peninsula. At the time 
of Augustus the following were the chief divisions of Italy, an 
account of which is also given in. separate articles: I. Upper Italy, 
which extended from the Alps to the rivers Macra on the W. and 
Rubico on the E. It comprehended (i) LIGURIA; (2) GALUA Cis- 
ALPINA; (3) VBNBTIA, including Carnia; (4) ISTRIA. II. Central Italy 
or Italia Propria (a term not used by the ancients), to HigHngnicfr it 
from Gallia Cisalpina or Upper Italy, and Magna Graecia or Lower 
Italy, extended from the rivers Macra on the W. and Rubico on the 
E., to the rivers Silarus on the W., **\* Frento on the E. It compre- 
hended (i) ETRURIA; (2) UMBRIA; (3) PICBNUM; (4) SAMNIUM, 
including the country of the Sabini, Vestini, Marrucini, Marsi, 
Peligni, etc. ; (5) LATTUM; (6) CAMPANIA. HI. Lower Italy or Magna 
Graecia, included the remaining part of the peninsula, S. of the 
rivers Silarus and Frento. It comprehended (i) APULIA, including 
Calabria; (2) LUCANIA; (3) BRUTTTUM. Augustus divided Italy 
into the following n Regiones: (i) Latium and Campania. (2) The 
land of the Hirpini, Apulia and Calabria. (3) Lucania and Bruttium. 
(4) The land of the Frentani, Marrucini, Peligni, Marsi, Vestini, and 
Sabini, together with Samninm. . (5) Picenum. (6) Umbria and 
the district of Ariminnm, in what was formerly called Gallia Cis- 
alpina, (7) Etruria. (8) Gallia Cispadana. (9) Ldguria. (10) The 
E. part of Gallia Transpadana,. Venetia, Carnia, and Istria. (n) 
The W. part of Gallia Transpadana. 

i. Town in Hispania Baetica, on the W. bank of the 
Baetis, N.W. of Hispalis, founded in the 2nd Punic war by-Scipio 
Africanus, who settled here some of his veterans. It was the birth- 
place of the emperors Trajan and Hadrian. 2. [CORFINTUM.] 


ITHACA (Theakf), a small island in the Ionian Sea, off the coast of 
Epirus, celebrated as the birthplace of Ulysses. It is about 12 miles 
long, and 4 in its greatest breadth^ and is divided into 2 parts, which 
are connected by a narrow isthmus, not more than half a mile across, 
In each of these parts there is a mountain ridge of considerable 
height; the one in the N. called Neritum, and the one in the S. 
Nelum. The city of Ithaca, the residence of Ulysses, was situated 
on a precipitous, conical hill, now called Aeto, or 'eagle's cliff/ 
.occupying the whole breadth of the isthmus mentioned above. 
According to a recent theory, propounded by Dorpfeld, but not 
altogether supported by excavation, the Homeric Ithaca is not to be 
identified with this island (Thtato) but with the island called by 
the Greeks Leucadia (Santa Maura). See the appendix to vol. v 
of H. L. Jones's Strabo (Loeb Library). 

Ixno 1 Mfl, fortress in Messenia, situated on a mountain of the same 
name. [MESSHNIA.] 

Mus PORTUS (probably Wissanf), a harbour of the Morini, on 
the N. coast of Gaul, from which Caesar set sail for Britain. 

trSNlA, ITO"N!AS, or IX&NIS, surname of Athena, derived from the 
town of Iton, in the S. of Fhthiotis in Thessaly. Here the goddess 
had a celebrated sanctuary, and hence is called incola Itoni. 

IxflRAKA, district on the N.E. borders of Palestine. Augustus 
gave Ituraea, which had been hitherto ruled by its native princes, 
to the family of Herod. During the ministry of our - Saviour it 
was governed by Philip, the brother of Herod Antipas, as tetrarch. 




IxldN, Trmg o f the Lapithae, son of Phlegyas, and the father 
of Pirithous. He murdered his father-in-law, to avoid paying the 
bridal gifts, he had promised. Zeus carried Trim up to heaven; and 
there purified him. But Ixion was ungrateful and attempted to 
win the love of Hera. Zeus thereupon created a phantom, resem- 
bling Hera, and by it Ixion became the father of a Centaur. [CKN- 
TAURI.] Ixion was fearfully punished for his impious ingratitude. 
His hands and feet were chained by Hermes to a wheel, which is 
said to have rolled perpetually in the air. 

MSirtDfis, i.e. Pirithous, the son of Irian. The Centaurs are 
also called Ixionidae. 

, one of the hills of Rome. 
JANUS, an old Italian deity, represented with two faces, looking 
different ways. The month of January was sacred to him, as 
indeed were all 'beginnings.' On earth also he was the guardian 
deity of gates, and hence is commonly represented with 2 heads, 
because every door looks 2 ways (Janus bifrons). He is sometimes 
represented with 4 heads (Janus quadrifrons), because he presided 
over the 4 seasons. At Rome, Numa is said to have dedicated to 


Janus the covered passage bearing his name, which was opened in 
times of war, and closed in times of peace. This passage is commonly, 
but erroneously, called a temple. It stood close by the Forum. On New 
Year's Day, which was the principal festival of the god, people gave 
presents to one another, consisting of sweetmeats and copper coins, 
showing on one side the double head of Janus and on the other a ship. 

JlsSN, son of Aeson, and the leader of the Argonauts. His 
father Aeson, who reigned at lolcus in Thessaly, was deprived of the 
kingdom by his half-brother Pelias, who attempted to take the life 
of the infant Jason. He was saved by his friends, and entrusted 
to the care of the centaur Chiron. When he had grown up he came 
to lolcus, and demanded the kingdom, which Pelias promised to 
surrender to him, provided he brought the golden fleece, which was 
in the possession of king Aeetes in Colchis, and was guarded by an 
ever-watchful dragon. Jason undertook the enterprise, and set 
ga-fl in the ship Argo, accompanied by the chief heroes of Greece. 
He obtained the fleece with the assistance of Medea, whom he made 
his wife, and with whom he returned to lolcus. [ARGONAUTAE.] 
In order to avenge the death of his father, who had been slain by 
Pelias during his absence, Medea, at the instigation of Jason, per- 
suaded the daughters of Pelias to cut their father to pieces and 
boil him, in order to restore him to youth. [PELIAS.] Pelias thus 
perished; and his son Acastos expelled Jason and Medea from lolcus. 
They went to Corinth,, where they lived for several years, untfl 
Jason deserted Medea, in order to marry Glance or Creusa, daughter 
of Creon, the king of the country. MTedea in revenge sent Glance 
a poisoned garment, which burnt her to death when she put it 
on. Creon also perished in the flames. Medea killed her children 
by Jason, and fled to Athens in a chariot drawn by winged dragons. 
According to some, Jason made away with himself from grief; 
according to others, he was crushed by the poop of the ship Argo, 
which fell upon ftfan as he was lying under it. 

JAXARTBS (Sir Daarya\ t river of Central Asia, flowing N.W. into 
the Sea of Aral: the ancients supposed it to fall into the N. side 
of the Caspian. It divided Sogdiana from Scythia. On its banks 
dwelt a Scythian tribe called Jazaztae. 


JERUSALEM or HER&S&L$MA, the capital of Palestine. The 
earliest historical notice of fofa fortified city appears in the Anm-f^p. 
Letters, c. 1400 B.C. It was then garrisoned by Egyptian troops. 
Jerusalem was originally the chief city of the Jebusites, a Canaan- 
itish tribe, but was taken by David in 1050 B.C., and was made by 
hi the capital of the kingdom of Israel After the division of the 
kingdom, under Rehoboam, it remained the capital of th^ kingdom 
pfjudah, until it was destroyed, and its inhabitants were carried 
into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, 588 B.C. In 
536 the Jewish exiles, having been permitted by Cyrus to return, 
began to rebuild the city and temple; and the work was completed 
in about 24 years. After the death of Alexander the Great, Jeru- 
salem was subject first to the Greek kings of Egypt, and afterwards 


to the Greek kings of Syria; but in consequence of the attempts 
made by Antiochua IV Epiphanes to root out the national religion, 
the Jews rose in rebellion under the Maccabees, and eventually 
succeeded in establishing their independence. Jerusalem now be- 
came the capital of a separate kingdom, governed by the Macca- 
bees. In A.D. 70 the rebellion of the Jews against the Romans was 
put down, and Jerusalem was taken by Titus and was razed to the 
ground. In consequence of a new revolt of the Jews, Hadrian 
resolved to destroy all vestiges of their national and religious 
peculiarities ; and he established a new Roman colony, on the ground 
where Jerusalem had stood, by the name of Aelia Capitolina, and 
built a temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, on the site of the temple of 
Jehovah, A.D. 135 . The establishment of Christianity as the religion 
of the Roman empire restored to Jerusalem its sacred character. 

JficASTfi or JCcASTA, called EpIcastS in Homer, wife of Laius, 
and mother of Oedipus. 

Joppfl, JOPPA (O.T. Japho: Jaffa), ancient maritime city of 
Palestine, lying S. of the boundary between Judaea and Samaria. 

JORDANES (less correctly spelt Jornandes), Gothic historian who 
lived during the reign of Justinian. He wrote his Getica in A.D. 551, 
and a summary of Roman history, usually cited as Romana. The 
Getica has been translated by Mierow (Oxford Press, 1915). See 
Appendix 15 to Bury's Gibbon, voL i. 

JoRDANfls (Jordan), river of Palestine, rising at the S. foot of 
Mt. Hermon (the S.-most part of Anti-Libanus), flowing S. into the 
Sea of Galilee, and thence into the lake Asphaltites (Dead Sea). 

JOSEPHUS, FtAVIus, Jewish historian, born at Jerusalem, A.D. 37, 
was one of the generals of the Jews in their revolt against the 
Romans. He was taken prisoner by Vespasian, who spared his 
life through the intercession of Titus. Josephus predicted to 
Vespasian that the empire would one day be his and his son's. 
Josephus was present with Titus at the siege of Jerusalem, and 
afterwards accompanied him to Rome. He received the freedom 
of the city from Vespasian, and was treated with great favour 
by this emperor, and by his successors, Titus and Domitian. He 
assumed the name of Flavins, as a dependant of the Flavian family, 
and died about A.D. 100. The works of Josephus are written in 
Greek. The most important, entitled Jewish Antiquities, in 20 
books, gives an account of Jewish history from the creation to 
A.D. 66, tiie commencement of the Jewish revolt. An account of 
**"' revolt is given by "Mm in his History of the Jewish War, in 7 
books* t [Best edition (in English) by "Whiston,; 1737, revised by 
Margoliouth, also in Everyman's Library; see also text, with 
translation by Thackeray and Marcus, in Loeb Library.] 

JSvttNTjs, FLlvIus CLAUDIUS,, elected emperor by the soldiers, 
in June, A.D. 363, after the death of Julian QUIJANUS], whom he 
had accompanied in his campaign against- the Persians. He made 
peace with the Persians, and died in 364, after a reign of only 7 
months. Jovian was a Christian; but he protected the heathen. 


i . King of Numidia, and son of Hiempsal, joined Pompey's 
party, and gained a victory over Curio, Caesar's legate, 49 B.C. 
After the battle of Thapsus (46) he put an end to his own life. 2. Son 
of the preceding, was a child at the time of his father's death, and 
was carried by Caesar to Home. He became one of the most learned 
men of his day, and wrote numerous works. In 30 B.C. Augustus 
reinstated him in hi paternal kingdom of Numidia, and gave him 
in marriage Cleopatra, otherwise called Selene, the daughter- of 
Antony and Cleopatra. Five years afterwards (25) Augustas gave 
him Mauretania in exchange for Numidia, which was reduced to a 
Roman province. He died in Mauretania, about AJD. 19. 


JtteunTHA, an illegitimate son of Mastanabal, and a grandson of 
Masimssa. He lost his father at an early age, but was brought up 
by Micipsa with his own sons, Hiempsal *M Adherbal. Jugurtha 
distinguished himself greatly while serving under Stipio against 
Numantia, in 134 B.C. Micipsa, on his death in 118, bequeathed 
Tiig Mngdom to Jugurtha and hja 2 sons, Hiempsal a-tud Adherbal, in 
common. Jugurtha assassinated Hiempsal soon after hi -father's 
death, and shortly afterwards Jugurtha attacked Adherbal, took 
him prisoner, and put him to death (112). The Romans had 
previously commanded Mm to abstain from hostilities against 
Adherbal; and they now declared war against him. The consul, 
L. Calpurnius Bestia, was sent into Africa (HI); but Jugurtha 
purchased from him a favourable peace. The peace was indignantly 
disowned at Rome; and the war renewed under the command of 
the consul, Sp. Postumius Albums; but during the absence of the 
consul, his brother Aulus was defeated by Jugurtha (no). Next 
year (109) the consul, Q. Caecflius Metellus, was sent into Africa 
at the head of a new army. In the course of 2 years Metellus drove 
Jugurtha to take refuge among the Gaetulians. In 107 Metellus 
was succeeded in the command by Marius. The cause of Jugurtha 
was now supported by his father-in-law Bocchus; but Marius 
defeated their united forces. [Boccnys.] Jugurtha waa carried 
a prisoner to Rome, -and after adorning the triumph of Marius 
(ist Jan, 104), was starved to death in prison. 

JttLlA. i. Aunt of Caesar the dictator, and wife of C. Marius the 
elder. 2. Mother of M. Antonius, the triumvir. 3. Sister of Caesar 
the dictator, and wife of~M. Atxus Balbus, by whom she-had Atia, 
the mother of Augustas. 4. Daughter of Caesar the dictator, by 
Cornelia, was married to Cn. Pompey in 59, and died in childbed in 
54. 5. Daughter of Augustus, by Scribonia, and his only rhiTH 
born in 39, and thrice married : (x) To M. MarceQus, her first cousin, 
in 25. (2) After his death (23), without issue, to M. Agrippa, by 
whom she had 3 sons, C. and L. Caesar, and Agrippa Postumus, and 
2 daughters, Julia and Agrippina. (3) After Agrippa's death, in 
12, to Tiberius Nero, the future emperor. In consequence of her 
adulteries, Augustus banished her to Pandataria, an island oft the 
coast of Campania, 2 B.C. She was afterwards removed to Rhegium. 
She died in A.D. 14, soon after the accession of Tiberius, 6. Daughter 


of the preceding, and wife of L. AemiHus Paulus. She inherited 
her mother's licentiousness, and was, in consequence, banished by 
her grandfather Augustas to the little island Tremerus, on the coast 
of Apulia, A.D. 9. She died A.D. 28. 7. Youngest child of Ger- 
manicus and Agrippina, put to death by Claudius, at Messalina's 
instigation. 8. Daughter of Drusus and Livia, the sister of Ger- 
manicus, put to death by Claudius, at the instigation of Messalina, 59. 


JULIAN CALENDAR, which, with one slight alteration, we now use, 
was introduced by Julius Caesar in .45 B.C. The Julian year of 
365^ days is n mm. 12 sec. too long; by the year 1582 the error 
amounted to 10 days. Pope Gregory XIII rectified this error, but 
the Gregorian calendar was not adopted in England till 1752. 
Russia still keeps the Julian calendar, and is now Z2 days behind. 

JuLtlNUs, FLivIus CLAUDIUS, usually called Julian, and surnamed 
the Apostate, Roman emperor, A.D. 361-3. He was born at Con- 
stantinople, A.D. 331, and was the son of Julius Constantius, and the 
nephew of Constantino the Great. Julian and his elder brother, 
Gallus, were the only members of the imperial family whose lives 
were spared by the sons of Constantino the Great, on the death of 
the latter in 337. The 2 brothers were brought up in the principles 
of the Christian religion. Julian abandoned Christianity in his 
heart at an early period: but fear of the emperor Constantius pre- 
vented him from making an open declaration of his apostasy. He 
devoted himself with ardour to the study of Greek literature and 
philosophy; and among his fellow-students at Athens were Gregory 
of Nazianzus and Basil, both of whom afterwards became so cele- 
brated in the Christian Church. Julian did not remain long at 
Athens. Having been sent by Constantius into Gaul to oppose 
the Germans, he carried on war against the latter for 5 years (356-60) 
with great success. In 360 he was proclaimed emperor by his 
soldiers in -Paris; and the opportune death of Constantius in the 
following year left him the undisputed master of the empire. He 
now publicly avowed himself a pagan. His brief reign was chiefly 
occupied by his military preparations against the Persians, In 
363 he crossed the Tigris, and marched into the interior of the 
country in search of the Persian king; but he was obliged to retreat. 
In his retreat he was attacked by the Persians, and foin in battle. 
He was succeeded by Jovian. Jufian wrote a large number of 
works, many of which are extant. [See text, with translation by 
W. C. Wright, in Loeb Library. . See also Gibbon's DtcKne and fall 
and T. R. Glover's Lift and Letters in ike Fourth Century.] 

JuLlus AFRiciNUS (his full title is Sextus Julius Africanus), 
Christian writer of the 3rd cent.- His Chronographiat, composed 
before the year 221, are the first of its kind in- Christian literature. 
Julius was born in Libya, and died after 240. 

j&Lirjrs CABSAR. [CAESAR.} 

JtJNlA GENS, ancient patrician house at Rome, to which belonged 
the celebrated M. Junius Brutus, who took part-in expeffing the 


Tarquins. But afterwards the gens appears as only a plebeian one. 
The chief families were those of BRUTUS and SELANUS. 

Jttaro, identified by the Romans -with the Greek HERA. As 
Jupiter is the king of heaven and oi the gods, so Juno is the queen 
of heaven, or the female Jupiter, She was worshipped at Rome as 
the queen of heaven, from early times, with the surname of Regina. 
Juno watched over the female sex. She was regarded as the Genius 
of womanhood. She bore the special surnames of Virginalis *"id 
Matrona, as well as the 'general ones of Opigena and Sospita. On 
their birthdays women offered sacrifices to Juno, surnamed NataKs: 
but the great festival, celebrated by all the women in honour of 
Juno, was called Matronalia, and took place on the ist of March, 
From her presiding over marriage, she was called Juga or Jugalis, 
and had a variety of other names, such as Pronuba, Lucina. The 
month of June, originally called Junonius, was considered to be the 
most favourable period for marrying. Women in childbed invoked 
Juno Lucina to help them, and newly-born children were likewise 
under her protection: hence she was sometimes confounded with 
the Greek Artemis or Bithyia, Juno was further, like Saturn, the 
guardian of the finances, and under the name of Moneta ^ho had a 
temple on the Capitoline hill,, which contained the mint. 

JtJplTBR, identified by the Romans with the Greek ZBUS. The 
Roman Jupiter was' originally an elemental divinity, and his name 
signifies the father or lord of heaven, being a contraction of Diovis 
pater, or Diespiter (Sanskrit flCyaws 'the bright heaven'). He was 
worshipped as the god of rain, storms, thimder, and lightning, 
whence he had the epithets of Pbtvius, Fulgurate?, Tonitmalis, 
Tonans, and Fulminator. He was called the Best'and Most High 
(Optimus Maximus). His temple at Rome stood on the lofty hill of 
the Capitol, whence he derived the surnames of Capitolinus and 
Tarpeiu$. (For a full description of this great temple, see Middle- 
ton, Remains of Ancient Rome, vol. i, pp. 357 sqq.) As tiie special 
protector of Rome he was worshipped by the consuls on entering 
upon their office; and the triumph of a victorious general was a 
solemn procession to his temple. He therefore bore the surnames of 
Imperator, Victor, Invictus, Stator, Opitulus, Feretrius, Praedator, 
Triumphator, and the like. Under all these surnames he had temples 
or statues at Rome. Under the name of Jupiter Capitolinus, he 
presided over the great Roman games ; and under the name of Jupiter 
Latialis or Latiaris, over the Feriae Latinae. Jupiter, according 
to tiie belief of the Romans, determined the coarse of all human 
affairs. He foresaw the future; and the events happening in it 
were the results of his win He revealed the future to man through 
signs in the heavens and the flight of birds, which are hence called 
tita messengers -of Jupiter, while the god himself is designated as 
Prodigialis, that is, the sender of prodigies. For the same reason the 
god was invoked at the beginning of every undertaking, whether 
sacred or profane, together with Janus, who blessed the beginning 
^taell Japater was farther regarded as the guardian of law/and as 
the protector of justice and virtue. Hence Fides was his companion 


on the Capitol, along with Victoria; and hence a traitor to his 
country, and persons guilty of perjury, were thrown down from the 
Tarpeian rock. As Jupiter was the lord of heaven, and conse- 
quently the prince of light, the white colour was sacred to him, 
white animals were sacrificed to him, his chariot was believed to 
be drawn by 4 white horses, his priests wore white caps, and the 
consuls were attired in white when they offered sacrifices in the 
Capitol the day they entered on their office. 

JURA or JTTRASSUS Mosrs, a mountain range running N. of Lake 
Lemanus as far as Augusta Rauracorum (Augst, near Basle], on 
the Rhine, forming the boundary between the Sequani and Helvetii. 

JusrbrtiNus, surnamed the Great, emperor of Constantinople, 
A.r>. 537-65. He appointed a commission of jurists to draw up a 
complete body of law. They executed their task by compiling two 
great works -one called Digesta or Pandectae, in 50 books, being a 
collection of all that was valuable in the works of preceding jurists; 
and the other called the Justinia/neus Codex, being a collection of the 
imperial constitutions. To these two works was subsequently added 
an elementary treatise, in 4 books, under the title of Institution's. 
Justinian subsequently published various new constitutions, to which 
he gave the name of Novella* Constitution's. The 4 legislative works 
of Justinian, the Institution's, Digesta (or Pandectae), Codex t and 
Novellas, are included under the general name of Corpus Juris Civilis, 
and form the Roman law, as received in Europe. [Best edition by 
Movie, in 2 vols, Oxford Press.] 

JusrtNTTS. i. Historian, c. 2nd cent. A.D., is the author of 
an extant work entitled Historiarum Phitippicarum Libri XLIV. 
This work is taken from the Historiae PMlippicae of Trogus Pompeius, 
who lived in the tune of Augustus. The title Philippicae was given 
to it because its main object was to give the history of the Macedonian 
monarchy; but Trogus permitted Tii-marif so many excursions, that 
the work formed a kind of universal history from the rise of the 
Assyrian monarchy to the conquest of the East by Rome. The 
original work of Trogus is lost. The work of Justin is not so much 
an abridgment of that of Trogus,. as a selection. 2. Surnamed The 
Martyr, Christian writer of the 2nd century, author of 2 Apologies 
and of the Dialogue with Trypho, the Jew. He was martyred during 
the reign of Antoninus Pius. "Ufa Apologies have been edited by 
A. W. Blunt, 1911. The Epistie to Diognetus, a Christian document 
of the 2nd century (translated in the Loeb Library), has been 
ascribed to Justin; but it is certainly not his work. 

JfJrunNA (Diuinrna), nymph, of a fountain in Latitun, famous 
for its healing qualities. A pond in the Forum, between the temples 
of Castor and Vesta, was called Lacus Jutuxnae. The nymph is said: 
to have been beloved by Jupiter, Virgilcalls her the sister of Turnus. 

JtfvfiNAUS, DfidHUB JtJHius, Roman satirist, of whose Efe we 
have but few authentic particulars. His ancient biographers relate 
that he was either the son or the alumnus of a rich freedman; that 
he occupied Mnmrff, until he had nearly reached the term of middle- 


life, in declaiming; that, having subsequently composed some clever 
lines upon Paris the pantomime, he was induced to cultivate satirical 
composition; and that the poet, although now an old man of 80, 
was appointed to the command of a body of troops, in a remote 
district of Egypt, where he died. We can only be certain, however, 
that Juvenal flourished towards the close of the first century, that 
Aquinum, if not the place of his nativity, was at least his residence, 
and that he is in all probability the friend whom Martial addresses 
in 3 epigrams. Each of his satires is a finished rhetorical essay, 
energetic, glowing, and sonorous. He denounces vice in indignant 
although exaggerated terms. The extant works of Juvenal consist 
of z 6 satires, all composed in heroic hexameters. The best edition 
for ordinary readers is that of Lewis (2nd ed., 1882), which has 
text, translation, and notes. Scholars will always have recourse to 
J. E. B. Mayor's great work. Gifford's verse rendering is vigorous; 
and Dryden a translation of five satires is certainly worth consulting. 

JtiVBNTiS. [ttEBB.] 

LAB!RUM, Constantine flie Great's imperial standard, with 
Christian added to Roman military symbols. It commemorated the 
miraculous vision of the Cross in the sky, which is said to nave 
appeared to the emperor when on his way to attack Maxentms, 
and to have been the cause of Ms conversion to Christianity. 

LABDXCUS, son of the Theban king, Polydorus, by Nycteis, 
daughter of Nycterus. Labdacus lost his father at an early age, and 
was placed under the guardianship of Nycteus, and afterwards under 
that of Lycos, a brother of Nycteus. When Labdacus had grown 
up, Lycns surrendered the government; and on the death of Lab- 
dacus Lyons undertook the guardianship of his son Laius, the father 
of Oedipus. The name Labdaddae is given to the descendants of 
Labdacus Oedipus, Polynices, Eteocjes, and Antigone. 

L&BBO, ANTisrlus. i. Roman jurist, one of the murderers of 
Julius Caesar, put an end to his fif e after the battle of Fhilippi, 
42 B.C. 2. Son of the preceding, also a jurist. His republican 
opinions were disliked by Augustus. The Lobeone insanior of 
Horace was a stroke levelled against the jurist, in order to please 
the emperor. Labeo wrote a large number of works, which are 
cited in the Digest. He was founder of a legal school. [CAPITO.] 

LXsfiRlus, DficfMUS, Roman eques, and a writer of mimes, ^was 
born about 107 B.C., and died in 43 at Puteoli, in Campania. He was 
compelled by Caesar to appear on the stage in 45 in order to contend 
with Syras, a professional mimus, although the profession of a 
mining was infamous; but he took his revenge by pointing his wit 
atCaesar. Only a few fragments of Ms work survive. 

L&BfflNTO. i. T-, tribune of the plebs 63 B.C., was a friend of 
Caesar, and his legates in his wars against the Gauls; but on the 
breaking out of the civil war in 49 B.C. he went over to Pompey. 
He was slain at the battle of MundJa, in Spain, 45.,, 2. Q., son of the 


preceding, invaded Syria at the head of a Parthian army in 40; 
but the Parthians having been defeated in 39 by P. Ventidius, 
Antony's legate, he fled into Cilicia, where he was put to death. 

LABRANDA, town in Caria, celebrated for a temple of Zeus. 

LABYNRTUS, a name common to several of the Babylonian mon- 
archs, seems to have been a. title. The Labynetus mentioned by 
Herodotus as mediating a peace between Cyaxares and Alyattes 
is the same as Nebuchadnezzar. The Labynetus mentioned by 
Herodotus as a contemporary of Cyrus and Croesus is the same 
as the Belshazzar of the prophet Daniel. By other writers he 
is called Nabonadias or Nabonidus. He was the last king of Babylon. 


LIcH&sis, one of the Fates. [MOIRJLB.] 

L&cbrfuM, promontory on the coast of Bruttium, a few miles 
S. of Croton, and forming the W. boundary of tiie Tarentine Gulf. 
It possessed a temple of Juno T>acim'a. The ruins have given the 
modern name to the promontory, Capo dells Colonne. 

LXcSnlcA, sometimes called Lacdnfe by the Romans, a country 
of Peloponnesus. Laconica was a long valley mining S.-wards 
to the sea, and enclosed by mountains on every side except the S. 
This valley is drained by the river Eurotas, which fa-ll into the Laco- 
nian Gulf. In the upper part the valley is narrow. Homer calls 
the vale of Sparta the 'hollow Lacedaemon/ as the mountains close 
round it. Below Sparta the mountains recede, and the valley opens 
out into a plain of considerable extent. Off the coast shell-fish were 
caught, which produced a purple dye inferior only to the Tyrian. 
Sparta was the only town of importance in the country. [SPARTA.] 

LIcdNfcus Suras, a gulf in the S. of the Peloponnesus, into which 
the Eurotas falls. 

LACTANTIUS (or in full: Lucius Caelius Firmianns Lactantius), 
called 'the Christian Cicero' on account of his classical style, wrote 
several works in favour of the Christian religion. The most im- 
portant is Divinarum Institutionum Libri VII. Lactantius was 
born in N. Africa. His works were much read by the humanists. 
A celebrated poem on the Phoenix, containing pagan and Christian 
sentiments, has been ascribed to Lactantius (see text and transla- 
tion in Minor Latin Poets, in Loeb Library). 

LACYDS, a native of Cyrene, succeeded Arcesilaus as president 
of the Academy at Athens, and died about 215. 

LIDAS, a swift runner of Alexander the Great. 

LADS, island off the W. coast of Caria, opposite to Miletus. 

LADON, the dragon. [HBSPSRIDES.} 

LABLAPS, the storm wind, personified as the swift dog, which 
Procris had received from Artemis, and gave to her husband 
Cephalus. When ifte Teumessian fox was sent to punish the 
Thebans, Cephalus sent the dog Laelaps against the fox. The dog 
overtook the fox, but Zeus changed both animals into a stone. 


, C. r. The iriend of Scipio Africanus the Elder, under 
whom he fought in almost all his campaigns. He was consul 190 B.C.. 
2. Suxnamed Sapiens, son of the preceding. His intimacy with 
Scipio Africanus the younger was as remarkable as his father's 
friendship with the elder. He was born about 186; was tribune of 
the plebs 151 ; praetor 145 ; and consul 140. He was celebrated for 
his love of literature and philosophy. Laelius is the principal 
interlocutor in Cicero's dialogue, De Amicitia, and is one of the 
speakers in the De Senectvte, and in the De Republica. 

LAZNIS, the name of a family of the Popilia gens, noted for its 
sternness, cruelty, and haughtiness of. character. The chief mem- 
bers of the family were: i. C. POPILIUS LAENAS, consul 172 B.C., 
and afterwards ambassador to Antiochus, Mng of Syria, whom the 
senate wished to abstain from hostilities against Egypt. Antiochus 
was Just marching upon Alexandria, when Popilius gave him the 
letter of the senate. JPopflius described with his cane a drcle in the 
sand round the king, and ordered him not to stir out of it before he 
frft4 given a decisive answer. This boldness so frightened Antiochus 
that he at once yielded to the demand of Home. 2. P. POPILIUS 
LABNAS, consul 132, the year after the murder of Tib. Gracchus. 
He was charged by the victorious aristocratical party with the 
prosecution of the accomplices of Gracchus. He subsequently 
withdrew himself, by voluntary exile, from the vengeance of C. 
Gracchus, and did not return to Rome till after his death. 

LlERTfis, king of Ithaca, son of Acrisius, husband of AnticlSa, 
and father of Ulysses who is hence called Laertiades. Laertes 
took part in the Calydonian hunt, and in the expedition of the 
Argonauts. He was still alive when Ulysses returned to Ithaca. 


LAESTR'frGo'NBS, a savage race of cannibals, whom Ulysses en- 
countered in his wanderings. See the loth book of the Odyssey. 

LABvtNus, VXLftRlus. i. P., consul 280 B.C., defeated by Pyrrhus 
on the banks of the Siris. 2. M., praetor 215, when he carried on 
war against Philip, in Greece; and consul 210, when he carried on 
the war in Sicily, and took Agrigentum. 


LAIS, the name of two Grecian courtesans, i. The .elder, a 
native probably of Corinth, lived in the time of the Peloponnesian 
war, and was celebrated as the most beautiful woman of her age. 
2. The younger, daughter of Timandra, probably born at Hyccara, 
in Sicily. u - 

UUfus, king of Thebes, son of Labdacus, husband of Jocasta, and 
father of Oedipus, by whom he was slain. [Omoipus .] . . 

LXT.XGS, a common name of courtesans, from the Greek AaXaytf, 
prattling, used as a term of endearment, 'little prattler.' 

LAM&CHUS, an Athenian, the colleague of Alcibiades and Nitias, 
in tiie great and disastrous Sicilian, expedition, 415 B.C. 
phantom. , ' 


LXMlA, ABLlus, a Roman family which claimed descent from the 
mythical hero I^amus. L. Aelius Tamia, the friend of Horace, 
was consul A.D. 3, and the son of the Lamia who supported Cicero 
in the suppression of the Cj^si^n^n^n conspiracy. 

LXMiA, a town in Phthiotis, in Thessaly, situated on the smaB 
river Achelous, 50 stadia inland from the Maliac Gulf. It has 
given its name to the war which, was carried on by the confederate 
Greeks against Antipater. [ANTOPATER.] 

LAMpsIcxrs, city of Asia Minor, celebrated for its wine; and the 
chief seat of the worship of Priapus. 

L&MTTS, a river and town of Ciliria. 

LANGOBAJUDI or LONGOBAJLDI, corrupted into Lombards, a German 
tribe of the Suevic race, dwelt originally on the banks of the Elbe,, 
and after many migrations crossed the Alps JA.D. 568), and settled 
in the N. of Italy. The kingdom of the Lombards existed for 
upwards of 2 centuries, till its overthrow by Charlemagne. 

LANtfvhiM (Civite Laoinia), ancient city in Latium, the birthplace- 
of the emperor Antoninus Pius. 

LICco'o'N, Trojan priest of the Thymbraean Apollo. He tried 
hi vain to dissuade his countrymen from drawing into the city the 
wooden horse of the Greeks. As he was preparing to sacrifice a 
bull to Poseidon, 2 fearful serpents swam out of the sea, coiled round 
LaocoOn and his two sons, fr"d destroyed them. His death forms 
the subject of a magnificent work of ancient art found in 1506, and 
now preserved in the Vatican. This group of statuary is generally 
assigned to the ist century B.C. (See Fig. 37.) See H. B. Walters, 
The Art of the Greeks, pi. 5A, and p. 133. 

LAO'DAMIA, daughter of Acastus and wife of Protesilaus. When 
her husband was slam before Troy, she begged the gods to be allowed 
to converse with him for only 3 hours. The request was granted. 
Hermes led Protesilaus back to the upper world; and when Pro- 
tesilaus died a second time, Laodamia died with him. 

LAODlcfi. i. Daughter of Priam and Hecuba, and wife of Heli- 
caon. 2 . The name given by Homer to the daughter of Agamemnon 
and Clytemnestra, who is called Electra by the tragic poets. 

LlttDtefiA, the name of 6 Greek cities in Asia, called after the 
mother of Seleucus I, and other Syrian princesses named Laodice. 

LI&M&D6X king of Troy, son of HUB, and fatherof Priam, Hesione, 
and other children, Poseidon and Apollo, who had displeased Zeus, 
were doomed to serve Laornedbn for wages. Accordingly, Poseidon 
built the walls of Troyi wmle Apollo tended the king's flocks on 
Mt. Ida. When the two gods had done their work, Laomedpn 
rtfused them their wages. Thereupon Poseidon sent a marine 
monster to ravage the country, to which the Trojans were obliged, 
from time to time, to sacrifice a maiden. On one occasion- it -was 
decided by lot that Hesione, the daughter of Laomedon, should, bes 
t^e victim. [HBSIONB.]_ ^SQffifidon. was killed by Hercnjea. 


LlrlTHAB, a mythical people inhabiting the mountains of Thessaly . 
They were governed by Pirithous, who, being a son of Ixion, was a 
half-brother of the Centaurs. The latter demanded their share in 
their father's kingdom; and, as their claims were not satisfied, a 
war arose between the Lapithae and Centaurs, which was terminated 
by a peace. But when Pirithous married Hippodamia, and invited 
the Centaurs to the marriage feast, the latter attempted to carry 
off the bride and the other women. A bloody conflict ensued, in 
which the Centaurs were defeated by the Lapithae. Thtis fight was 
the subject of some of the metopes of the Parthenon. The battle 
itself is described by Ovid, Metam. xiu 210 sqq. (See Fig. 20.) 

LAR or T.fRS, an Etruscan praenomen, signifying king or hero, 
borne, for instance, by Porsena and Tolumnius. It was adopted 
by the Romans, whence we read of Lar Herminius, who was consul 
448 B.C. 


LARES, the spirits of dead ancestors who watched over a household. 
Furtiier, there were the lares praestites, who belonged to the whole 
city. [LEMURES.] 

LARISSA, the name of several Pelasgian places, whence Larissa 
is called in mythology the daughter of Pelasgus. i . Town of Thessaly, 
in Pelasgiotis, situated on the Peneus, in an extensive plain, and 
once the capital of the Pelasgi. 2. L. CREMASTB, town of Thessaly, 
in Phthiotis, distant 20 stadia from the Maliac Gulf. 3. Ancient 
city on the coast of the Troad. 4. L 4 PHRICONIS, a city on the coast 
of Mysia, near Cyme, of Pelasgian origin, but colonized by the 
Aeolians. It was also called the Egyptian Larissa, because Cyrus 
the Great settled in it a body of his Egyptian mercenary soldiers. 
5. L. EPHESIA, a city of Lydla, in the plain of the Cayster. 6. In 
Assyria, an ancient city on the E. bank of the Tigris. 

LiRlus LACUS (Lake cf Como), lake in GaHia Transpadana (N. 
Italy), running from N. to S. Ph*ny the Younger had villas on the 
banks of the lake. 

LART*A GENS, patrician, distinguished through two of its members 
T. Lartius, the first dictator, and Sp. Lartius. [CocxEs.] ' 

LARUNDA or LIRA, daughter of Almon, the nymph who informed 
Juno of the connection between Jupiter and Juturna.. Jupiter 
deprived her of her tongue, and ordered Mercury to conduct her into 
the lower world. On ifce way thither Mercury fell in love with her. 


LASUS, of Hermipne, in Argolis, poet, and the teacher of Pindar. 

or LXrflRis, a surname of Jupiter as the protectmff 
divinity, of Latium. QUPITER.] "- * 

LXTb(ru?5, king of Latium, and father of Lavinia, wbqm he gav 
in marriage to Aeneas. See Virgil, Aeneid, vii-xii. 

a country in Italy, originally the name of a small district- 
afterwards signified the country bounded by Etruria on the N ' 
by Campania on the S,, by the Tyrrhene Sea on the W., and by thi 


Sabine and Samnite tribes on the E. The Latin! were some of the 
most ancient inhabitants of Italy. These ancient TA-HTI^ who were 
called Prisci Latini (to distinguish them from the later Latins, the 
subjects of Rome), formed a league or confederation consisting of 30 
states. The town of ALBA LONGA subsequently became the head of 
the league. This town, which founded several colonies, and among 
others Rome, boasted of a Trojan origin; but the whole story of a 
Trojan settlement in Italy is probably an invention of later times. 
Rome became powerful enough in the reign of her 3rd king, Tullus 
Hostilius, to take Alba and raze it to the ground. Under Servius 
Tullius Rome was admitted into the Latin League; and his successor, 
Tarquinius Superbus, compelled the other Latin towns to acknow- 
ledge Rome as the head of the league. But upon the expulsion of 
the kings the T^-Hng asserted their independence, and commenced a 
struggle with Rome, which was not brought to a final close till 340 
B.C., when the Latins were defeated by the Romans at the battle of 
Mt. Vesuvius. {pBCius.] The Tutin League was now dissolved. 
Several of the towns, such as Lannvium, Aricia, Nomentum, Pedum, 
and Tusculum, received the Roman franchise; and the others became 
Roman Socii, and are mentioned in history under the general name 
of Women Latinum or Latini. 

LAYMfcus SINUS, a gulf on the coast of Ionia* in Asia Minor, 
into which the river Maeander fell, named from Mt. Latmus, 

LATMUS, a mountain in Caria. [ENrmnoN.] 


LAUKBNTUM, ancient town of Latram, tne residence 6f the mythical 
Latinus, situated on a height between Ostia and Ardea, not far 
from the sea, and surrounded by a grove of laurels. 

LAUR!UM, mountain in the S. of Attica, celebrated for its silver 
mines. Athens owed much of her commercial (and political) power 
to these mines. See note in Frazer's Pausanfas, vol. ii, p. 4. 

LAUS POMPEII (Lo&i Vccchio), town in Gallia Cisalpina, made a 
municipium by the father of Poinpoy, whence ltd name. 

LAUSUS. i. Son of Mezentius* king of the Etruscans, 1a.fa by 
Aeneas. 2. Son of Numitor and brother of Ilia, killed by Amulius. 

LAVBRNA, the Roman goddess of thieves and impostors, from 
whom the Porta Lavernalis derived its name* 

LXvItflA and LlvltflA, daughter of Latinus and Amata, betrothed 
to Turnus, but married to Aeneas* [Tmaajs.] 

LXvlKluM, town of Latium> on the Via Appia, founded by Aeneas, 
and called Lavinium, in honour of his wife Lavinia. 

LftANBBR, the famonS youth, of Abydos, who swam every night across 
the Hellespont to visit Hero, the priestess of Aphrodite, in Sestus. One 
night he perished in the waves ; and Hero threw herself into the sea. 

L&BADBA, town in Boeotia, at the foot of a rock, in a cave of which 
was the celebrated oracle of Trophonius, 




LacnsTBRNiUM, a feast of the gods. 

LftDA, daughter of Thestius, whence she is called Thestias, wife 
of Tyndareus, king of Sparta, and mother, either by Zeus or by 
Tyndareus, of Castor and Pollux, Clytemnestra and Helena. 
Zeus visited Leda in the form of a swan. [TYNDAREUS.] 

Lfiolo, originally consisting of 3 lines, each containing 10 maniples, 
each maniple possessing its own signum (or standard). Later, 
the legion was divided into 10 cohorts, and the standard consisted 
of an 'eagle' (aquila). At full strength a Roman legion consisted 
of 6,000 men. 

. LftGlo (Leon), town in Hispania Tarraconensis, originally the 
headquarters of a Roman LBGIO. 

LBITOURGIA (liturgy), state-imposed duty at Athens. The chief 
were: (i) the annual 'liturgies/ viz. office of choregus (or trainer of a 
choir), of gymnasiarch, and of public entertainer; (2) the periodic, 
e.g. the sacred mission to Delos; (3) the extraordinary, e.g. missions 
to the oracle at Delphi. The duly of the trierarchy fell under this 
head, and consisted in tng-i-n^i-ning^ foj- r one year, a trireme found, 
rigged, and manned by the state. 

LficSTHtte, (Xifjtutfos), tall vase or um, with a handle, made for 
putting in tombs. Tney were frequently adorned and painted. 

L&L&GBS, an ancient race, mentioned along with the Pelasgians 
as the most ancient inhabitants of Greece. The Leleges were a 
warlike and migratory race, who took possession of the coasts, and 
the islands of Greece, and afterwards .penetrated into the interior. 

LftMANNUS or LftMANUS LACUS (Lake 'of Geneva), large lake 
formed by the river Rhodanus, the boundary between the old Roman 
province in Gaul and the land of the Helvetii. 

LBMNOS, one of the largest islands in the Aegaean Sea. It was 
sacred to Hephaestus. [HEPHAESTUS.] Its earliest inhabitants, 
according to Homer, were the Thracian Sinties. When the Argo- 
nauts landed at Lemnos, they found it inhabited only by women,, who 
had murdered all their husbands. [HYFSIFYLE.] By the Lemnlan 
women the Argonauts became the fathers of the Minyae, who in- 
habited the island till they were expelled by the Pelasgians. Lem- 
nos was conquered by one of the generals of Darius; but Miltiades 
delivered it from the Persians, and made it subject to Athens. 

LfiMffRBS. ghosts of the dead. Some writers describe Lemures 
as the common name for all the spirits of the dead, and divide them 
into 2 classes: the Lares, or the souls of good men, and the Larvae, 
or the souls of wicked men. But the common idea was that the 
Lemures and Larvae were the same. " In order to propitiate- them 
the Romans celebrated the festival of the Lemuralia or Lemuria. 

LfiNAEOS, a surname of Dionysus, derived from lenus (\ip&*)> 
the wine-press of the vintage. - 

BNTULUS, patrician family of the Cornelia gens, of which the 
most important persons were: i. P. CORNELIUS LSJNTULUS SURA, 
the man of chief note in Catiline's conspiracy. He was quaestor 


to Sulla, 81 B.C.; praetor in 75; consul in 71. In the next year he 
was ejected from the senate, -with 63 others, for his infamous life. 
It was this that led him to join Catiline and his crew. From his 
high rank, he calculated on becoming chief of the conspiracy; and a 
prophecy of the Sibylline books was applied by nattering haruspices 
to him. To gain power, and recover his place in the senate, he 
became praetor again in 63. When Catiline quitted the city for 
Etruria, Lentulus was left as chief of the home conspirators, and his 
irresolution probably saved the city from being fired. For it was 
by his over-caution that the negotiation with the ambassadors of 
the Allobroges was entered into: these unstable allies revealed the 
secret to the consul Cicero. [CATILINE.] Lentulus was deposed 
from the praetorship, and was strangled in the Capitoline prison on 
the 5th of December. 2. P. CORNELIUS LBNTULUS SPINTHBR, 
curule aedile in 63 ; praetor in 60; and consul in 57. In his consul- 
ship he moved for the immediate recall of Cicero, and afterwards 
received Cilicia as his province. On the breaking out of the Civil 
war in 49, he joined the Pompeian party. 3. L. CORNELIUS LBNTU- 
LUS CRUS, praetor in 58, and consul in 49, when he took part against 
Caesar. After the battle of Pharsalia he fled to Egypt, and was 
put to death by young Ptolemy's ministers. 

LEO THE GREAT, pope from 440 to 461; the Latinity of his 
sermons compares favourably with the best Latin classics. 

LEOCHARES, Greek sculptor, of the 4th cent B.C. One of his 
most famous works was a bronze group depicting Ganymede rapt 
by the eagle. He also worked on the Mausoleum. [ARTEMISIA, 2.] 

J-ftSNlDis. i. King of Sparta, 491-480 B.C., son of Anaxan- 
drides, and successor of his half-brother Qeomenes. "When Greece 
was invaded by Xerxes, 480, Leonidas was sent to make a stand 
against the enemy at the pass of Thermopylae. His forces amounted 
to about 5,000 men, of whom only 300 were Spartans. The Persians 
in vain attempted to force their way through the pass of Thermo- 
pylae. At length the Mallan Ephialtes betrayed the mountain 
path of the Anopaea to the Persians, who were thus able to fall upon 
the rear of the Greeks. When it became known to Leonidas that 
the Persians were crossing the mountain, he dismissed all the other 
Greeks, except the Thespian and Theban forces, declaring that he 
and the Spartans under "hfo command must needs remain in the post 
they had been sent to guard. Then he advanced from the narrow 
pass and .charged the myriads of the enemy with his handful of 
troops. In the desperate' battle which ensued, Leonidas himself 
fell soon. The story is told in Herodotus, book vii. a. King of 
Sparta, son of Cleonymus, ascended the throne about 256. Being 
opposed to the projected reforms of his contemporary, Agis IV, he 
was deposed and the throne was transferred to his son-in-law, 
Cleombrotus; but he was soon afterwards recalled, and caused Agis 
to be put to death, .240. He died about 236, and was succeeded by 
his son, Cleomenes III. 3. Of Tarentum, the author of some 100 
epigrams in the Doric dialect. His epigrams formed a part of the 
Garland of Meleager. He probably lived in the time of Pyrrhns. 


Further fragments have come to light on a papyrus from Oxyrhyu. 
chns. See a translation of the poems by . Bevan (1931). 

LfioNNlxus, a Macedonian of Pella, one of Alexander's generals. 
He crossed over into Europe in 322 B.C., to assist Antipater against 
the Greeks; bat he was defeated and killed by the Athenians. 

LfioNTtNi (Lentini)> town in the . of Sicily, about 5 mites from 
the sea, N.W. of Syracuse, founded by Chaicidians from Naxos, 
750 B.C., but never attained political importance,, in consequence 
ox its proximity to Syracuse. The plains N. of the city, called 
Leontini Campi, were very fertile. It was the birthplace of Gorgias. 

LsopRBpfoBSj i.e. the poet Simonides* son of Leqprepes. 

LttflTYCHtDSs, i. King of Sparta, 491-469 B.C, He com- 
manded the Greek fleet in 479, and defeated the Persians at the 
battle of Mycale. 2. The reputed son of Agis II, excluded from the 
throne in consequence of his being suspected to be the son of 
Alcibkfcdes. by Timaea, the queen of Agis. His uncle, Agesflaua II, 
became king in his place. 

Lfiplr/us, M. AsMfcJCus, the triumvir, son of M. Lepidus, consul 
78 B.C., who took up arms to rescind the laws of Sulla, but was 
defeated by Pompey and Catulus. His son was praetor in 49, and 
supported Caesar in the civil war. In 46 he was consul with Caesar, 
and in 44 he received from the latter the government of Narbonese 
Gaul and Nearer Spain. He was in the neighbourhood of Rome at 
the time of the dictator's death, and having an- army, he was able to 
assist M. Antony. Lepidus was now chosen pontifex ma.-*^ and 
then repaired to his provinces of Gaul arid Spain. Antony after his 
defeat at Mutina (43) fled to Lepidus. Together they crossed the 
Alps with a powerfol army, and were joined in the ^F. of Italy by 
Octavian (afterwards Augustus). In the month of October the 
triumvirate was formed by which the Roman world was divided 
between Augustus, Antony, and Lepidus. In the fresh division of 
the provinces after the battle of Philippi (42), Lepidus received 
Africa, where he remained tfll 36. In +>"'q year Augustus summoned 
him to SicOy to assist him m the war against Sex. Pompey. Lepidus 
obeyed, but, tired of being treated as a subordinate, he attempted 
to acquire Sicily for himself. He was easily subdued by Augustus, 
who spared his life, but deprived Mm of his triumvirate, his army, 
and his provinces, and commanded that he should live at Circen, 
under strict surveillance. He allowed h&n, however, to retain his 
dignity of pontifex maximus. He was not privy to the conspiracy 
which his son formed to assassinate Augustus in 30. He died in 13. 
- Lsprfofis, an Athenian, known- only as the proposer of a law 
taking away all special exemptions from the burden of public charges 
against which the oration of Demosthenes is directed, usually known 
as the Oration against Leptines, 355 B.C. 

.LBRNA or LBRN*, district in ArgoHs, not fer from Argos, in which 
was a marsh and a amatl river of the same name* It was celebrated 
as the place where Hercules killed the Lerneaxt Hydra. 

LBSBOS, island in the Aegaean, off the coast of Mysia in Asia 


Minor. The island is important in the early history of Greece as 
the native region of the Aeolian School of lyric poetry. It was the 
birthplace of the poets Terpander, Alcaeus, Sappho, of the sage 
Pittacus, of the historian Hellanicus, and of the philosopher 

LSTHS, river in the lower world, from -which the shades drank, 
and thus obtained forgetfumess (X?M of the past. 

LfixO, called Latona by the Romans, daughter of the Titan Coens 
and Phoebe, and mother of Apollo and Artemis, by Zeus. The love 
of Zeus procured for Leto the enmity of Hera. Persecuted by this 
goddess, Leto wandered from place to place, till she came to Delos, 
which was then a floating island, and bore the name of Ortygia. 
[DBLOS.] Here she gave birth to Apollo and Artemis. Leto was 
worshipped in conjunction with her children. Delos was the chief 
seat of her worship. Consult Dyer, Tha Gods of Gmce. 

LEUCAS or LBUCAD!A {Santa Maura), island in the Ionian Sea, 
At the S. extremity of the island, opposite Cephallenia, was the 
celebrated promontory, variously called Leucas, Leucatas, Leucates, 
or Leuc&te, on which was a temple of Apollo Leucadius. At the 
annual festival of the god it was the custom to cast down a criminal 
from *hig promontory into the sea : birds were attached to him, in 
order to break his fail; and if ne reached the sea uninjured, boats 
were ready to pick >"TP up. This appears to have been an expiatory 
rite; and it gave rise to fixe story liat lovers leaped from this rock 
in urder to seek relief from the pangs of love. [SAPPHO.] For the 
Identification of Leucadia with the Homeric Ithaca, see ITHACA. 

LEUCIPPTJS . i . Son of Oenomaus, the lover of Daphne. 2. Son of 
Perieres, prince of i&e Messenians, and father of Phoebe and Hflaxra, 
3. Greek philosopher, the founder of the atomic tiieory of philosophy, 
which was developed by Democritus. His date is uncertain. 

LBUCOPH&YS, city of Caria, close to a curious lake of warm water, 
and having a renowned temple of Artemis Leucophryna. 

Lsucfls-fiiuc (' 'White Syrians *) , the <*reek name for the inhabitants 
of Cappadocia, who were of the Syrian race, in contradistinction to 
the Syrian tribes of a. darker colour beyond the Taurus, 

LBUcOTKfcA or LBUCOTH&B. i . A marine goddess, was previously 
Ino, the wife of Athamas. 2. Daughter of tiie Babylonian king 
OrchanMs and Eurynome, beloved by Apollo, was buried alive by 
her father. Apollo metamorphosed her into , an incense shrub. 

LEUCTRA, small town in Boeotia, on the road from Plataea to 
Thespiae. [EPAMINONDAS.] 

Lsx DUODBCIM TABtiLARUM. The legal history of the Roman 
republic begins with the Twelve Tables. It was, strictly, the first and 
only Roman code; and its importance lies in this, that it substituted 
a public, written body of laws, easily accessible and binding on all 
citizens of Rome, for an unwritten usage, the knowledge of which was 
confined to a few. Till the close of the republican period these 
laws were looked upon as a great legal charter, and in early times 


were learned by heart in schools as a 'text-book inspired by fate. 
This celebrated code, published about the year 450 B.C., was engraved 
on bronze tablets and fixed on the rostra which stood in front of 
the curia (or senate house). We do not possess any part of the 
text in its original form: probably this important witness of the 
national progress was destroyed in the Gallic invasion (390 B.C.). 
Only detached fragments of this code have survived, but they 
suffice to indicate its character. One or two specimens will illustrate 
their laconic brevity : (i) One who has confessed a debt, or against 
whom judgment has been given, 'shall be allowed 30 days in which 
to pay it; (2) Whenever a contract or conveyance is made, as it is 
specified so let it be binding; (3) If a patron defrauds his client let 
him be accursed. Among the few offences visited with death, 
Cicero tells us, was 'libel 1 (occentatio or malum carmen). Ancient 
law among the Romans was a matter rather of religious and ancestral 
custom than a definite expression of the national conscience on 
questions of abstract right or wrong. Law, as we understand it, 
was but the consolidation of custom . Of Roman commentators upon 
the Law of the Twelve Tables there is a fairly long list; the most 
important of these writers is the famous jurist Gaius, who wrote in 
the times of Hadrian and the Antonines. For the T^tin text of 
the fragments of the xii Tables the student is referred to Wordsworth, 
Fragments and Specimens of Early Latin. See H. F. Jolowicz, 
Historical Introduction to the Study of Roman Law (1932). 

LislNJus, Greek sophist and rhetorician, was the teacher of St. 
Basil and St. Chrysostom, and the friend of the emperor Julian. 
He was born at Antioch, on the Orontes, about A.D. 314, and died 
about 395. His life of Demosthenes and his 'arguments' to that 
orator's speeches have a permanent interest. He has justly been 
called 'the last of the Hellenists.' 

a range of mountains on the confines of Syria and 
Palestine, dividing Fhoenice from Code-Syria. Its highest summits 
are covered with perpetual snow, and' its sides were in ancient times 
clothed with forests of cedars. It is considerably lower than the 
opposite range 'of AntiKbanus, the highest point of which is Mt. 
Hermon. In the Scriptures the word Lebanon is used for both 
ranges, and for either of them; but in classical authors the names 
Libanus and Antflibanus are distinctive terms. 

a surname of Venus among the Romans, by which 
she is described as the goddess of sensual pleasure. 

LtefiR or LIBBR PXxfcR, a name frequently given by the Roman 
poets to the Greek Bacchus or Dionysus. But the god Liber, and 
the goddess Libera, were ancient Italian divinities, presiding over 
the cultivation of the vine and the fertility of the fields. - 

LlBBRTls, the goddess of Liberty, to whom several temples were 
erected at Rome. These temples must be distinguished from the 
Atrium Libertatis, which was used as an office of the censors, 
Libertas is represented in works of art as a matron, with the ftteus 
(a brimless felt cap), the symbol of liberty, or a wreath of laurel. 


LIsfiTHRUM or LIsflTHRA, ancient Xhracian town in Pieria in 
Macedonia, on the slope of Olympus, where Orpheus is said to have 
lived. It was sacred to the Muses, hence called LlbSthrides. 

LfelTlNA, ancient Italian divinity, originally a deity of voluptuous 
delights, but identified by the later Romans with Persephone, on 
account of her connection with the dead and their burial. At her 
temple at Rome everything necessary for funerals was kept, and 
persons might there either buy or hire such things. Hence a person 
undertaking the burial of a person (an undertaker) was called 
libitinarius, and his business libitina; hence the expression libiiina 
funeribus non suffitiebat, i.e. they could not all be buried. Roman 
poets frequently employ her name in the sense of death itself. 

LiBYPHOBNlcBS, the Inhabitants of the cities founded by the 
Phoenicians on the coast of the Carthaginian territory. They were 
a mixed race of the Libyan natives with the Phoenician settlers. 

LfeuRNlA, district of Ulyricum, along the coast of the Adriatic 
Sea. Its inhabitants, the Liburai, supported themselves by com- 
merce and navigation. Their ships were remarkable for their swift 
sailing; and vessels built after the same model were called Liburnicae 
or Liburnae naves. It was to these light vessels that Augustus was 
indebted for his victory at Actium. 

L!B?A, the Greek name for the continent of Africa. [AFRICA.] 

LICHis, an attendant of Hercules, brought his master the poisoned 
garment, and was hurled by him into the sea. 

LIciNius. i. C. LICINIUS CALVUS, surnamed Stolo, a name said 
to be derived from the care with which he dug up the shoots spring- 
ing from the roots of his vines. He brought the contest between the 
patricians and plebeians to a happy termination. He was tribune 
of the plebs from 376 to 367 B.C., and was supported in his exer- 
tions by his colleague, L. Sextius. The laws which he proposed 
were: (i) That in future no more consular tribunes should be ap- 
pointed, but that consuls should be elected, one of whom should 
always be a plebeian. (2) That no one should possess more than 
500 jugera of the public land, or keep upon it more than 100 head of 
large and 500 of small cattle. (3) A law regulating the affairs 
between debtor and creditor. (4) That the Sibylline books should 
be entrusted to a college of ten men (decemviri), half of whom should 
be plebeians. These rogations were passed after a vehement opposi- 
tion on the part of the patricians, and L. Sextius was the first plebeian 
who obtained the consulship, 366. Licroius was elected twice to tjie 
consulship, 364 and 361. 2. C. LICINIUS MACSR, Roman annalist 
and orator, was impeached of extortion by Cicero, and committed 
suicide, 66 B.C. 3.. C. LICINIUS MACER CACTUS, son of the last, 
orator and poet, was born 82 B.C., and died about 47 or 46, in his 
35th or 36th year. His most celebrated oration was delivered 
against Vatinius, who was defended by Cicero. All his works, 
including his elegies* are lost. : 

: LXdbrfus, Roman emperor A.D. 307-24, was a Dactan peasant 
by birth, and was raised to- the rank of Augustus by the emperor 


Galerius. He had the dominion of the East. He defeated Maxi- 
TDJTTUS II, A.D. 314, and was himself defeated by Constantino, 315. 
A second war broke out between Litfnms and Constantino in 323, 
in which LAcinius was deprived of his throne. In the following 
year he was put to death by Constantine. Gibbon, Decline and 
FaK, vol. i. 

LICTORS, attendants who earned the FASCES. 

LlGtfoiA, district of Italy, bounded on the W. by the river Varus, 
and the Maritime Alps, which separated it from Transalpine Gaul, 
on the S.E. by the river Macra, which separated it from Etruria, 
on the N. by the river Po, and on the S. by the Mare Ligusticum. 
The Maritime Alps and the Apennines run through the greater 
part of the -country. The inhabitants were called by the Greeks 
Ligyes and Ligystini, and by the Romans Ligures (sing. ligus, 
more rarely Lagur). In early times they inhabited the coasts of 
Gaul and Italy, from the mouth of the Rh6ne to Pisae in Etruria. 
They were divided by the Romans into Ligures Transalpioi and 
Cisalpini. The names of the principal tribes were: on the W. 
side of the Alps, the Satyes or Salluvii, Oxybii, and Deciates; on 
the E. side of the Alps, the Intemelii, Ingauni, and Apuani near the 
coast, the Vagienni, Salassi, and Taurini on the upper course of the 
Po, and the Laevi and Marisci N. of the Po. The Ligurians were 
small of stature, but strong. In early times they served as mercen- 
aries in the Carthaginian armies, and they were subdued by the 
Romans only after a long struggle. 

LIL^BAEUM (Marsala) , town in the W. of Sicily, with an excellent 
harbour, situated on a promontory of the same name. The town 
was founded by the Carthaginians about 397 B.C., and